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Presented to 



Leslie G. Kilborn 




7ne Oriental Bookstore] 

of Ameru 
40 EAST 59lh STREEll 
NEW YORK 22. N. Y 




Curator, Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, 

17. $. Ndtionnl Museum. 




Curator, Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, V. $. National Museum. 


An English gentleman, versed in prehistoric archaeology, visited me 
in the summer of 1894 7 arid during our conversation asked if we had 
the Swastika in America. I answered, " Yes," and showed him two 
or three specimens of it. He demanded if we had any li teratore on the 
sniyect. I cited him De Mortillet, De Morgan, and Zmigrodzki, and 
he said, " Xo, I mean English or American." I began a search which 
proved almost futile, as even the word Swastika did not appear in such 
works as Worcester s or Webster s dictionaries, the Encyclopedic Dic 
tionary, the Encyclopedia Britannica, Johnson s Universal Cyclo 
paedia, the People s Cyclopedia, nor Smith s Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities, his Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 
or his Classical Dictionary. I also -searched, with the same results, 
Mollett s Dictionary of Art and Archeology, Fairholt s Dictionary of 
Terms in Art, "L Art Gothique," by Gonza, Perrot and Chipiez s exten 
sive histories of Art in Egypt, in Chaldea and Assyria, and in Phe- 
nicia; also "The Cross, Ancient and Modern," by W. W. Blake, "The 
History of the Cross," by John Ash ton; and a reprint of a Dutch work 
by Wildener. In the American Encyclopedia the description is errone 
ous, while all the Century Dictionary says is, " Same as fylfot," and 
" Compare Crux Ansata and Gammadion." I thereupon concluded that 
this would be a good subject for presentation to the Smithsonian Insti 
tution for "diffusion of knowledge among men." 

The principal object of this paper has been to gather and put in a 
compact form such information as is obtainable concerning the Swas 
tika, leaving to others the task of adjustment of these facts and their 




arrangement into an harmonious theory. The only conclusion sought 
to be deduced from the facts stated is as to the possible migration in 
prehistoric times of the Swastika and similar objects. 

Xo conclusion is attempted as to the time or place of origin, or the 
primitive meaning of the Swastika, because these are considered to be 
lost in antiquity. The straight line, the circle, the cross, the triangle, 
are simple forms, easily made, and might have been invented and 
re-invented in every age of primitive man and in every quarter of the 
globe, each time being an independent invention, meaning much or 
little, meaning different things among different peoples or at different 
times among the jstime people; or they may have had no settled or 
definite meaning.. But the Swastika w_asj)robably the first to be madel 
with a definite indention and a continuous or consecutive meaning, the\ 
<f knowledge of which passed from person to person, from tribe to tribe, \ 
jfrom people to people, and from nation to nation, until, with possibly-J- 
changed meanings, it has finally circled the globe. ^^ 

There are many disputable questions broached inthis paper. The 

ithor is aware of the differences of opinion thereon among learned 
men, and he has not attempted to dispose of these questions in the 
few sentences employed in their announcement. He has been con 
servative and has sought to avoid dogmatic decisions of controverted 
questions. The antiquity of man, the locality of his origin, the time 
of his dispersion and the course of his migration, the origin of bronze 
and the course of its migration, all of which may be more or less 
I involved in a discussion of the Swastika, are questions not to be 
settled by the dogmatic assertions of any individual. 

Much of the information in this paper is original, and relates to pre 
historic more than to modern times, and extends to nearly all the coun 
tries of the globe. It is evident that the author must depend on other 
discoverers; therefore, all books, travels, writers, and students have 
been laid under contribution without scruple. Due acknowledgment 
is hereby made for all quotations of text or figures wherever they occur. 

Quotations have been freely made, instead of sifting the evidence and 
( giving the substance. The justification is that there has never been 
any sufficient marshaling of the evidence on the subject, and that the 
former deductions have been inconclusive; therefore, quotations of 
authors are given in their own words, to the end that the philosophers 
who propose to deal with the origin, meaning, and cause of migration of 

e Swastika will have all the evidence before them. 

Assumptions may appear as to antiquity, origin, and migration of 
the Swastika, but it is explained that many times these only reflect 
the opinion of the writers who are quoted, or are put forth as working 

The indulgence of the reader is asked, and it is hoped that he will 
endeavor to harmonize conflicting statements upon these disputed 
questions rather than antagonize them. 





The simple cross made with two sticks or marks belongs to prehistoric 
times. Its first appearance among men is lost in antiquity. One may 
theorize as to its origin, but there is no historical identification of it 
either in epoch or by country or people. The sign is itself so simple that 
it might have originated among any people, however primitive, and in 
any age, however remote. The meaning given to the earliest cross is 
equally unknown. Everything concerning its beginning is in the realm 
of speculation. But a differentiation grew up in early times among 
nations by which certain forms of the cross have been known under cer 
tain names and with specific significations. Some of these, such as the 
Maltese cross, are historic and can be well identified. 

The principal forms of the cross, known as symbols or ornaments, can 
be reduced to a few classes, though when combined with heraldry its use 
extends to 385 varieties. 1 

Fig. 1. 
LATIN CKOSS ( Crux immixsa) . 

Fig. 3. 
ST. ANDREW S CKOSS (Crux decussata.) 

It is not the purpose of this paper to give a history of the cross, but 
the principal forms are shown by way of introduction to a study of 4ke. 
( Swastika. 

The Latin cross, Crux immissa, (fig. 1) is found on coins, medals, and \ 
( ornaments anterior to the Christian era. It was on this cross that^j 
( Christ is said to have been crucified, and thus it became accepted as 
the Christian cross. 

The Greek cross (fig. 2) with arms of equal length crossing at right/ 
angles, is found on Assyrian and Persian monuments and tablets,! 
Greek coins and statues. 

The St. Andrew s cross, Crux decussata, (fig. 3) is the same as the 
Greek cross, but turned to stand on two legs. 

1 William Berry, Encyclopedia Heraldica, 1828-1840. 



The Crux ansata (fig. 4) according to Egyptian mythology, was 
Aukh, the emblem of Ka, the spiritual double of man. It was also said 
to indicate a union of Osiris and Isis. and was regarded as a symbol of 
the generative principle of nature. 

The Tau cross (fig. 5), so called from its resemblance to the Greek 
letter of that name, is of uncertain, though ancient, origin- 
r ln Scandinavian mythology it passed under the name 
of a Thor s hammer," being therein confounded with the 
\ Swastika. It was also called St. Anthony s cross for the 
Egyptian hermit of that name, and Avas always colored 
blue. Clarkson says this mark was received by the Mith- 
racists on their foreheads at the time of their initiation. 
0. W. King, in his work entitled u Early Christian Numis- 
matics" (p. 214), expresses the opinion that the Tau cross 
was placed on the foreheads of men who cry after aboiui- 
nations (Ezekiel ix, 4.) It is spoken of as a phallic 

Another variety of the cross appeared about the second century, 
composed of a union of the St. Andrew s cross and the letter P (fig. 6), 
being the first two letters of the Greek word XPI2T02 (Ohristus). 
This, with another variety containing all the foregoing letters, passed 
as the monogram of Christ (fig. 6). 

As an instrument of execution, the cross, besides being the inter 
section of two beams with four projecting arms, was frequently of 
compound forms as Y? on which the convicted person was fastened by 
the feet and hung head downward. Another form |~~|, whereon he was 


The Kev of Life. 

Fig. 5. 



Labarum oi Constantino. 


fastened by one foot and one hand at each upper corner; still another 
form I J I , whereon his body was suspended on the central upright with 
his arms outstretched upon the cross beams. 

Fig. 7 represents the sign of the military order of the Knights of 
Malta. It is of medieval origin. 

Fig. 8 (a and b) represents two styles of Celtic crosses. These belong 
chiefly to Ireland and Scotland, are usually of stone, and frequently 
set up at marked places on the road side. 



Higgins, in his "Anacalypsis," a rare and costly work, almost an ency 
clopedia of knowledge, 1 says, concerning the origin of the cross, that 
the official name of the governor of Tibet, Lama, comes from the ancient 
Tibetan word for the cross. The original spelling was L-a-m-h. This 
is cited with approval in Davenport s 
"Aphrodisiacs" (p. 13). 

Of the many forms of the crossJ 
the Swastika is the most ancientj 
Despite the theories and speculations 
of students, its origin is unknown. It 



began before history, and is properly 
classed as prehistoric. Its descrip 
tion is as follows: The bars of the* 
normal Swastika (frontispiece and 
fig. 9) are straight, of equal thickness 
throughout, and cross each other at 
right angles, making four arms of equal size, length, and style. Theirk 
peculiarity is that all the ends are bent at right angles and in the same)/ 

direction, right or left. Prof. Max 
Miiller makes the symbol different 
according as the arms are bent to the 
right or to the left. That bent to the 
right he denominates the true Swas 
tika, that bent to the left he calls 
Suavastika (fig. 10), but he gives no 
authority for the state 
ment, and the author has 
been unable to find, ex 
cept in Burnouf, any justification for a difference of names. 
Professor Goodyear gives _the title of "Meander" to that 
form of Swastika which belTdsTwo or more times (fig. 11). 
f The Swastika is sometimes represented with dots or 
(points in the corners of the intersections (fig. 12a), and occasionally 
j the same when without bent ends (fig. 12fc), to which Zmigrodzki gives 

Fig. 9. 





Fig. 11. 





Fig. 12. 


the name of Croix Sicasticale. Some Swastikas have three dots placed 
equidistant around each of the four ends (fig. 12c). 

Iligghis, "Anacalypsis," London, 1836, i, p. 230. 



There are several varieties possibly related to tlie Swastika which hay( 
been found in almost every part oftne globe, and though the relation 
may appear slight, and at first sight difficult to trace, yet it will 
appear more or less intimate as the examination is pursued through 
its ramifications/ As this paper is an investigation into and report 
upon facts rather tEan conclusions to be drawn from them, it is deemed 
wise to give those forms bearing even possible relations to the Swas 
tika. Certain of them have been accepted by the author as related 
to the Swastika, while others have been rejected ; but this rejection 

Fiji. 13a. 


Tetraskelion (four-armed). 

Fig. 1M. 


Triskrlion (three -arniod). 

Fig. 13c. 


(Fivo or many armed.) 


Fig. 13f/. 


has been confined to cases where the known facts seemed to justify 
another origin for the symbol. Speculation has been avoided. 


The Swastika has been called by different names in different coun 
tries, though nearly all countries have in later years accepted the ancient 
Sanskrit name of Swastika ; and this name is recommended as the most 
definieand certain, being now the most general and, indeed, almost 
universal. It was formerly spelled s-v-a-s-t-i-c-a and s-ti-a-s-t-i-k-a, but 
yfehe later spelling, both English and French, is s-w-a-s-t-i-k-a. The 
definition and etymology of the word is thus given in Littre s French 
Dictionary : 

. Svastika, or SivasiiTca, a mystic figure used by several (East) Indian sects. It was 
equally well known to the Brahmins as to the Buddhists. Most of the rock 
inscriptions in the Buddhist caverns in the west of India are preceded or followed hy 
the holy (sacramcnteUc) sign of the Swastika. (Eug. Burnouf, "Le Lotus de la bonne 
loi." Paris, 1852, p. 625.; It was seen on the vases and pottery of Rhodes (Cyprus) 
and Etruria. (F. Delaunay, Jour. Off ., Nov. 18, 1873, p. 7024, 3d Col.) 

Etymology : A Sanskrit word signifying happiness, pleasure, good luck. It is com- 
pop.edof &it (equivalent of Greek ev), "good," and asti, "being," "good being," with 
the suffix (Greek -Ha, Latin co). 


Iii the "Revue d Ethnographie" (TV, 1885, p. 329), Mr. Dumoutier 
gives the following analysis of the Sanskrit swastika: 

Su, radical, signifying good, well, excellent, or snvidas, prosperity. 
Asti, third person, singular, indicative present of the verb as, to be, which is sum 
in Latin. 
Ka, suffix forming the substantive. 

Professor Whitney in the Century Dictionary says, Swastika [San 
skrit, lit., "of good fortune/ 7 Svsisti (8w. well, -|- asti, being), welfare.] 
Same as fylfot. Compare Cru.v amata and fjfimmadion. 

In "Ilios" (p. 347), Max Muller says: 

Ethnologically, srastika is derived from svasti, and svasf.i from su, "well," and as, 
"to be." Svasti occurs frequently in the Veda, both as a r.ouii in a sense of happiness, 
and as an adverb in the sense of "well" or "hail!" It corresponds to the Greek 
evedr&i. The derivation Svaxti-ka is of later date, and it always means an auspicious 
sign, such as are found most frequently among Buddhists and Jainas. 

M. Eugene Bjurnouf 1 defines the mark Swastika as follows: 

A monogrammatic sign of four branches, of which the ends are curved at right 
angles, the name signifying, literally, the sign of benediction or good augury. 

The foregoing explanations relate only to the present accepted name 
"Swastika." The sif/n Swastika must have existed long "before the 
name was given to it. It must have been in existence long before the 
Buddhist religion or the Sanskrit language. 

In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika from Anglo- 
Saxon times by those who apparently had no knowledge whence it came, 
or that it came from any other than their own country, was Fylfot, said 
to have been derived from the Anglo-Saxon fotccr fot, meaning four- 
footed, or many-footed. 2 

George Waring, in his work entitled "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages" 
(p. 10), says: 

The word [Fylfot] is Scandinavian and is compounue~ 
to the Anglo-Saxon fela, German viel, many, and fotr 

It is desirable to have some settled name 
take the simplest and most descriptive, the "Fylfot. 7 

iue~ of Old Norse fii l, equivalent;/ 
><;, foot, the many-footed figure. 1 
by whiob. to describe it- we will I 

He thus transgresses one of the oldest and soundest rules of scien 
tific nomenclature, and ignores the fact that the name Swastika has been 
employed for this sign in the Sanskrit language (the etymology of the 
word naturally gave it the name Svastika, sv good or well, asti to 
be or being, or it is) and that two tliousand and more years of use in 
Asia and Europe had sanctioned and sanctified that as its name. The 
use of Fylfot is confined to comparatively few persons in Great Britain 

1 "Des Sciences et Religion," p. 256. 

2 R. P. Greg, "The Fylfot and Swastika," Arch;eologia, XLVIII, part 2, 1885, p. 298; 
Goblet d Alviella, "Migration dcs Symboles," p. 50. 
II. Mis. 90, pt. 2 49 


and, possibly, Scandinavia. Outside of these countries it is scarcely 
known, used, or understood. 

The Swastika was occasionally called in the French language, in 
earlier times, Croix f/ammce or Gammadion, from its resemblance to a 
combination of four of the Greek letters of that name, and it is so 
named by Count Goblet d Alviella in his late work, "La Migration des 
Symboles." It was also called Croix cramponiK ^ Croix pattee, Croix u 
crochet. But the consensus even of French etymologists favors the 
name Swastika. 

Some foreign authors have called it Thor s hammer, or Thor s hammer- 
mark, but the correctness of this has been disputed. 1 Waring, in his 
elaborate work , "Ceramic Art in Kernote Ages," 2 says: 

"""The ,^-J used to l>e vulgarly called in Scandinavia the hammer of Thor, and Thor s 
hammer-mark, or the hammer-mark, but this name properly belongs to the mark y 

Ludwig Miiller gives it as his opinion that the Swastika has no connec 
tion with the Thor hammer. The best Scandinavian authors report the 

"Thor hammer" to be the same as the Greek tan (fig. 5), the same form 

as the Eoman and English capital T. The Scandinavian name is Miol 

ner or IMjolner, the crusher or mallet. 

P The Greek, Latin, and Tan crosses are represented in Egyptian hiero- 
\ glyphics by a hammer or mallet, giving the idea of crushing, pounding, 
\ or striking, and so an instrument of justice, an avenger of wrong, :! 
\Jience standing for Morns and other gods. 4 Similar symbolic meanings 

have been given to these crosses in ancient classic countries of the 

Orient. 5 


Many theories have been presented concerning the symbolism of the 
Swastika, its relation to ancient deities and its representation of certain 
qualities. In the estimation of certain writers it has been respectively^ 
the emblem of Zeus, of Baal, of the sun, of the sun-god, of the^sunj 
chariot of Agni the fire-god, of Indra the rain-god, of the sky, the sky- 
god, and finally the deity of all deities, the great God, the Maker and 

- ^Ruler of the Universe. It has also been held to symbolize light or the 

god of light, of the forked lightning, and of wae,r. It is believed by 
some to have been the oldest Aryan symboLJ In the estimation of 
others it represents Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, Creator, Preserver, 
Destroyer. It appears in the footprints of Buddha, engraved upon the 

Stephens, "Old Northern Runic Monuments," part u, p. 509; Ludwig Miiller, 
quoted on p. 778 of this paper; Goblet d Alviella, "La Migration des Symboles/ 
p. 45; Haddon, "Evolution in Art/ 7 p. 288. 

2 Page 12. 

s "La Migration des Symboles/ pp. 21, 22. 

4 "Le Culto de la Croix avaiit Jc"sus-Christ/ in the Correspondant, October 25, 1889, 
and in Science Catholique, February 15, 1890, p. 163. 

5 Same authorities. 


solid rock on the mountains of India (fig. 32). It stood for the Jupiter! 
Tonans and Pluvius of the Latinspaud the Thor of the Scandinavians.^ 
In the latter case it has been considered erroneously, however a vari 
ety of the Thor hammer. Fn the opinion of at least one author it had 
an intimate relation to the_ _Lotus_ sigji^ oO5|?yii-t and PfraiTj^ Some 
authors have attributed a phallic meaning to it. Others have recog 
nized it as representing the generative principle of mankind, making- 
it the symbol of the female. Its appearance on the person of certain 
goddesses, Artemis, Hera, Demeter, Astarte, and the Chaldean Kana, 
the leaden goddess from Hissarlik (fig. 125), has caused it to be claimed 
as a sign of fecundity. 

In forming the foregoing theories I their authors have been largely 
controlled by the alleged fact of tie substitution and permutation / 
of the Swastika sign on various objects with recognized symbols of V 
these .different ideitief;. The claims of these theorists are somewhat 
clouded in obsethsjfe^ and lost in the antiquity of the subject. What 
seems to have* been at all times ,aii attribute of the Swastika is its { 
character as a charm oT amiiTe^lts a sign of benediction, blessing, long 
life^^gjXHl fortune, good luck. This character has continued into mod 
ern times, and while the Swastika js rp{ o<niiy;e^ *>s \\ holy and sacred 
.symbol by at least one Buddhistic religious sect, it is still used by the 
common people of India, China, and Japan as a sign of long life, good 
wishes, and good fortune. 

Whatever else the sign Swastika may have stood for, and however ^ 
/ many meanings it may have had, it was always ornamental. It may " 
/ have been used with any or all the above significations, but it was 

j^ajways ornamental as well. 


The Swastika sign had great extension ancl^S])read itself practically 
over the world, largely, if not entirely, in prehistoric times, though its, 

e in some countries has continued into modern times. 
. The elaboration of the meanings of the Swastika indicated alpyvjfe 
and its dispersion or migrations form the subject of this paper. V ^ 

Dr. Schliemann found many specimens of Swastika in his excava 
tions at the site of ancient Troy on the hill of Hissarlik. They were 
mostly on spindle whorls, and will be described in due course. He 
appealed to Prof. Max Miiller for an explanation, who, in reply, wrote 
an elaborate description, which Dr. Schliemann published in "Ilios. 1 " 

He commences with a protest against the word Swastika being 
applied generally to the sign Swastika, because it may prejudice the 
reader or the public in favor of its Indian origin. He says: 

I do not like the use of the word srastika outside of India. It is a word of 
Indian origin and has its history and definite meaning in India. The occur 

rence of such crosses in different parts of the world may or may not point to a com 
mon origin, but if they are once called tivaxtika the vulyus profanum will at once 

Page 346, et sec|. 



jump to the conclusion that they all come from India, and it will take some time to 

weed out such prejudice. 

Very little is known of Indian art before the third century B. C., the period when 
the Buddhist sovereigns began their public buildings. 1 

The name Svastika, however, can be traced (in India) a little farther back. It 
occurs as the name of a particular sign in the old grammar of Panani, about a cen 
tury earlier. Certain compounds are mentioned there in which the last word is 
karna, "ear." * * One of the signs for marking cattle was the Svastika [fig. 

41], and what Panani teaches in his grammar is that when the compound is formed, 
gvastika-karna, i. e., "having the ear marked with the sign of a Svastika/ the final 
a of Svastika is not to be lengthened, while it is lengthened in other compounds, 
such as datra-karna, i. e., "having the ear marked with the sign of a sickle. 7 

D Alviella 2 reinforces Max Miiller s statement that Panini lived during 
the middle of the fourth century, B. C. Thus it is shown that the word 
Swastika had been in use at that early period long enough to form an 
integral part of the Sanskrit language and that it was employed to 
illustrate the particular sounds of the letter a in its grammar. 

Max Miiller continues his explanation: 3 

It [the Swastika] occurs often at the beginning of the Buddhist inscriptions, oil 
st coinsV and in Buddhist manuscripts. Historically, the Svastika is first 

Pattested on a coin of Krauanda, supposing Kranauda to be the same king as Xan- 
j drames, the predecessor of Sandrokyptos, whose reign came to an end in 315 B. C. 
(See Thomas on the Identity of Xandrames and Krananda.) The palcographic evi 
dence, however, seems rather against so early a date. In the footprints of Buddha 
the Buddhists recognize no less that sixty-five auspicious signs, the first (if them being 
the Srasiika [see fig. 32], (Eugene Burnouf, "Lotus de la bonne loi," p. 625); the 
fourth is the Suavaspka, or that with the arms turned to the left [see fig. 10] ; the 
third, the Nandydvarta [see fig. 14], is a mere development of the tivastika. Among 
the Jainas the Srastika was the sign of their seventh Jiua, Supfirsva (Colebrooke 
"Miscellaneous Essays," n, p. 188; Indian Antiquary, vol. 2, p. 135). 

In the later Sanskrit literature, /Svastika retains the meaning of an auspicious 
mark; thus we see in the RA may ana (ed. Gorresio, n, p. 348) that Bharata selects 
a ship marked with the sign of the Svastika. Varahamihira in the Brihat-samhitfi 
(Med. Sa>c., vi, p. Ch.) mentions certain buildings called Svastika and Naudyavarta 
(53.34, seq.), but their outline does not correspond very exactly with the form of 
the signs. Some Sthupas, however, are said to have been built on the plan of the 
Svastika. : Originally, scastika may have been intended for no more than 

two lines crossing each other, or a cross. Thus we find it used iu later times refer 
ring to a woman covering her breast with crossed arms (Balaram, 75.16), tsvahastas- 
vastika-stani, and likewise with reference to persons sitting croeslegged. 

Dr. Max Ohnefalsch-llichter 4 speaking of the Swastika position, 
either of crossed legs or arms, among the Hindus, 5 suggests as a pos 
sible explanation that these women bore the Swastikas upon their 

1 The native Buddhist monarchs ruled from about B. C. 500 to the conquest of 
Alexander, B. C. 330. See " The Swastika on ancient coins, Chapter n of this paper, 
and Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ p. 83. 

-"La Migration des symboles," p. 104. 

:t "Ilios,"pp. 347, 348. 

Bulletins de la Societe d Aiithropologie, 1888, p. 678. 

5 Mr. Gandhi makes the same remark in his letter on the Buddha shell statue shown 
in pi. 10 of this paper. 


arms as did the goddess Aphrodite, in fig. 8 of liis Avritings, (see fig. 180 
in the present paper), and when they assumed the position of arms 
crossed over their breast, the Swastikas being brought into prominent 
view, possibly gave the name to the position as being a representative 
of the sign. 

Max Milller continues 1 : 

Quite another question is, why the sign L^ should have had an auspicious mean 
ing, and why in Sanskrit, it should have, heen called Svastika. The similarity be 
tween the group of letters sv in the ancient Indian alphabet and the sign of Svastika 
is not very striking, and seems purely accidental. 

A remark of yours [Sehliemann] (Troy, p. 38) that the Svastika resembles a wheel 
hijw)tHm,jt,ho direction of the motion being indicated by the crampons, contains a 
useful hint, which" has been confirmed by some important observations of Mr. Thomas, 
the distinguished Oriental numismatist:, who has called attention to the fact that in 
tno long list of the recognized devices of the twenty -four .Jaina Tirthankaras the 
sim is absent, but that while the eighth Tirthankara has the" sign of the half-moon, 
the se ^ n _%/ijj^ nk ^a is marked" witirthe SyastjEa", 1. e., llm Hun. Here, the n, 
we have cTerrF indications that the Svastika, with the hands pointing in the right 
direction, was originally a symbol of the sun, perhaps of the vernal sun as opposed 
to the autumnal sun, the finaraatika, and, therefore, a natural symbol of light, lii e, 
Itealth, and wealth. 

Hut, wliile from these indications wo are justified in supposing that among the 
Aryan nations the Svastika may have been an old emblem of the sun, there are other 
indications to show that in other parts of the world the same or a~similar emblem 
was useto indicate the earth. Mr. Beal has shown * that the 

simp!e~cross ( + ) occurs as a sif>n for earth in. certain ideographic ^rm^.Q it was 
probaTJTy intended to indicate the four quarters north, south, east, west or, it may 
be, more generally, extension in length and breadth. 

That the cross is used as a sign for -four" in the Bactro-Pali inscriptions (Max 
Miiller, " Chips from a German Workshop," Vol. n, p. 298) is well known ; but the fact 
that the same sign has the same power elsewhere, as, for instance, in the Hieratic 
numerals, does not prove by any means that the one figure was derived from the 
other. We forget too easily that what was possible in one place was possible also 
in other places; and the more we extend our researches, the more we shall learn that 
the chapter of accidents is larger than we imagine. 

The "Suavastika" which Max Miiiler names and believes was applied 
to the Swastika sign, with the ends bent to the left (fig. 10), seems not 
to be reported with that meaning by any other author except Burnouf. 2 
Therefore the normal Swastika would seem to be that with the ends 
bent to the right. Burnouf says the word Suavastika may be a deriva^ 
tive or development of the Svastikaya, and ought to signify "he who, / J? 
or, that which, bears or carries the Swastika or a species of Swastika." 
Greg, 3 under the title Sovastikaya, gives it as his opinion that there is 
no difference between it and the Swastika. Colonel Low 4 mentions the 
word Sawattheko, which, according to Burnouf 5 is only a variation of 


2 "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," App. viu, p. 626, note 4. 

3 Archa ologia, p. 36. 

4 Transaction* of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, rn, p. 120. 
6 "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," App. viu, p. 625, note 2. 


the Pali word Sotthika or Suvatthika, the Pali translation of the San 
skrit Swastika. Burnouf translates it as Svastikaya. 

M. Eugene Burnouf 1 speaks of a third sign of the footprint of Qakya, 
called Nandavartaya, a good augury, the meaning being the "circle of 
fortune, 1 which, is the Swastika inclosed within a square with avenues 
radiating from the corners (fig. 14). Burnouf says the above sign has 
many significations. It is a sacred temple or edifice, a species of laby 
rinth, a garden of diamonds, a chain, a golden waist or shoulder belt, 
and a conique with spires turning to the right. 

Colonel Sykes 2 concludes that, according to the Chinese authorities 
Fa-hian, Soung Young, Hiuan thsang, the "Doctors of reason, Tao-sse, 
or followers of the mystic cross ^ were diffused in China and India 
before the advent of Sakya in the sixth century B. C. (according to 
Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist authorities, the eleventh century B.C.), 
continuing until Fa-hian s time; and that they 
were professors of a qualified Buddhism, which, 
it is stated, was the universal religion of Tibet 
before Sakya s advent. 3 and continued until the- 
introduction of orthodox Buddhism in the ninth 
century A. D. 4 

Klaproth 5 calls attention to the frequent men 
tion by Fa-hian, of the Tao-sse, sectaries of the 
14. mystic cross M^ (Sanskrit Swastika), and to their 


SIGN OF THE FOOTPRINT OF existence in Central Asia and India; while he 
BUDDHA. says they were diffused over the countries to the 

^^ and sout i lwes t o f China, and came annually 
from all kingdoms and countries to adore Kassapo, 
Buddha s predecessor. Mr. James Burgess 7 mentions the Tirthanka- 
ras or Jainas as being sectarians of the Mystic Cross, the~gwastika. 
""The Cyclopaedia oT India (title Swastika), coinciding with Prof. Max 
Miiller, says: 

The Swastika symbol is not to be confounded with tlie Swastika sect in Tibet 
which took the symbol for its name as typical of the belief of its members. They 
render the Sanskrit Swastika as composed of su "well" and asti "it is," meaning, 
as Professor Wilson expresses it, "so be it," and implying complete resignation under 
all circumstances. They claimed the Swastika of Sanskrit as the 8-uti of Pali, and 
that the Swastika cross was a combination of the two symbols sutti-auti. They are 
rationalists, holding that contentment and peace of mind should bo the only objects 
of life. The sect has preserved its existence in different localities and under different 
names, Thirthankara, Ter, Mnsteg, Pou, the last name meaning purity, under which 
a remnant are still in the farthest parts of the most eastern province of Tibet. 

i Bonne Lo 

"Lotus de la Bonne Loi," p. 626. 

2 "Notes on the Religious, Moral, and Political state of India," Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Great Britain, vi, pp. 310-334. 

3 Low, Trans. Roy. Asiatic Soc. of Great Britain m, pp. 334, 310. 

4 Ibid., p. 299. 

5 Ibid., p. 299. 

6 Low, Trans. Royal Asiatic Soc. of Great Britain, m, p. 310. 

7 Indian Antiquary, n, May, 1873. p. 135. 


General Cunningham l adds his assertion of the Swastika being the 
symbol used by the Buddhist sect of that name. He says in a note: 

The founder of this sect flourished about the year 604 to 523 B. C., and that the mystic 
cross is a symbol formed by the combination of the two Sanskrit syllables su and ti-suti. 

Waring 2 proceeds to demolish, these statements of a sect named 
Swastika as pure inventions, and " consulting Professor Wilson s inval 
uable work on the Hindoo religious sects in the Asiatic Besearches, 
we find na account of any sect named Swastika/ 7 

Mr. Y. fi. Gandhi, a learned legal gentleman of Bombay, a repre 
sentative of the Jain sect of Buddhists to the World s Parliament of 
Religions at Chicago, 1893, denies that there is in either India or Tibet 
a sect of Buddhists named "Swastika." He suggests that these gen 
tlemen probably mean the sects of Jains (of which Mr. Gandhi is a 
member), because this sect uses the Swastika as a sign of benediction 
and blessing. This will be treated further on. (See p. 804.) 

Zmigrodzki, commenting on the frequenc^r of the Swastika on the7 
objects found by Dr. Schliemann_(aj^ Hissarlik,\ gives it as his opinion 3 ]- 
that these representations of the Swastika have relation to a human 
cult indicating a supreme being filled with goodness" toward man. The 
sun, stars, etc.. indicate him" as a god of light. This, in connection 
with the _jdol_of_Ycn us, with its triangular shield engraved with a 
Swastika (fig. 125), and the growing trees and palms, with their increas 
ing and multiplying branches and leaves, represent to him the idea of 
fecundity, multiplication, increase, and hence the god of life as well as 
of light. The Swastika sign on j lineral vases indicates to him a belief 
in a divine spirit in man which lives after death, and hence he con 
cludes that the people of Hissarlik, in the " Burnt City" (the "third of 
Schliemaun), adored a supreme being, the god of light and of life, and 
believed in the immortality of the soul. 

E. P. Greg says: 4 

Originally it [the Swastika] would appear to have been an early Aryan atmos- 
pheric device or symbol indicative of both rain and lightning, phenomena appertain 
ing to the god Indra, subsequently or collaterally developing, possibly, into the 
Snastika, or sacred fire churn in India, and at a still later period in Greece, adopted 
rather as a solar symbol, or converted about 15. C. 050 into the meander or key 

Waring, while he testifies to the extension of the Swastika both in 
time and area, says : 5 

But neither in the hideous jumble of Pantheism the wild speculative thought, 
mystic fables, and perverted philosophy of life among the Buddhists nor in the 
equally wild and false theosophy of the Brahmins, to whom this symbol, as distiuc- 

"BilsaToivs/ p. 17. 
a " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ p. 12. 

3 Tenth Congress International d Anthropologie et d Arclueologie Prehistoriques, 
Paris, 1889, p. 474. 

4 Archaeologia, XLVII, pt. 1, p. 159. 

5 "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ p. 11. 


tive of the Vishuavas, sectarian devotees of Vishnu, is ascribed by Moor in his 
Indian Pantheon," nor yet in tlio tenets of the Jains, 1 do we find any decisive 
explanation of the meaning attached to this symbol, although its allegorical inten 
tion is indubitable. 

He mentions the Swastika of the Buddhists, the cross, the circle, 
their combination, the three-foot Y {iud adds: "They exhibit forms of 
those olden and widely spread pagan symbols of Deity and sanctity, 
eternal life and blessing." 

Professor Sayce says: 2 

The Cyprian vase figured in Di Cesuola s "Cyprus," pi. XLV, fig. 36 [see fig. 156], 
which associates the Swastika with the figure of an animal, is a striking analogue 
of the Trojan whorls on which it is associated with the figures of stags. The fact that 
it is drawn within the vulva of the leaden image of tho_Asiatic goddess [see fig. 125] 
seems to show that it was a symbol of generation. I believe that it is identical 
with the Cyprian character {ft or l| (ne), which has the form )\\ in the inscription 
of Golgi, and also with the llittite |[f or |j| which Dr. Hyde Clarke once suggested 
to me was intended to represent the organs of generation. 

Mr. Waller, in his work entitled "Monumental Crosses," describes 

the Swastika as having been known in India as a sacred symbol many 

centuries before our Lord, and used as the distinguishing badge of a 

religious sect calling themselves "Followers of the Mystic Cross." 

Subsequently, he says, it was adopted by the followers of Buddha 

vand was still later used by Christians at a very early period, being 

j^first introduced on Christian monuments in the sixth century. But 

Mr. Waring says that in this he is not correct, as it was found in some 

of the early paintings in the Roman catacombs, particularly on the 

habTFof a Fossor, or gravedigger, given by D Agincourt. 

Pugin, in his "Glossary of Ornament," under the title "Fylfot," says 
that in Tibet the Swastika was used as a representation of God cruci 
fied for the human race, citing as his authority F. Augustini Antonii 
Georgii. 3 lie remarks: 

From these accounts it would appeal- that the fylfot is a mystical ornament, not 
only adopted among Christians from primitive times, but used, as if prophetically, 
for centuries before the coining of our Lord. To descend to later times, we iiud it 
constantly introduced in ecclesiastical vestments, till the end of the fif 

teenth century, a period marked by great departure from traditional symbolism. 

Its use was continued in Tibet into modern times, though its meaning 
is not given. 4 (See p. SOU.) 

The Kev. G. Cox, in his "Aryan Mythology," says: 

We recognize the male and the female symbol in the trident of Poseidon, and in 
the fylfot or hammer of Thor, which assumes the form of a cross-pattee in the vari 
ous legends which turn on the rings of Freya, llolda, Venus, or Aphrodite. 

See explanation of the Swastika by Mr. Gandhi according to tl^e Juin tenets, 
p. 804. 

2"Ilios, v p. 353. 

:5 "Alphabetuin Tibetarium," Rome, 1762, pp. 211, 460, 725. 

4 T?ocl- hill, "Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet," Smithsonian Insti 
tution, Washington, 1894, p. 67. 


Here again we find the fylfot and cross-pattee spoken of as the same 
symbol, and as being emblematic of the reproductive principles, in 
which view of its meaning Dr. Ininan, in his " Ancient Faiths 
Embodied in Ancient j^aines," concurs. 

Burnouf 1 recounts the myth of Agni (from which conies, through 
the Latin ignis, the English word igneous), the god of Sacred Fire, as 
told in the Veda: 2 

The young queen, the mother of Fire, carried the royal infant mysteriously con 
cealed iiT ITer bosom. She was a woman of the people, whose common name was 
"Arani" that is, the instrument of wood (the Swastika) from which fire was made 
or btought by rubbing. * * * The origin of the sign [Swastika] is now easy to 
recognize. It represents the two pieces of wood which compose Varani, of which 
the extremities were bent to be retained by the four nails. At the junction of the 
two pieces of wood was a fossetto or cup-like hole, and there they placed a piece of 
wood upright, in form of a lance (the Pramaiitha), violent rotation of which, by 
whipping (after the fashion of top-whipping), produced" fire, as did Prometheus, the 
pbrteur diTfeu, in Greece. 

And this myth was made, as have been others, probably by the 
priests and poets of succeeding times, to do duty for different philoso 
phies. The Swastika was made to represent Arani (the female prin-~ 
ciple); the Pramantha or upright fire stake representing Agni, the fire 
god (the male) ; and so the myth served its part to account for the birtlS 
of fire. Burnouf hints that the myth grew out of the production of( 
holy fire for the sacred altars by the use of the Pramantha and Swas 
tika, after the manner of savages in all times. Zmigrod/ki accepts 
this myth, and claims all specimens with dots or points supposed nail 
holes as Swastikas. 

The Count Goblet d Alviella :t argues in opposition to the theory 
announced by Burnouf and by Zmigrodzki, that the Swastika or croix 
swasticale, when presenting dots or points, had relation to fire making. 
He denies that the points represent nails, or that nails were made or 
necessary either for the Swastika or the Arani, and concludes that 
there is no evidence to support the theory, and nothing to show the 
Swastika to have been used as a fire-making apparatus, Avhether Avith 
or without the dots or points. 

Mr. Greg 4 opposes this entire theory, saying: 

The difficulty about the Swastika and its supposed connection with fire appears 
to me to lie in not knowing precisely what the old fire drill and chark were like. 
I much doubt whether the Swastika had originally any connection either 
with the fire-chark or with the sun. * * The best authorities consider Hur- 
uonf is in error as to the earlier use of the two lower cross pieces of wood and the four 
nails said to have been used to fix or steady the framework. 

He quotes from Tylor s description 5 of the old fire drill used in India 

1 "Des Sciences et Religion," pp. 252, 257. 

2 Vol. xi. 

3 " La Migration des Symboles," pp. 61-63. 
<Archa>ologia, XLVIII, pt. 2, pp. 322, 323. 

fl " Early History of Mankind," p. 257, note C, 


for kindling the sacrificial fire by the process called "churning," as it 
resembles that in India by which butter is separated from milk. It 
consists in drilling one piece of Arani wood by pulling a cord with 
one hand while the other is slackened, and so, alternately (the strap 
drill), till the wood takes fire. Mr. Greg states that the Eskimos use 
similar means, and the ancient Greeks used the drill and cord, and he 
adds his conclusions: " There is nothing of the Swastika and four nails 
in connection with the fire-churn." 

Burton 1 also criticises JBurnouf s theory : 

If used on sacrificial altars to reproduce the holy lire, the practice is peculiar and 
not derived from everyday life; for as early as Pliny they knew that the savages 
used two, and never three, lire sticks. 

Burnouf continues his discussion of myths concerning the origin of 

According to Hymnes, the discoverer of lire was Atharau, whose name signifies 
lire, but Bhrigon it was who made the sacred fire, producing resplendent flames on 
the earthen altar. In theory of physics, Agni, who was the lire residing within the 
"onction," (?) came from the milk of the cow, which, in its turn, came from the 
plants that had nourished her; and these plants in their turn grew by receiving and 
appropriating the heat or lire of the sun. Therefore, the virtue of the " onction" 
came from the god. 

One of the Yedas says of Agni, the god of fire: 2 

Agni, tliou art a sage, a priest, a king, 

Protector, father of the sacrifice; 

Commissioned by our men thou dost ascend 

A messenger, conveying to the sky 

Our hymns and oll erings, though thy origin 

Be three fold, now from air and now from water, 

Now from the mystic double 

Count Goblet d Alviella combats the hypothesis of Burnouf that the 
Swastika when turned to right or left, passed, the one for the male and 
the other for the female principle, and declares, on the authority of Sir 
George Bird wood, that it is, in modern India, a popular custom to name 
cts which appear in couples as having different sexes, so that to say 
"the male Swastika" and the "female Swastika," indicating them by 
the pronouns "he" or "she," would be expressed in the same manner 
when speaking of the hammer and the anvil or of any other objects 
used in pairs. 4 

Ludwig Miiller, in his elaborate treatise, gives it as his opinion that the 
Swastika had no connection with the Tau cross or with the Crux ansatdj 
or with the fire wheel, or with araui, or agui,or with the mystic or alpha 
betic letters, nor with the so-called spokes of the solar wheel, nor the 
forked lightning, nor the hammer of Thor. He considers that the tris- 

1 " The Book of the Sword/ p. 202, note 2. 

2 Burnouf, "Pea Sciences et Religion," p. 18. 

3 The two pieces of wood of Ficuv reliyiosa, used for kindling lire. 

4 "La Migration des Symboles, ;7 p. 63. 


kelion might throw light on its origin, as indicating perpetual whirling 
or circular movement, which, in certain parts of southern Asia as the 
emblem of Zeus, was assimilated to that of Baal, an inference which he 
draws from certain Asiatic coins of 400 B. C. 

Mr. R. P. Greg 1 opposes this theory and expresses the opinion that 
the Swastika is far older and wider spread as a symbol than the tris- 
kelion, as well as being a more purely Aryan symbol. Greg says that 
Ludwig Miiller" attaches quite too much importance to the sun in con 
nection with the early Aryans, and lays too great stress upon the sup 
posed relation of the Swastika as a solar symbol. The Aryans, he says, 
were a race not given to sun worship ; and, while he may agree with | 
Miiller that the Swastika is an emblem of Zeus and Jupiter merely as j 
the Supreme God, yet he believes that the origin of the Swastika had^ 
no reference to a movement of the sun through the heavens 5 and he 
prefers his own theory that it was a device suggested by the forked 
lightning as the chief weapon of the air god. 

Mr. Greg s paper is of great elaboration, and highly complicated. 
He devotes an entire page or plate (21) to a chart showing the older 
Aryan fire, water, and sun gods, according to the Brahmin or Buddhist 
system. The earliest was Dyaus, the bright sky or the air god; Adyti, 
the infinite expanse, mother of bright gods,- Varuna, the covering of 
the shining firmament. Out of this trinity came another, Zeus, being 
the descendant of Dyaus, the sky god; Agni, the fire; Sulya, the sun, 
and Indra, the rain god. These in their turn formed the great Hindu 
trinity, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva creator, preserver, and destroyer; 
and, in his opinion, the. Swastika was the symbol or ordinary device of 
Indra as AY ell as of Zeus. He continues his table of descent from these 
gods, with their accompanying devices, to the sun, lightning, fire, and 
water, and makes almost a complete scheme of the mythology of that 
period, into which it is not possible to follow him. However, he declines 
to accept the theory of Max Miiller of any difference of form or mean 
ing between the Suavastika and the Swastika because the ends or 
arms turned to the right or to the left, and he thinks the two symbols to 
be substantially the same. He considers it to have been, in the first 
instance, exclusively of early Ary^iijmgm^and use, and that down to 
about OOP B._C 1 jjrwas the emblem or symbol of the sjrj3reme Aryan 
goj.1 ; that it so continued down through the various steps of descent 
(according to the chart mentioned),iiiiti]J^boca^ 

and^finally of Buddha. He thinks that it may have 
been jjie ojjgiofJh^ or meanderj)attern. Later still it; 

was adopted even by the early Christians a!Ta~sui table variety of their, 
cross, and became variously modified in form and was used as a charm. \ 

D Alviella 2 expresses his doubts concerning the theory advanced by 
Greg 3 to the effect that the Swastika is to be interpreted as a symbol 

1 Archaeologia, XLIII, pt. 2, pp. 324, 325. 

2 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 64. 

3 "Fylfot and Swastika/ Archwologia, 1885, p. 293. 


"of the air or of the god who dwells in the air, operating sometimes to 
produce light, other times rain, then water, and so on, as is represented 
by the god Indra among the Hindus, Thor among the Germans and 
\ Scandinavians, Perkun among the Slavs, Zeus among the Pelasgi and 
greeks, Jupiter Tonans, and Pluvius among the Latins. He disputes 
the theory that the association of the Swastika sign with various 
others on the same object proves its relationship with that object or 
\ sign. That it appears on vases or similar objects associated with what 
"is evidently a solar disk is no evidence to him that the Swastika 
belongs to the sun, or when associated with the zigzags of lightning 
that it represents the god of lightning, nor the same with the god of 
leaven. The fact of its appearing either above or below any one of 
these is, in his opinion, of no importance and has no signification, either 
general or special. 

D Alviella says 1 that the only example known to him of a Swastika 
nprmp, uuuiirmeiit causeirated to 2a^UL_or Jupiter is on a Celto-Koman 
altar, erected, according to all appearances, by the Daci during the time 
they were garrisoned at Ambloganna. in Britain. The altar bears the 
letters I. O. M., which have been thought to stand for Jupiter Optimus 
Maximus. The Swastika thereon is flanked by two disks or rouelles, 
with four rays, a sign which M. Gaido>r believes to have been a 
representative of the sun among the Gaulois. 2 

Dr. Brinton 3 considers the Swastika as being related to the cross and 
not to the circle, and asserts that the Ta Ki or Triskeles, the Swastika 
and the Cross, were originally of the same signification, or at least 
closely allied in meaning. 

Waring, 4 after citing his authorities, sums up his opinion thus: 

/ We have given remarks of the various writers on this symbol, and it will be seen 
) that, though they are more or less vague, uncertain, and confused in their descrip 
tion of it, still, with one exception, they all agree that it is a mystic symbol, pecul 
iar to some deity or other, bearing a special signification, and generally believed to 
have some connection with one of the elements water. 

BurtQii_says : 5 

I- The Svastika is apparently the simplest form of the Guilloche [scroll pattern or 
spiral]. According to Wilkinson (11, Chap. IX), the most complicated form of the 
Guilloche covered an Egyptian ceiling upward of a thousand years older than the 
objects found at Nineveh. The Svastika spread far and wide, everywhere assuming 
some fresh mythological and mysterious significance. In the north of Europe it 
became the Fylfot or Crutched cross. 

Count Goblet d Alviella is of the opinion (p. 57) that the Swastika 
was " above all an amulet, talisman, or phylactere," while (p. 5G) " it is 
incontestable that a great number of the Swastikas were siiuplvjTiotifs 

1 " La Migration des Syrnboles," p. 65. 

" "Le Dieu gaulois du Soleil et le symbolisme de la rone," Paris, 1886. 

3 Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc., 1889, pp. 177-187. 

4 Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ 

5 "The Book of the Sword," p. 202. 


ofjojiuamentatioii^of coiiLJiia.rks, and marks of fabrics. 7 but lie agrees 
(p. 57) that EEiere is no symbol that has given rise to so many interpre- 
tations, not even the tricula of the Buddhists, and "this is a great deal 
to say. 7 Ludwig Miiller believes the Swastika to have been used as an 
ornament and as a charm and amulet, as well as a sacred symbol. 

Dr. H. Colley March, in his learned paper on the " Fylfot and the 
Futhorc Tir," ] thinks the Swastika had no relation to fire or fire making 
or the fire god. His theory is that it symbolized axial motion and not 
merely gyration; that it represented the celestial pole, the axis of_tlie 
heavens around which revolve th_gtnrs of the firmament. This appear 
ance of rot atToh i s "most impressive in the constellation of the Great 
Bear. About four thousand years ago the apparent pivot of rotation 
was at a Draconis, much nearer the Great Bear than now, and at that 
time the rapid circular sweep must have been far more striking than at I 
present. In addition to the name Ursa Major the Latins called this / 
constellation Septentriones, "the seven plowing oxen, 7 that dragged V 
the stars aro.und-the pole, and the Greeks called it thin?/, from its vast ) 
spiral movement. 2 In the opinion of Dr. March all these are repre 
sented or symbolized by the Swastika. 

Prof. W. H. Goodyear, of New York, has lately (1891) published an 
elaborate quarto work entitled "The Grammar of the Lotus: A New 
History of Classic Ornament as a Development of Sun Worship. 773 It 
comprises 408 pages, with 76 plates, and nearly a thousand figures. His 
theory develops thjQjjun symbol from the lotus by a series^of ingenious 
and complicated -ev-olutiona passing through the lonift style of archi 
tecture, the volutes and spirals forming meanders or Greek frets, and 
from this to the Swastika. The result is attained by the following line 
of argument and illustrations: 

The lotus was a "fetish of immemorial antiquity and has been Avor- 
shiped iu many countries from Japan to the Straits of Gibraltar; 77 it 
was a symbol of "fecundity, 77 "life, 77 "immortality," and of "resurrec 
tion," and has a mortuary significance and use. But its elementary 
and most important signification was as a solar symbol. 4 

He describes the Egyptian lotus and traces it through an innumer 
able number of specimens and with great variety of form. He men 
tions many of the sacred animals of Egypt and seeks to maintain their 
relationship by or through the lotus, not only with each other but with 
solar circles and the sun worship. 5 Direct association of the solar disk 
and lotus jire^according to him, common on the monuments and on 
Phenician and Assyrian seals; while the lotus and the sacred animals, 
as in cases .cited of the goose representing Seb (solar god, and father 
of Osiris), also Osiris himself and Horus, the hawk and lotus, bull and 

1 Trans. Lancaster and Cheshire Antiq. Soo., 1886. 

2 Hadclon, " Evolution in Art," London, 1895, p 288. 

3 Sampson, Low, Marstou & Co., London. 

4 Goodyear, "The Grammar of the Lotus/ pp. 4, 5. 
fi Ibid., p. 6. 



lotus, the asp and lotus, the lion and lotus, the sphinx and lotus, the 
gryphon and lotus, the serpent and lotus, the ram and lotus all of 
which animals, and with them the lotus, have, in bis opinion, some 
related signification tojlie sun^or^^iniej)t-4A-^^itiS. 1 He is of the 
opinion that the lotus motif was the foundatiou_qf the Egyptian^style 
of architecture, and that it appeared aF"an~early date, say, the four 
teenth century B^-(X By intercommunication with the Greeks it formed 
the foundation of the Greek Ionic capital, which, he says, 2 "offers no 

Fig. 1G. 





in Gomlyriir s " Grammar of the Lotus " ji. "". 

dated example of the earlier time than the sixth century B. 0." lie 
supports this contention by authority, argument, and illustration. 

He shows 3 the transfer of the lotus motif to Greece, and its use as 
an ornament on the painted vases and on those from Cyprus, llhodes, 
and jMelos (figs. 15, 16, 17). 

Chantre 4 notes the presence of spirals similar to those of tig. 17, in 

the terramares of northern Italy and up 
and down the DaiTuTSe, and his fig. 186- 
(fig. 17) he says represents the decorat 
ing motif, thejnpst frequent in all that 
part of prehistoric^ Europe^ He cites 
" Notes sur les torque s ou ornaments 
spirals." 5 

That the lotus had a foundation deep 
and wide in Egyptian mythology is not 
to be denied; that it was allied to and 
associated on the monuments and other 
objects with many sacred and mythologic characters in Egypt and after 
wards in Greece is accepted. How far it extends in the direction con 
tended for by Professor Goodyear, is no part of this investigation. It 
appears well established that in both countries it became highly con 
rtventionalized, and it is quite sufficient for the purpose of this argument 
ii/that it became thus associated with the Swastika. Figs. 18 and 11) 

Fig. 18. 



Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Goodyear, "Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 47, fig. 1 


Goodyear, " The Grammar of the Lotus," pp. 1, 8. 
-Ibid., p. 71. 
: Ibid., pp. 74, 77. 

* "Age clu Bronze," Deuxieme partie, p. 301. 
& Materiaux pour 1 Histoire Primitive et Naturclle do 1 Homme, 3d ser., vm, p. (>. 



represent details of Cyprian vases and amphora belonging to the Ces- 
nola collection in the .New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, showing 

Fig. 20. 


Ono volute. 

Goocly. .ar, " Grammar of the Lotus," fi<r. 51. 

Fig. 19. 


Lotus with curling sepals and different Swastikas. 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus, pi. 47, figs. 2, . ,. 

the lotas_with curling sepals amongwhich are interspersed Swastikas 
of different forirw*. -* 

According to Professor Goodyear, 1 these bent sepals of tjjfcJotnajyere 
exaggerated and finally bo.p.fl,mp. apjr. 
_a]s4 which, being projected at a 
tangent, niadejvolutes, and, continu 
ing one after the other, as shown in 
fig. 20, formed bands of OTnament; 
oiy being connected to righTand left, 
spread the ornament over an extended 
surf-ice as in fig. 21. One of his paths of evolution closed these volutes 
and dropped the connecting tangent, when they formed the concentric 

rings of which we see so much. Several 
forms of Egyptian scarabad, showing the evo 
lution of concentric rings, arc shown in figs. 
22, 23, and 24. 

By another path of the evolution of his the- v 
ory, one has only to square the spiral volutes, 
and the result is the Greek fret shown in fig. 
2,V The Greek fret 1ms only to be doubled, 
when it produces the Swastika shown in fig. I 
26. 5 Thus we have, according to him, the origin j 
of the Swastika, as shown in figs. 27 and 28. 6 \ 

Professor Goodyear is authority for the state 
ment that the earliest dated instances of the 
isolated scroll is in the fifth dynasty of Egypt, 
dynasty. The spiraTof 

Fig. 21. 


Tomb . S3, Abd-el Kournek, Thel>ea 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," p. ilrt. 

and of the lotus and 

fig. 19 (above) belongs to the twelfth dynasty. 7 

1 " Grammar of the Lotus/ pi. 

2 Ibid., pp. 82-94. 

3 Ibid., p. 96. 

4 Ibid., pi. x, figs. 7-9, p. 97. 

p. 81. 

fl Ibid., p. 354. 
"Ibid., p. 353. 
7 Ibid, p. 354, fig. 174. 



Professor Goodyear devotes an entire chapter to the Swastika. On 
pages 352, 353 he says : 

There is no proposition in archaeology which can bo so easily demonstrated as the 
assertion that the Swastika was originally a fragment of the Egyptian meander, 
provided Greek geometric vases are called in evidence. The connection between 



Fig. 2:$. 


n.-irrintfer collection, Metropolitan MII- 
S.MIIU of Art, New V..rk City. 

( HK><ly**;ir, * f <iraimnar of tlie Lotus/* jl 
S, fit;. 23. 

Fig. 24. 



Farman collection, Metro^litan Mu- 

seum of Art, New York City. 

lyear," Grammar of tlie Lotus."] 

8, fig. 25. 

the meander ami the Swastika has been long since suggested by Trof. A. S. Murray. 1 
Hindu specialists have suggested thatthe Swastika produced the meander. 
Birdwoiid- says: "I believe the Swastika to be the origin of the key pattern orna 
ment of Greek and Chinese decorative art." Zrnigrodzki, in a recent publication, 1 
has not only rcproposed this derivation of the meander, but has even connected the 

Mycen;i i spirals with this supposed development, 
and has proposed to change the name of the spiral 
ornament accordingly. The equivalence 

of the SwiiHtikfijwj^h the meain1 or p^t.tiirn is sug 
gested, in the first instance,^>y_J_ts_app^*aiice in 
the shape of the meander on the Khodian. (pi. 28, 
fig. 7). Melian (pi. 60, fig. 8)^ajfik{siC-jQreck (pi- 
60, fig. 9, and pi. 61, fig. 12), andGreek geometric 
vases (pi. 56). The appearance~TrT shape of the 
meander may be verified in the British Museum on 
one geometric vase of the oldest type, and it also 
occurs in the Louvre. 

Fig. 25. On page 354 7 Goodyear says : 

An illustration of the theory of de 
rivation from the spiral. 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 10, fi;;. 9. 

by thR Jrndnjp.oiTiH of the Jains. Its generative 
significance is proven by a leaden statuette from 
Troy. It is an equivalent of the lot-us (pi. 47, figs. 
1,2,3), of the solar diagram (pi. 57, fig. 12, and pi. 60, fig. 8), of the rosette (pi. 20, 
fig. 8), of concentric rings (pi. 47, fig. 11), of the spiral scroll (pi. 34, fig. 8, and pi. 

1 Cesnola, " Cyprus, its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples, " p. 410. 

2 "Industrial Arts of India," p. 107. 

3 " Zur Geschichte der Swastika." 



fig. 1), with the ibex (pi. 37, fig. 4), with the solar sphinx (pi. 34, fig. 8), with the 
solar lion (pi. 30, fig. 4), the solar ram (pi. 28, fig. 7), atid the solar horse (pi. 61, figs. 
/I, 4, 5, and 12). Its most emphatic and 
constant association is with the solar bird 
(pi. 60, fig. 15; fig. 173). 

Count Goblet d Alviella, following 
Ludwig Miiller, Percy Gardner, S. 
Beal, Edward Thomas, Max Miil 
ler, H. Gaidoz, and other authors, 
accepts their theory that the Swas 
tika was a symboljcrepresentation 
of the sun or of a sun god, and argues 

it flllly. 1 He StartS With the prOpO- Q^year," Grammar of the Lotus," %.n4. 

sition that most of the nations of the earth have represeuted_the sun 
by a circle, although somejof them^notably^the Assyrians, Hindus, 

Greek a. ""ami ("W^aT 1m. ye 

Fig. 20. 


Meander and Swastika. 

Fig. 27. 


Swastika, right, with solar geese, v 

Goodyear, "Grammar of the Lotus," ji. 358, fig. 178. 

j > sen ted i t J>y si Q-TI a ^iorq_gr less 
cruciform. Examining his . _ 
wherein signs of the various peo 
ple are set forth, it is to be re 
marked that there is no similarity 
or apparent relation ship between 
the six symbols given, either with 
themselves or with the sun. Only 
one of them, that of Assyria, pre 
tends to be a circle; and it may or may not stand for the sun. It has 
no exterior rays. All the rest are crosses of different kinds. Each of 
the six symbols is represented as 
being from a single nation of peo 
ple. They are prehistoric or of 
high antiquity, and most of them 
appear to have no other evidence 
of their representation of the sun. 
than is contained in the sig-n 
itself, so that the fn^jt r>Uj^.f| nn ?j 
is to the premises, to wit, that 
while his symbols may have some 
times represeTTte"d the sun, it"is 
far fronT certain tliatjliey are 

used constanlO^ZIteadiiy as such. An objection is made to the 
theory or hypothesis presented by Count d Alviella 2 that it is not 


Fig. 28. 


Swastika with solar geese. 

ir, "Grammar of the Lotus,"]). 353, fij;. 172. 

1 "La Migration des Symboles/ 
2 Ibid., p. 07. 
IT. Mis. 00, pt, 2 50 

chap. 2, pt. 3, p. 06. 


the cross part of the Swastika which represents the sun, but its bent 
armSi which show the revolviiig^motlon, by which he says is evolved 
the tetraskelion or what in this paper is named the "Ogee Swastika." 
The author islnore in accord with Dr. Brinton and others that the 
Swastika is derived from the cross and not from the wheel, that the bent 
arins~c[o not represent rotary or gyratory motion, and that it had no 
association with, or relation to, the circle. This, if true, relieves the 
v^wastika from all relation with the circle as a symbol of the sun. 
Besides, it is not believed that the symbol of the sun is one which 
required rotary or gyratory motion or was represented by it, but, as 
will be explained, in speaking of th^Assyrian sun-god Shamash (p. 789), 
it is rather by a circle with pointed rays extending outward. 
" D ALviella J presents severaflgures in support of his contention. 
The first (a) is 011 a fibula from Etruria (fig. 190 of this paper). His 
explanation is that the small circle of rays, bent at right angles, on the 
broad shield of the pin, represents graphically the rotary movement of 
the sun, and that the bent arms in the Swastikas on the same object 
are taken from them, /it seems curious that so momentous a subject as 
the existence of a symbol of a great god, the god of light, heat, and thus 
of life, should be made to depend upon an object of so small importance. 
This specimen (fig. 190) is a fibula orpin, one of the commonest objects 
of Etruscan, Greek, or Eoman dressQ The decorations invoked are on 
the broad end, which has been flattened to protect the point of the 
pin, where appears a semicircle of so-called rays, the two Swastikas 
and two possible crosses. There is nothing about this pin, nor indeed 
any of the other objects, to indicate any holy or sacred character, nor 
that any of them were used in any ceremony having relation to the sun, 
to any god, or to anything holy or sacred. His fig. b is fig. 88 in this 
paper. It shows a quadrant of the sphere found by Schliemann at His- 
sarlik. There is a slightly indefinite circle with rays from the outside, 
which are bent and crooked in many directions. The sphere is of terra 
cotta; the marks that have been made on it are rough and ill formed. 
They were made by incision while the clay was soft and were done in 
the rudest manner. There are dozens more marks upon the same 
sphere, none of which seem to have received any consideration in this 
regard. There is a Swastika upon the sphere, and it is the only mark 
or sign upon the entire object that seems to have been made with care 
or precision. His third figure (c) is taken from a reliquaire of the thir 
teenth century A. D. It has a greater resemblance to the acanthus 
plant than it has to any solar disk imaginable. The other two figures 
(d and c) are tetraskelions or ogee Swastikas from ancient coins. 

D Alviella s next argument 2 is that the triskelion, formed by the same 
process as the tetraskehon,is an "incontestable "representation of solar 

1 " La Migration des Syniboles," p. 69. 
Ibid., p. 71. 


movement. No evidence is submitted iii support of this assertion, and 
the investigator of the present day is required, as in prehistoric objects, 
to depend entirely upon the object itself. The bent arms contain -no 
innate evidence (even though they should be held to represent rotary 
or gyratory motion) representing the sun or sun gods. It is respect 
fully suggested that in times of antiquity, as in modern times, the si\n 
is not represented as having a rotary motion, but is rather represented! 
by a circle with diminishing rays projecting from the center or exteriorj 
It seems unjustifiable, almost ridiculous, to transform the three flexed 
human legs, first appearing on the coins of Lycia, into a sun symbol, 
to make it the reliable evidence of sun worship, and give it a holy*or 
sacred character as representing a god. It is surely pushing the argu 
ment too far to say that this is an " incontestable" representation of 
the solar movement. The illustrations by d Alviella on his page 71 
are practically the same as figs. 224 to 220 of this paper. 

Count d Alviella s further argument 1 is that symbols of the sun god~] 
being frequently associated, alternated with, and sometimes replacedj 
by, the Swastika, proves it to have been a sun symbol. But this is 
doubted, and evidence to sustain the proposition is wanting. Undoubt 
edly the Swastika was a symbol, was intentional, had a meaning and a 
degree of importance, and, while it may have been intended to repre 
sent the sun and have a higher and holier character, yet these mere 
associations are n 

D Alviella s plate 2, page 80, while divided into sections a and &, is 
filled only with illustrations of Swastika associated with circles, dots, 
etc., introduced for the purpose of showing the association of the 
Swastika therewith, and that the permutation and replacing of these 
signs by the Swastika is evidence that the Swastika represented the 
sun. Most of the same illustrations are presented in this paper, and it 
is respectfully submitted that the evidence does not bear out his con 
clusion. If it be established that these other symbols are representa 
tives of the sun, how does that prove that the Swastika was itself a 
representative of the sun or the sun god? D Alviella himself argues* 
against the proposition of equivalence of meaning because of associ 
ation when applied to the Crux ansata, the circle, the crescent, the 
triskeliou, the lightning sign, and other symbolic figures. He denies 
that because the Swastika is found on objects associated with thes(w 
signs therefore they became interchangeable in meaning, or that th<^ 
Swastika stood for any of them. The Count 2 says that more likely the 
engraver added the Swastika to these in the character of a talisinanj)r 
phylactery. On "page^tTtie arguesin the same line, thai because it is 

Iouudl3trau object of sacred character does not necessarily give it the 
signification of a sacred or holy symbol. He regards the Swastika as 

lu La Migration des Syruboles/ 7 pp. 72, 75, 77, 
2 Ibid., p. 61. 


afsymbol of good fortune, and sees no reason why it may not be ein- 
I/ployed as an invocation to a god of any name or kind- on. the principle, 
"Good Lord, good devil," quoting the Neapolitan proverb, that it will 
do no harm, and possibly may do good. 

Prof. Max Miiller refers to the discovery by Prof. Percy Gardner of 
yrfne of the coins of Mesembria, whereon the Swastika replaces the last 
{/two syllables of the word, and he regards this as decisive that in 
Greece the meaning of the Swastika was equivalent to the sun. This 
word, Mesembria, being translated mile <le mi<li, means town or city 
of the south, or the sun. He cites from Mr. Thomas s paper on the 
"Imlian Swastika and its Western Counterparts" 2 what he considers 
an equally decisive discovery made some years ago, wherein it was 
(shown that the wheel, the emblem of the sun in motion, was replaced 
I by the Swastika on certain coins; likewise on some of the Andhra 
"coins and some punched gold coins noted by Sir Walter Elliott. 3 In 
these cases the circle or wheel alleged to symbolize the sun was re 
placed by the Swastika. The Swastika has been sometimes inscribed 
within the rings or normal circles representing what is said to be the 
four suns on Ujain patterns or coins (fig. 230). Other authorities have 
dopted the same view, and have extended it to include the lightning, 
"the storm, the fire wheel, the sun chariot, etc. (See Ohnefalsch-Kichter, 
p. 790.) This appears to bej^io/^m^/^f^. All these speculations may be 
.correct, and all these mean in gs~n i ay Infve been given to the Swastika, 
but the evidence submitted does not prove the fact. There is in the 
case of the foregoing coins no evidence yet presented as to which sign, 
the wheel or the Swastika, preceded and which followed in point of 
time. The Swastika may have appeared first instead of last, and may 
not have been a substitution for the disk, but an original design. The 
disk employed, while possibly representing the sun in some places, may 
not have done so always nor in this particular case. It assumes too 
much to say that every time a small circle appears on an ancient object 
it represented the sun, and the same observation can be made with 
to symbols of the other elements. Until it shall have been 
satisfactorily established that the symbols represented these elements 
with practical unanimity, and that the Swastika actually and inten- 
tidntffly^ replaceciTTnrs "STtch, the theory remains undemonstrated, the 
burden rests on those who take the affirmative side; and until these 
points shall have been settled with some degree of probability the con 
clusion is not warranted. 

As an illustration of the various significations possible, one has but 
to turn to Chapter iv, on the various meanings given to the cross among 
American Indians, where it is shown that among these Indians the 
cross represented the four winds, the sun, stars, dwellings, the dragon 



1 Atkemcum, August 20, 1892, p. 266. 

2 Numismatic Ckrouicle, 1880, xx, pp. 18-48. 

3 Madras Jourii. of Lit. and Sci., in, pi. 9. 


fly, mide society, flocks of birds, human form, maidenhood, evil spirit, 
and divers others. 

Mr. Edward Thomas, in his work entitled " The Indian Swastika and 
its Western Counterparts," says : 

As far as I have been able to trace or connect the various manifestations of this 
emblem [the Swastika], they one and all resolve themselves into the primitive / 
conception of solar motion, which was intuitively associated with the rolling or 
wheel-like projection of the sun through the upper or visible arc of the heaA ens, as 
understood and accepted in the crude astronomy of the ancients. The, earliest phase 
of astronomical science we are at present in position to refer to, with the still extant 
aid of indigenous diagrams, is the Chaldean. The representation of the sun in this 
system commences with a simple ring or outline circle, which is speedily advanced 
toward the impression of onward revolving motion by the insertion of a cross or 
four wheel-like spokes within the circumference of the normal ring. As the original 
Chaldean emblem of the sun was typified by a single ring, so the Indian mind 
adopted a similar definition, which remains to this day as the ostensible device or 
cast-mark of the modern Sauras or sun worshipers. 

The same remarks are made in "Ilios r (pp. 353, 354). 

The author will not presume to question, much less deny, the facts 
stated by this learned gentleman, but it is to be remarked that, on the ^ 
theory of pr^siuugMpii, the circle might jy present many other things 
than the sun, and unless flie evidence in favor of the foregoing state 
ment is susceptible of verification, the theory can hardly be accepted 
as conclusive. Why should not the circle represent other things than 
the sun ? In modern astronomy the full moon is represented by the) 
plain circle, while the sun, at least in heraldry, is always represented 
as a circle with rays. It is believed that the u cross or four wheel! 
like spokes" in the Chaldean emblem of the sun will be Toiiml to be 
rays rather that cross or spokes. A cast is in the U. S. National 
Museum (Oat. No. 154760) of an original specimejijnunjiffer, now in 
the Koyal Museum, Berlin, of Shamash, the Aj^syrian god of thejsuii. 
He is represented on this monument by a solar disk, 4 inches in diam- 
eter, with eiglitL^rays_^imilar to those of stars, their bases on a faint 
circle at the center, and tapering outwards to a point, the whole sur 
rounded by another faint circle. This is evidence that the siin symbol 
of Assyria required rays as well as a circle. A similar representation 
of the sun god is found on a tablet discovered in the temple of the 
Sun God at Abu-Habba. 2 > 

Perrot and Chipiez 3 show a tablet from Sippara, of a king, Nabu- 
abal-iddin, 900 B. 0., doing homage to the sun god (identified by the . 
inscription), who is represented by bas-relief of a small circle in ther 
center, with rays and lightning zigzags extending to an outer circle. 

In view of these authorities and others which might be cited, it is 

London, 1880. 

2 Rawlinson, " Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia," v, pi. 00; Trans. Soc. 
Biblical Archaeology, viu, p. 165. 
*" History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria/ i, p. 200, fig. 71. 


questionable whether the plain circle was continuously a representation 
of the sun in the Chaldean or Assyrian astronomy. It is also doubtful 

hethcr, if the circle did represent the sun, the insertion of the cross 
or the four wheel-like spokes necessarily gave the impression of "onward 
revolving motion;" or whether any or all of the foregoing afford a 
satisfactory basis for the origin of the Swastika or for its relation to, 
or representation of, the sun or the sun god. 

Dr. Max Ohnefalsch-Richter 1 announces as his opinion that the 
Swastika in Cyprus had nearly always a signification more or less 
religious and sacred, though it may have been used as an ornament to 
fill empty spaces. He attributes to the Croix swasticale or, as he calls 
it, Croix cantonnce the equivalence of the solar disk, zigzag lightning, 
and double hatchet; while to the Swastika proper he attributes the 
signification of rain, storm, lightning, sun, light, seasons, and also that 
it lends itself easily to the solar disk, the fire wheel, and the sun chariot. 

Greg 2 says : 

Considered finally, it may be asked if the fylfot or gammadion was an early sym 
bol of the sun, or, if only an emblem of the solar resolutions or in ovements across 
the heavens, why it was drawn square rather than curved : The j^J, even if used in 
a solar sense, must have implied something more tl^an, or something distinct from, 
the sun, whose proper and almost universal symbol was the circle. It was evidently 
more connected with the cross I than with the circle ^j or solar disk. 

Dr. Brinton 3 considers the Swastika as derived from the cross 
| rather than from the circle, and the author agrees that this is probable, 
| although it may be impossible of demonstration either way. 

Several authors, among the rest d Alviella, Greg, and Thomas, have 
announced the theory of the evolution of the Swastika, beginning 
with the triskelion, thence to the tetraskelion, and so to the Swastika. 
A slight examination is sufficient to overturn this hypothesis. In the 
first place, the triskelion, which is the foundation of this hypothesis, 
made its fii^tjjpj^rance^bn the coins of Lycia. But this appearance 
was witMnwhatis called the first perToiTof coinage, to wit, between 
700 and 4SO B. C., and it did not become settled until the second, and 
even the third" period, 280 to 240 B. C., when it migrated to Sicily. 
But the Swastika had already appeared in Armenia, on the hill of 
Hissarlik, in the terraniares of northern Jtaly, and on the hut-urns of 
southern Italy many hundred, possibly a thousand or more, years prior 
to that time. Count d Alviella, in his plate 3 (see Chart I, p. 794), 
assigns it to a period of the fourteenth or thirteenth century B. C., with 
an unknown and indefinite past behind it. It is impossible that a sym- 
j bol which first appeared in 480 B. C. could have been the ancestor of 
f one which appeared in 1400 or 1300 B. C., nearly a thousand years before. 

1 Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, pp. 674, 675. 

2 ArchiTpologia, XLVIII, pt. 2, p. 326. 

3 Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc., 1889, xxix, p. 180. 



William Simpson 1 makes observations upon the latest discoveries 
regarding the Swastika and gives his conclusion : 

The finding of the Swastika in America gives a very wide geographical 
space that is included by the problem connected with it, but it is wider still, for the 
Swastika is found over the most of the habitable world, almost literally " from 
China to Peru," and it can bo_traf ^<1 f r> a very^early period. The latest idea"-^ 
fofnTed~regaTd:ra"g tfulTSwastika Tis that it may be a form of the old wheel symbolism / 
and that it represents a solar movement, or perhaps, in a wider sense, the whole*/ 
celestial movement of the stars. The Dharmachakra, or Buddhist wheel, of which 
the so-called "praymg_wheel " of the Lamas of Thibet is only a variant, can now be 
shown to have rej2Jsjmte^the> ,^oj^jnotkm. It did not originate with the Bud 
dhists; they borrowed it from the Brahminical system to the Veda, where it is called 
" the wheel of the sun." I have lately collected a large amount of evidence on this 
subject, being engaged in writing upon it, and the numerous passages from the old 
Brahminical authorities leave no doubt in the matter. The late Mr. Edward Thomas 
* * * and Prof. Percy Gardner * * declared that on some Andhra gold coins 

and one from Mesembria, Greece, the part of the word whijA_jnan_s_day, or when 
the sun shines, is represented by the Swastiklf! These details will be found in a 
letter published in the "Athena3um" of August 20, 1892, written by Prof. Max Miiller, 
who affirms that it "is dejcislxe^-4J^-io_ihj^meaning of the symbol in Greece. This 
evidence may be "decisive" for India and Greece, but it does not-naake us quite^cer- 
tainjibout other parts oFthe^worTZH Still it raises~a strong presumption that its 
meaning is likely to be somewhat similar wherever the symbol is found. 

It is now assumed that the Triskjjlioii_or^rhrea _Le4s_of the Isle of Man is only > 
a variant of the Swastika. There are many variants besides this in which 

the legs, or limbs, differ in number, and they may all be classed as whorls, and were 
possibly all, more or less, forms intended originally to express circular motion. As the 
subject is too extensive to be fully treated here, and many illustrations would be nec 
essary, to those wishing for further details I would recommend a work just published 
entitled "The Migration of Symbols," by Count Goblet d Alviella, with an intro 
duction by Sir George Birdwood. The frontispiece of the book is a representation 
of Apollo, from a vase in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna, and on the mid 
dle of 

wastika, "in this we have 
While accepting these new 

a lafgo _iiul 
another instance going lar to snow its solarsTglTttRTance. 

interpretations of tHe symbol, T!~aTn~stiTrTnclined to the notion that the Swastika 
may, at the same time, have been looked upon in some pass_as a cross that is^a 
pre-Christian cross, which now finds acceptance by some authorities as representing 
the four cardinal points. The importance of the cardinal points in primitive sym 
bolism appears to me to have been very great, and has not as yet been fully realized. 
This is too large a matter to deal with here. All I can state is, that the wheel in 
Tn H in. wnf* ^>ivnfftA<1 with the title of a ChaJcravarlin from ^Cluikra, n Wheel the7 
title meaning ajmpreme jruler^ or a universalinjnar^hT^lio~ruled IhaJbnr. q uartersL" 
of thlTworld, and on his coronation ho had to drive his chariot, or wheel, to the four I 
cardinal points to signify his conquest of them. Evidence of other ceremonies of 
the samekind in Europe can be produced. From instances such as these, I am 
inclined to assume that the Swastika, as a)cross, represented the four quarters overcjf 
which the solar power by its revolving motion carried its influence. 


Prehistoric archaeologists have found in Europe many specimens of 1 
ornamental sculpture and engraving belonging to the Paleolithic age, 

1 Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund, January, 1895, pp. 84, 


but the cross is not known in any form, Swastika or other. In the Neo- 
v lithic age, which spread itself over nearly the entire world, with many 
c geometric forms of decoration, no form of the cross appears in times 
/ of high antiquity as a symbol or as indicating any other than an orna- 
J mental purpose. In the age of bronze, however, the Swastika appears, 
<j intentionally used, as a symbol as well as an ornament. Whether its 
first appearance was in the Orient, and its spread thence throughout 
prehistoric Europe, or whether the reverse was true, may not now be 
determined with certainty. It is believed by some to be involved in 
| that other warmly disputed and much-discussed question as to the local 
ity of origin and the mode and routes of dispersion of Aryan peoples. 
"""There is evidence to show that it belongs to an earlier epoch than this, 
and relates to the similar problem concerning the locality of origin and 
the mode and routes of the dispersion r>f bj-rniy.p. Was bronze discov- 
j ered in eastern Asia and was its migration westward through Europe, 
I or was it discovered on the Mediterranean, and its spread thence? The 
Swastika spread through the same countries as did the bronze, and 
v there is every reason to believe them to have proceeded contempora 
neously whether at their beginning or not, is undeterminable. 

The first appearance of the SvvastU\ii^v4t^a4)Lp.arently in the Orient, 
precisely in wTTaTcountryTETs impossible to say, but probably in central 
and southeastern Asia among the forerunners or predecessors of the 
Bramins and Buddhists. At all events, a religious and symbolic sig 
nification was attributed to it by the earliest known peoples of these 

M. Michael Zmigrodzki, a Polish scholar, public librarian at Sucha, 
near Cracow, prepared and sent to the World s Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago a manuscript chart in French, showing his opinion of the 
migration of the Swastika, which was displayed in the Woman s 
Building. It was arranged in groups: The prehistoric (or Pagan) and 
Christian. These were divided geographically and with an attempt at 
chronology, as follows: 

I. Prehistoric : 

1. India and Bactria. 

2. Cyprus, Rhodes. 

3. North Europe. 
1. Central Europe. 

5. South Europe. 

6. Asia Minor. 

7. Greek and Roman epoch Numismatics. 
II. Christian: 

8. Gaul Numismatics. 

9. Byzantine. 

10. Merovingian and Carlovingian. 
* 11. Germany. 

12. Poland and Sweden. 

13. Great Britain. 

Lastly he introduces a group of the Swastika in the nineteenth cen 
tury. He presented figures of Swastikas from these localities and 


representing these epochs. He bad a similar display at the Paris Expo 
sition of 1889, which at its close was deposited in the St. Germain Pre 
historic Museum. I met M. Zmigrod/ki at the Tenth International 
Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology in Paris, and 
heard him present the results of his investigations on the Swastika. 
I have since corresponded with him, and he has kindly sent me sepa 
rates of his paper published in the Archives fiir Ethnographic, with 
206 illustrations of the Swastika; but on asking his permission to use 
some of the information in the chart at Chicago, he informed me he had 
already given the manuscript chart and the right to reproduce it to the 
Chicago Folk-Lore Society. The secretary of this society declined to 
permit it to pass out of its possession, though proffering inspection of 
it in Chicago. 

In his elaborate dissertation Count Goblet d Alviella 1 shows an ear 
lier and prehistoric existence of the Swastika before its appearance on 
the hill of Hissarlik. From this earlier place of origin it, according to 
him, spread^to_the Bronze jige terranuir^s_of northern Italy. All this 
was prior to the^thirteenth century B. C. From the hill of Hissarlik it 
spread east and west; to the east into Lycaonia and Caucasus, to the 
west into Mycenae and Greece; first on the pottery and then on the 
coins. From Greece it also spread east and west; east to Asia Minor 
and west to Thrace and Macedonia. From the terramares he follows it 
through the Villanova epoch, through Etruria and Grand Greece, to 
Sicily, Gaul, Britain, Germany, Scandinavia, to all of which migration */ 
he assigns various dates down to the second century J>. C. It devel 
oped westward from Asia Minor to northern Africa and to Home, with 
evidence in the Catacombs; on the eastward it goes into India, Persia, 
China, Tibet, and Japan. All this can be made apparent upon exami 
nation of the plate itself. It is introduced as Chart i, p. 704. 

The author enters into no discussion with Count d Alviella over the 
correctness or completeness of the migrations set forth in his chart. 
It will be conceded, even by its author, to be largely theoretical and 
impossible to verify by positive proof. He will only contend that there 
is a probability of its correctness. It is doubted whether he can main 
tain his proposition of the constant presence or continued appearance 
of the Swastika on altars, idols, priestly vestments, and sepulchral s / 
urns, and that this demonstrates the Swastika to have always possessed 
the attributes of a religious symbol. It appears to have been used 
more frequently upon the smaller and more insignificant things of every 
day life the household utensils, the arms, weapons, the dress, the fibulae, 
and the pottery; and while this may be consonant with the attributes 
of the talisman or amulet or charm, it is still compatible with the theory 
of the Swastika being a sign or symbol for benediction, blessing, good 
fortune, or good luck; and that it was ratUer" this than a religious 

"La Migration dea Symboles," pi. 3. 




O ". 


* I 

i I 

La Migra 


Count Goblet d Alviella, in the fourth section of the second chapter 1 
relating to the country of its origin, argues that the Swastika sign was 
employed by all the Aryans except the Persians. This omission he 
explains by^ho^wj^Jjmt^ the Sw^stika^in all other lands stood for the 
sun or for the sun-god, while the Aryans of Persia had other signs for 
thtTsamS l}ilL\^^the^Vrux~ansata and the winged globe! His conclusion 
is^that there"were twoTones occupied with different symbols, the fron 
tier between them being from Persia, through Cyprus, Rhodes, and Asia 
Minor, to Libya 5 that the first belonged to the Greek civilization, which 
employed the Swastika as a sun symbol j the second to the Egypto- 
Babylonian, which employed the Cru-x ansata and the winged globe as 
sun symbols. 

Professor Sayce, in his preface to "Troja," says: :! 

The same symbol [the Swastika], as is well known, occurs on the Archaic pottery 
of Cyprus ; as well as upon the prehistoric antiquities of Athens and 

Mykeme [same, "Ilios," p. 353], but it was entirely unknown to Babylonia, to 
Assyria, j^.^hoenicia j _jLnd_to Egypt. It must therefore~ettfrer~ h ave~orT^inatea in 
Europe jmd_-srxEead eastward through Asia Minor ^>r_Jiaye been dissemmated west 
ward from the prim iitive_liQme__qf the Hittites. The latter alternative is the more,, 
probable; but whether it is so ar~not, the presence of thcTsymbol in the land of the 
-^Egean indicates a particular epoch and the influence of a pre-Phamician culture. 

Dr. Schliemann 4 reports that "Kev. W. Brown Keer observed the 
Swastika innumerable times in the most ancient Hindu temples, espe 
cially those of the Jamas." 

Max Mliller cites the following paragraph by Professor Sayce : 5 
It is evident to me that the sign found at Hissarlik is identical with that found 
at Mycenae and Athens, as well as on the prehistoric potteryof Cyprus (Di Cesnola, 
Cyprus, pis. 44* and 47), since the general artistic character of the objects with whicji 
this sign is associated in Cyprus and Greece agrees with that of the objects dis 
covered in Troy. The Cyprian vase [fig. 156, this paper] figured in Di Cesuola s 
"Cyprus/ pi. 45, which associates the Swastika with the figure of an animal, is a 
striking analogue of the Trojan whorls, on which it is associated with the figure of 
the stags. The fact that it is drawn within the vulva of the leaden image on the / 
Asiatic goddess shown in fig. 226 ("Ilios," fig. 125 this paper) seems to show that it 
was a symbol of generation. 

Count Goblet d Alviella, 6 citing Albert Dumont 7 and Perrot and 
Chipiez, 8 says : 

The Swastika appears in Greece, as well as in Cyprus and Rhodes, first on the pot 
tery, with geometric decorations, which form the second period in Greek ceramics. 
From rhat it passes to a later period, where the decoration is more artistic and the 
appearance of which coincides with the development of the Phoenician influences on 
the coasts of Greece. 

Dr. Ohnefalsch-Eichter, in a paper devoted to the consideration of 

1 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 93. 

2 Ibid., p. 107. 
3< <Ilios./ p. xxi." 
4 Ibid. p. 352. 

fi Ibid, p. 353. 

6 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 43. 

7 "Peintures ceramiques do la Grece propre," i, pi. xv, fig. 17. 

8 "Histoire de 1 art dans 1 anti quite," in, figs. 513. 515, 518. 


Jlie Swastika in Cyprus, ] expresses the opinion that the emigrant or 
^/commercial Phenicians traveling in far eastern countries brought 
r ^vthe Swastika by the sea route of the Persian Gulf to Asia Minor and 
A ^Cyprus, while, possibly, other people brought it by the overland route 
/from central Asia, Asia Minor, and Hissarlik, and afterwards by migra- 
\tion to Cyprus, Carthage, and the north of Africa. 
Professor Goodyear says : 2 

s The true borne of the Swastika is the Greek geometric stylo, as will be immediately 
obvious to every expert who examines the question through the study of that style. 
In seeking the homo of a symbol, we should consider where it appears in the largest 
dimension and where it appears in the most formal and prominent way. The Greek 
o-eometric vases .ire the. only monuments on which the Swastika systematically 
^/Appears in panels exclusively assigned to it (pi. 60, iig. 13; and pi. 56, lig. -1). There 
are no other monuments on which the Swastika can be found in a dimension taking 
up one-half thejieigh4*_o--thii.jaiitiri5_object (pi. 56, fig. 4). The ordinary si/.e of the 
Swastika, in very primitive times, is under a third of an inch in diameter. They are 
found in Greek geometric pottery 2 or 3 inches in diameter, but they also appear in 
the informal scattering way (pi. 61, fig. 4) which characterizes the Swastika in other 

The Swastika dates from the earliest diffusion of th^J^gj^j)tiaiijaieander in the 
*/f)asinof the Mediterranean, and it is a profound remark of Do Morgan (Mission 
Scientifique au Caucase) that the area of the_Svvastika appears to be_coextcjisivo 
wifhfjjtt in 1 - * "f bron_xe_. In northen PpTehistoric Europe, where the Swastika has 
attracted considerable attention, it is distinctly connected with the bronze culture 
derived fronTfTie south! "When found on prehistoric poUeTy~oT the north, the 
southern home~oTitsT>eginnings is equally clear. 

In seeking the home of a symbol, we should consider not only the nature of its 
appearance, but also where it is found jn_JjioJaTgest jimount, for this shows the 
center of vogue and power thatjsjjojsay^jjiej^^ . The vogue of the 

SwastikaTat TroyTFnoTf as great as its "vogue in Cypjrian^r^ekjiottery (pi. 60, fig. 15) 
and Rhodian pottery (pi. 60, fig. 2). iTTs well known to Meli an vases (pi. 

60, fig. 8) and to archaic Greek vases (pi. 61, fig. 12), but its greatest prominence is 
on the pottery of the Greek geometric style (pi. 60, fig. 13; pi. 56, fig. 4; pi. 61, figs. 
1 and 4; and figs. 173 and 174). 

Aside from the Greek geometric style, our earliest reference for the Swastika, and 
A very possibly an earlier reference than the first, is its appearance on the "hut urns" 
^ ofJLtalv. On such it appears rather as a fragjnoiitof the more complicated meander 
patterns, from which it is derived. My precise view is that the earliest and, conse 
quently, imperfect, forms of the Swastika are on the hut urns of Italy, but that, as 
an independent and definitely shaped pattern, it first belongs to the Greek geometric 
style! Iclo not assert tnat the Swastika is very common on hut urns, which are 
often undecorated. * * Our present intermediate link with India for the 

Swastika liesinthe Caucasus and in the adjacent territory of Koban. This last 
ancient center of The arts in metal has lately attracted attention through the publi 
cation of Virchow (Das Graberfeld von Koban). In the original Cohan l)jpjize^of 
the Prehistoric Museum of St. Germain there is abundant matter for study ^pT351). 

Mr. E. P.Greg, in " Fret or Key Ornamentation in Mexico and Peru," 3 

Both the Greek fret and the fylfot appear to have been unknown to the Semitic 
nations as an ornament or as a symbol. 

Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, December 6, 1888, pp. 669,679,680. 
2 " Grammar of the Lotus," p. 3-18 et seq. 
3 Archa ologia, XLVII, pt. 1, p. 159. 


In Egypt the fylfot doesmrt occur. It is, I believe, generally admitted or supposed 
that the fylfot is of early_Aryan origin. Eastward toward India. Tibet, and China 
i^wasadojvted, in all probability, as a sacred syjnbn) of RrujdJm j westward it may 
have spread in one foxm oranoth^ 

Gartailhac says : ] 

Modern Christian archaeologists have obstinately contended that the Swastika was 
composed of four gamma, and so have called it the Croix Gammee. But the Ra-iua- 
yaua placed it on the boat of the Rama long before they had any knowledge of 
Greek. It is found 011 a number of Buddhist edifices; the Sectarians of Vishnu 
placed it as a sign upon their foreheads. Burnouf says it is the Aryan sign par 
excellence. It was surely a religious emblem in use in India, iifteeu centuries before 
the Christian era, and thence it spread to every part. In Europe it appeared about 
thejniddle of tb hivijizat.inn n|" the bronze age, and we find it, pure or transformed 
into a cross, on a mass of objects in_metal or pottery during the first age of iron. 
Sometimes its lines were rounded and given a graceful cnrve instead of straight ami 
square at its ends and angles. [See letter by Gandhi, pp. 803, 805.] 

M. Gartailhac notes 2 several facts concerning the associations of the 
Swastika found^ by him in Spain and Portugal and belonging to the 
first (prehistoric) age of iron: (1) The Swastika was associated with 
the silhouettes of the duck or bird, similar to those in Greece, noted 
by Goodyear; (ii) the association (in his fig. 41) on a slab from the lake 
dwellings, of the Maltese cross and reproduction of the triskelion; 
(3) a tetraskelion, which he calls a Swastika " flamboyant," being the 
triskelion, but with four arms, the same shown on Lyciau coins as 
being ancestors of the true triskelion (his fig. 412); (4) those objects 
were principally found in the ancient lake dwellings of Sambroso and 
Briteiros, supposedly dating from the eighth and ninth centuries B. 
With them were found many ornaments, borders representing cords, 
spirals, meanders, etc., which had the same appearance as those found 
by Schliemaim at Myceme. Gartailhac says : 3 

Without doubt Asiatic influences are evident in both cases; first appearing in the 
Troad, then in Greece, they were spread through Iberia and, possibly, who can tell, 
finally planted in a far-away Occident. 

A writer in the Edinburgh lieview, in an extended discussion on 
u The pre-Christian cross," treats of the Swastika under tlie local name 
of " Fylfot/ 7 but in such an enigmatical and uncertain manner that it is 
difficult to distinguish it from other and commoner forms of the cross. 
Mr. Waring 4 criticises him somewhat severely for his errors: 

He states that it is found * * * in the sculptured stones of Scotland (but 
after careful search we can find only one or two imperfect representations of it, 
putting aside the Newton stone inscription, where it is probably a letter or numeral 
only); that it is carved on the temples and other editices of Mexico and Central 
America (where again we have sought for it in vain) ; that it is found on the cinerary 
urns of the terramare of Parma and Vicenza, the date of which has been assigned 
by Italian antiquaries to 1000 B. C. (but there again we have found only the plain 

1 "Ages Prehistoriquo de 1 Espagne et du Portugal," pp. 285-293. 

2 Ibid., p. 286. 

3 Ibid., p. 293. 

* " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ p. 13, 


cross, and not the fylfot), and, finally, he asserts that "it was the emblem of Libitina 
or Persephone, the awful Queen of the Shades, and is therefore commonly found 
on the dress of the tumulorum fossor in the Roman catacombs," but we have only 
found one such example. "It is noteworthy, too," he continues, "in reference to 
its extreme popularity, or the superstitious veneration in which it has been also 
universally held, that the cross pattee, or cruciform hammer (but we shall show 
these are different symbols), was ainnn^thflj^ryjast of purely_j)aanj3vmbol8 
which was religiously preserved in Europe lonti after_the establishment of Christi- 
t_mEurope, but hrBcandinavfa aud wherever thlTScandinavians had pene 
trated). It maybe seen upon the bells ot many of our-fKirish churches, as 
aT^Appleby, Mexborough; Haythersaye, Waddiugton, Bishop s Norton, West Bark- 
with, and other places, where it was placed as a magical sign to subdue the vicious 
spirit of the tempest;" and he subsequently points out its constant use in relation 
to water or rain. 

Mr. Waring continues: 

The Rev. C. Boutell, in "Notes and Queries," points out that it is to be found on 

Jl many medieval monuments and bells, and occurs e. g., at Appleby in Lincolnshire 

(peopleofby Northmen) as an initial cross to the formula on the bell " Sta. Maria, 

o. p. n. and c." In these cases it has clearly been adopted as a Christian symbol. 

In the same author s " Heraldry," he merely describes it as a mystic cross. 

Mr. Waring makes one statement which, being within his jurisdic 
tion, should be given full credit. He says, on page 15: 

It [the Swastika] n.ppqaja Jj^Scotland and England only in those parts where 
< \ Scandiua^dai^penetoited_aiid settled, bjiliauiQjLo^e^found in any works of purely 
Irish or Franco- l rftf t - r> *"** 

He qualifies this, however, by a note: 

I believe it occurs tgicajm au "Ogam" stono^in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
-\ Academy, figure tfin A\^ild?s~Catalogue (p. l36),l>ut the fylfots are omitted in the 
wood cut. [See fig. 215.] 

Dr. Brinton, 1 describing the normal Swastika, "with four arms of 
equal length, the hook usually pointing from left to right," says: " In 
this form it occurs in India and 011 very early (Neolithic) Grecian, 
Italic, and^l?Fian^ema^^ the onlx^iiitEoT who, 

Avrittog^tTength or in a critical manner, attributes the Swastika to the 
<& Neolithic 1 period in Europe, and in this, more than likely, he is correct. 
^Professor Virchow s opinion as to the antiquity of the hilUrfllissarlik, 
wherein Dr. Schliemann found so many Swastikas, should be consid 
ered iii_this connection. (See p. 832, 833 of this paper.) Of course, 
its" appearance among the aborigines of America, we can imagine, 
must have been Avithin the Neolithic period. 

Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc., 1889, xxix, p. 179. 





The Swastikawgisjn use in Japan in ancientjR,s_we11 as modern times. 
Fig. 29 represents a bronze statue of Buddha, one- fifteenth natural size, 
from Japan, in the collection of M. Cernuschi, Paris. It has eight 
the pedestal, the ends_all 

turned at right angles to the right. This 
specimen is shown by Be Mortillet 1 because 
it relaj^s^j3r^hitoric man. The image or 
statue holds a cane in the form of a " tin tin - 
nabulum," w.ith movable rings arranged to 
make a jingling noise, and De Mortillet in 
serted it in his volume to show the likeness 
of this work in Japan with a number of sim- 
ilar objects foundjii the Swiss lake dwell 
ings i]ijtke^r^Mstojic_j^e_iiLfeon^e (p. 806). 
The Swastika mark was employed by the 
Japanese on their i)oniejain. Sir Augustus 
W. Franks 2 shows one of these marks, a 
small Swastika turned to the left and in 
closed in a circle (fig. 30). Fig. 9 also repre 
sents a mark on Japanese bronzes. 3 


The U. S. National Museum has a ladies 
sedan or carryiu g chair from Korea. It bears 
eight Swastika marks, cut by stencil in the 
brass-bound corners, two on each corner, one 

looking each way. The Swas 

tika is normal, with arms cross 

ing at right angles, the ends bent 

at right angles and to the right. 

It is quite plain ; the lines are all 

straight, heavy, of equal thickness, and the angles all at 90 

degrees. In appearance it resembles the Swastika in fig. 9. 

Fig. 29. 


Eight Swastikas on pedestal. Cane 
tintinnabulum with six movable 
rings or bells. 

One fifteenth natural size. 

Fig. 30. 


De Mortillet, " Mu- 
fig. 1248. 


In the Chinese language the sign of the Swastika is pro 
nounced wan (p. 801), and stands for "many," "a great number," "ten 
thousand," "infinity," and by a synecdoche is construed to mean "long 

1 " Musce Prehistoriciue," fig. 1230; Bull. Soc. eTAnthrop., Paris., 1886, pp. 299, 313, 

2 "Catalogue of Oriental Porcelain and Pottery," pi. 11, fig. 139. 

3 De Morgan, " Au Caucaso," fig. 180. 


life, a multitude of blessings, great happiness, 7 etc. ; as is said in French, 
"mille pardons," u mille remerciments," a thousand thanks, etc. During 
a visit to the Chinese legation in the city of Washington, while this paper 
was in progress, the author met one of the attaches, Mr. Chung, dressed 
in his robes of state; his outer garment was of moire silk. The pattern 
woven in the fabric consisted of a large circle with certain marks therein, 
prominent among which were two Swastikas, one turned to the right, 
the other to the left. The name given to the sign was as reported above, 
wan, and the jignification was " longevity/* " long life^many years." 
1 c Thus waslThown" that" iff Air i?T\veTl as ^iear countries^in modern as 
^ well as ancient times, this sign stood for blessing, good wishes, and, by 
/ a slight extension, for good luck. 

The author conferred with the Chinese minister, Yang Yu, with the 
request that he should furnish any appropriate information concerning 
the Swastika in China. In due course the author received the follow 
ing letter and accompanying notes with drawings: 

I have the pleasure to submit abstracts from historical and literary 

works on the origin of the Swastika in China and the circumstances connected with 

it in Chinese ancient history. I have had this paper translated into English and 

illustrated by iudia-ink drawings. The Chinese copy is made by Mr. Ho Yen-Shing, 

the first secretary of the legation, translation by Mr. Chung, and drawings by Mr. Li. 

With assurance of my high esteem, I am, 

Very cordially, VANG Yu. 

Buddhist philosophers consider simple characters as half or incomplete characters 
and compound characters as complete characters, while the Swastika j- is regarded 
as a natural formation. f A Buddhist priest of the Tang Dynasty, Tao Shih by name, 
in a chapter of his workWtitled Fa Yuen Chu Lin, on the original Buddha, describes 
him as having this ZLJ mark on his breast and sitting on a high lily of innumerable 

petals. [PI. 1.] v/ 
/Empress Wu (684-704 A. D.), of the Tang Dynasty, invented a number of new forms 

for characters already in existence, amongst which (r-r- 1 ) was th word for any, (2) 
for moon, ("") for star, and so on. These characters were once very extensively 
used in ornamental writing, and even now the word M sun lna y ^ f imrt in lliariv 

of the famous stone inscriptions of that age, which have been preserved to us up to 
the present day. [PI. 2.] 

The history of the Tang Dynasty (620-906 A. D.), by Lui Hsu and others of the 
Tsin Dynasty, records a decree issued by Emperor Tai Tsung (763-779 A. D.) forbid 
ding the use of the Swastika on silk fabrics manufactured for any purpose. [PI. 3.] 

Fung Tse, of the Tang Dynasty, records a practice among the people of Loh-yang 
to endeavor, on the 7th of the 7th month of each year, to obtain spiders to weave 
the Swastika on their web. Kuug Ping-Chung, of the Sung Dynasty, says that the 

aeople of Loh-yang believe it to be good luck to find the Swastika woven by spiders 
ver fruits or melons. [PI. 4.] 

Sung Pai, of the Sung Dynasty, records an offering made to the Emperor by Li 

Yuen-su, .a high official of the Tang Dynasty, of a buffalo with a Swastika on the 

forehead, in return for which offering he was given a horse by the Emperor. [PI. 5.] 

The Ts iug-I-Luh, by Tao Kuh, of the Sung Dynasty, records that an Empress m 

Report of National Museum, 1 894.- Wilson. 



From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii, Chinese 
Minister, Washington, I). C. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson 






4*j8LS * 



From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii, Chinese 
Minister, Washington, D. C. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 





This use of the Swastika was forbidden iu China by Emperor Tai Tsung (763-779 A. D.). 

From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U, S. National Museum by Mr v a u^ Yu Chinese 
Minister, Washington. D. C. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 



(A good omen in China.) 

From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii, Chinese 
Minister, Washington, D. C. 

Report of National IVLseum, 1894. Wilson 



Presented to Emperor of Sung Dynasty. 

From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yu, Chinese 
Minister, Washington, D. C. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 






South Tang Dynasty. 

From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii, Chinese 
Minister, Washington D. C. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 



From a drawing by Mr. Li. presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii. Chines- 
Minister. Washington, D. C. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 




From a drawing by Mr. Li, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. Yang Yii, Chinese 
Minister, Washington, D. C. 


the time of the South Tang Dynasty had an incense burner the external decoration 
of which had the Swastika design on it. [ PI. 6.] 

Chu I-Tsu ; in his work entitled Ming Shih Tsung, says Wu Tsung-Chih, a learned 
man of Sin Shui, built a residence outside of the north gate of that town, which he 
named "Wan-Chai," from the Swastika decoration of the railings about the exterior 
of the house. [PL 7.] 

An anonymous work, entitled the Tung Hsi Yang K ao, described a fruit called 
shan-tsao-tse (mountain or wild date), whose leaves resemble those of the plum. The 
seed resembles the lichee, and the fruit, which ripens in the ninth month of the year, 
suggests a resemblance to the Swastika. [PI. 8.] 

The Swastika is one of the symbolic marks of the Chinese porcelain. 
Prime l shows what he calls a " tablet of honor, 77 which represents a 
Swastika inclosed in a lozenge with loops at the corners (fig. 31). This 
mark on a piece of porcelain signifies that it is an imperial gift. 

Major-General Gordon, controller of the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, 
England, writes to Dr. Schliemann: 2 "The 
Swastika is Chinese. On the breech chasing 
of a large gun lying outside my office, captured 
in the Taku fort, you will find this same sign." 
But Dumoutier 3 says this sign is nothing else 
tX tlian the ancient Chinese character c h e, which, 
according to D Alviella, 4 carries the idea of Y\S.XI. 

perfection or excellence, and signifies the TTKH-S MARK ON PORCELAIN. 
renewal and perpetuity of life. And again, 2 

, . , . . Tablet of honor, with Swastika. 

" Dr. Lockyer, formerly medical missionary to prime ,, potter r anl Por( , elain 2r(4 
tfhina, says the sign ^j-J is thoroughly Chinese/ 

The Swastika is found on Chinese musical instruments. The II. S. 
National Museum possesses a Hu-Ch in, a violin with four strings, the 
body of which is a section of bamboo about 3^ inches in diameter. 
The septum of the joint has been cut away so as to leave a Swastika of 
normal form, the four arms of which are connected with the outer walls 
of the bamboo. Another, a Ti-Ch in, a two-stringed violin, with a body 
of cocoanut, has a carving which is believed to have been a Swastika; 
but the central part has been broken out, so that the actual form is 

Prof. George Frederick Wright, in an article entitled " Swastika," 5 
quotes Rev. F. H. Chalfont, missionary at Chanting, China, as saying: 
"Same symbol in Chinese characters ouan, or wan, 7 and is a favorite 
ornament with the Chinese." 

1 "Pottery and Porcelain," p. 254. 
2 "Ilios,"p. 352. 

: "Le Swastika et la roue solaire en Chine," Revue d Ethnographie, iv, pp. 
319, 350. 

4 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 55. 

5 New York Independent, November 10, 1893; Science, March 23, 1894, p. 162. 

II. Mis. 90, pt. 2 51 




Mr. William Woodvillo Bockhill, 1 speaking of the fair at Kunibura, 
says : 

I found there a number of Lh usa Tibetans (they call them Gopa here) selling 
pulo, beads of various colors, saffron, medicines, peacock feathers, incense sticks, 
etc. I had a talk with these traders, several of whom I had met hero before in 
1889. * f One of them had a Swastika (yung-drung) tattooed on his hand, and 
I learned from this man that this is not an uncommon mode of ornamentation in his 

Count D Alviella says that the Swastika is continued among the 
Buddhists of Tibet; that the women ornament their petticoats with it, 

and that it is also placed upon 
the breasts of their dead. 2 

He also reports :? a Buddhist 
statue at the Musee Guimet 
with Swastikas about the base. 
lie does not state to what 
country it belongs, so the au 
thor has no means of deter 
mining if it is the same statue 
as is represented in fig. 29. 


Burnouf 4 says approvingly 
of the Swastika: 

Christian archaeologists believe 
this was the most ancient sign of 
the cross. It was used 

among the Brahmins from all an 
tiquity. (Voyez mot " Swastika" 
dans notre dictionnaire Sanskrit.) 
Swastika, or Swasta, in India cor 
responds to "benediction" among 

The same author, in his translation of the " Lotus de la Bonne Loi," 
one of the nine Dharmas or Canonical books of the Buddhists of the 
North, of 280 pages, adds an appendix of his own writing of 583 pages; 
and in one (No. 8) devoted to an enumeration and description of the 
sixty-five figures traced on the footprint of Qakya (fig. 32) commences 
as follows : 

1. Svastikaya: This is the familiar mystic figure of many Indian sects, represented 

Fig. 32. 


From a figure by Fergussou ami Schliemann. 

1 "Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891-92," p. 67. 

2 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 55, citing note I, Jouru. Asiatique, 2< se"rie, iv, 
p. 245, and Pallas, " Sainmlungen historischer Nachrichteii liber die mongolischen 
Volkerschaften," i, p. 277. 

3 Ibid., p. 55. 

4 "Des Sciences ct Religion/ p. 256. 


thus, L-p|, and whoso name signifies, literally, "sign of benediction or of good 
augury. 7 (Rgya tch er rol pa, Vol. 11, p. 110.) 

The sign of the Swastika was not less known to the Brahmins than to 
the Buddhists. "Ramayana," Vol. II, p. 348, ed. Gor., Chap. XCVII, st. 17, tells of 
vessels on the sea bearing this sign of fortune. This mark, of which the name and 
usage are certainly ancient, because it is found on the oldest Buddhist medals, may 
have been used as frequently among the Brahmins as among the Buddhists. Most off 
the inscriptions on the Buddhist caverns in western India are either preceded or fol-/ 
lowed by the holy (sacramentelle) sign of the Swastika. It appears less common on 
the Brahmin monuments. 

Mr. W. Crooke (Bengal Civil Service, director of Eth. Survey, North 
west Provinces and Oudh), says: l 

The mystical emblem of the Swastika, which appears to represent the sun in his 
journey through the heavens, is of constant occurrence. The trader paints it 011 the 
flyleaf of his ledger, he who has young children or animals liable to the evil eye 
makes a representation of it on the wall beside his doorpost. It holds first place i > 
among the lucky marks of the Jainas. It is drawn on the shaven heads of children^ 
on the marriage day in Gujarat. A red circle with Swastika in the center is depicted 
on the place where the family gods are kept (Campbell, Notes, p. 70). In the Meerut 
division the worshiper of the village god Bhumiya constructs a rude model of it in 
the shrine by fixing up two crossed straws Avith a daub of plaster. It often occurs 
in folklore. In the drama of the Toy Cart the thief hesitates whether he shall 
make a hole in the wall of Charudatta s house in the form of a Swastika or of a 
water jar (Manning, Ancient India, 11, 160). 

Village shrines. The outside (of the shrines) is often covered with rude representa 
tions of the mystical Swastika. 

On page 250 he continues thus : 

Charms. The bazar merchant writes the words "Ram Rani" over his door, or 
makes an image of Genesa, the god of luck, or draws the mystical Swastika. The 
jand tree is reverenced as sacred by Khattris and Brahmins to avoid the evil eye in 
children. The child is brought at 3 years of age before a jand tree; a bough is cut 
with a sickle arid planted at the foot of the tree. A Swastika symbol is made before 
it with the rice flour and sugar brought as an offering to the tree. Threads of string, 
used by women to tie up their hair, are cut in lengths and some deposited on the 

Mr. Virchancl E. Gandhi, a Hindu and Jain disciple from Bombay, 
India, a delegate to the World s Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 
1893, remained for sometime in Washington, D. C., proselyting among 
the Christians. He is a cultivated gentleman, devoted to the spread 
of his religion. I asked his advice and assistance, which he kindly 
gave, supervising my manuscript for the Swastika in the extreme 
Orient, and furnishing me the following additional information relative 
to the Swastika in India, and especially among the Jains : 

The Swastika is misinterpreted by so-called Western expounders of our ancient 
Jain philosophy. The original idea was very high, but later on some persons thought 
the cross represented only the combination of the male and the female principles. 
While we are on the physical plane and our propensities on the material line, we 
think it necessary to unite these (sexual) principles for our spiritual growth. On 

"Introduction to Popular Religion and Folk Lore of North India," p. 58. 



the higher plane the soul is sexless, aud those who wish to rise higher than the 

physical piano must eliminate the idea of sex. 

I explain the Jain Swastika by the following illustration [fig. 33] : The horizontal 

and. vertical lines crossing each other at right angles form the Greek cross. They 
represent spirit and matter. We add four other lines by 
bending to the right each arm of the cross, then three circles 
and the crescent, and a circle within the crescent. The idea 
thus symbolized is that there are four grades of existence 
of souls in the material universe. The first is the lowest 
state Archaic or protoplasmic life. The soul evolves from 
that state to the next the earth with its plant aud animal 
life. Then follows the third stage the human; then the 
fourth stage the celestial. The word celestial" is here 
held to mean life in other worlds than our own. All these 
graduations are combinations of matter and soul on differ 
ent scales. The spiritual plane is that in which the soul is 
entirely freed from the bonds of matter. In order to reach 
that plane, one must strive to possess the three jewels 
(represented by the three circles), right belief, right knowl 
edge, right conduct. When a person has these, he will 
certainly go higher until he reaches the state of liberation, 
which is represented by the crescent. The crescent has the 
form of the rising moon and is always growing larger. The 
circle in the crescent represents the omniscient state of the 

soul when it has attained full consciousness, is liberated, and lives apart from matter. 
The interpretation, according to the Jain view of the cross, has nothing to do with 

the combination of the male and female principle. Worship of the male and female 

principles, ideas based upon sex, lowest even of the emotional plane, can never rise 

higher than the male and female. 



(1) Archaic or protoplas 
mic life; (2) Plant and 
animal life; (3) Human 
life; (4) Celestial life. 

Fig. 34a. 


Handful of rice or meal, in circular form, thinner 
in center. 


ffi ~% 


Fig. 34&. 



Rico or meal, aa shown in preceding figure, with 
finger marks, indicated at 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The Jains make the Swastika sign when we enter our temple of worship. This 
sign reminds us of the great principles represented by the three jewels and by which 
we are to reach the ultimate good. Those symbols intensify our thoughts and make 
them more permanent. 



Mr. Gandhi says the Jains make the sign of the Swastika as fre 
quently and deftly as the Eoman Catholics make the sign of the cross. 
It is not confined to the temple nor to the priests or monks. Whenever" 
or wherever a benediction or blessing is given, the Swastika is used^ 
Figs. 34 a, ft, c form a series showing how it is made. A handful of 
rice, meal, flour, sugar, salt, or any similar substance, is spread over a 
circular space, say, 3 inches in diameter and one-eighth of an inch deep 
(fig. 34rt), then commence at the outside of the circle (fig. 34ft), on its 
upper or farther left-hand corner, and draw the finger through the meal 
just to the left of the center, halfway or more to the opposite or near 
edge of the circle (1), then again to the right (2), then upward (3), finally 

[/ Fig. 34c. 

Ends turned out, typifying animal, human, and colostial life, as .shown in fig. 3:5. 

to the left where it joins with the first mark (4). The ends are swept 
outward, the dots and crescent put in above, and the sign is complete 
(fig. 34c). 

The sign of the Swastika is reported in great numbers, by hundreds 
if not by thousands, in the inscriptions on the rock walls of the Bud-v/ 
dhist caves in India. It is needless to copy them, but is enough to say 
that they are the same size as the letters forming the inscription; that 
they all have four arms and the ends turn at right angles, or nearly so, 
indifferently to the right or to the left. The following list of inscrip 
tions, containing the Swastikas, is taken from the first book coming to 
hand the "Report of Dr. James Burgess on the Buddhist Cave Tem 
ples and their Inscriptions, Being a Part of the Result of the Fourth, 



Fifth, and Sixth Seasons 1 Operations of the Archaeological Survey of 
Western India, 187G, 1877, 187S, 1879:" 1 


ii umber. 

hi which ends; 
are bent. 




To rif ht. 







To left 




To ri"lit 













To left, 
To right 




To left 




To right 


XLIX .. 







11 (?) 
13 ( 






To left. 




To right 










LV (Xasik21) .... 
LV (Xasik24) .... 

5 (?) 


I remind you that the (East) Indians, Chinese, and Japanese employ the Swastika, 
not only as a religions emblem but as a simple ornament in painting on pottery and 
elsewhere, the same as we employ the Greek fret, lozenges, and similar motifs in our 
ornamentation. Sis ires [the staff with jingling bells, held in the hand of Buddha, 
on whose base is engraved a row_of &w_astikas, fig. 29 of present paper] of similar 
form and-atyjej[iaye been found in_prehistoric Swiss lake dwellings ofthebronze age. 
Thus the siatres and the Swastika are brought into relation with each other. 
The sistres possibly relate to an ancient religion, as they did in the Orient; the 
Swastika may have had a similar distinction. 

De Mortillet and others hold the same opinion. 3 


Waring 4 says, " In Babylonian and Assyrian remains we search for 
it [the Swastika] in vain/ 7 Max Miiller and Count Goblet d Alviella 
are of the same opinion. 5 

Trulmer & Co., London, 1883, pp. 140, pi. 60. 

>J "Age du Bronze," pt. 1, p. 206. 

3 "Musde Prehistorique," pi. 98; " Notes de 1 Origine Orientale de la Mrftallurgie, 1 
Lyon, 1879; " L Age de la Pierre et du Bronze dans 1 Asio Occideutale," Bull. Soc. 
d Anthrop., Lyon, I, fasc. 2, 1882; Bull. Soc. d Anthrop. de Paris, 1886, pp. 299, 313, 
and 314. 

4 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages." 

5 "La Migration des Symboles," pp. 51, 52. 


Of Persia, D Alviella (p. 51), citing Ludwig Miiller, 1 says that the 
Swastika is manifested only by its presence on certain coins of the 
Arsacides and the Sassanides. 


It is reported by various authors that the Swastika has never been 
found in Phenicia, e. g. Max Miiller, J. B. Waring, Count Goblet d Alvi- 
ella, 2 

Ohnefalsch-Kichter 3 says that the Swastika is not found in Phenicia, 
yet he is of the opinion that their emigrant and commercial travelers 
brought it from the far east and introduced it into Cyprus, Carthage, 
and the north of Africa. (See p. 796.) 


Lempriere, in his Classical Dictionary, under the above title, gives the 

A district of Asia Minor forming the southwestern quarter of Phrygia. The origin 
of its name and inhabitants, the Lycaones, is lost in obscurity. * Our first 

acquaintance with this region is in the relation of the expedition of the younger 
Cyprus. Its limits varied at different times. At first it extended eastward from 
Iconium 23 geographical miles, and was separated from Cilicia on the south by the 
range of Mount Taurus, comprehending a large portion of what in later times was 
termed Cataonia. 

Count Goblet d Alviella, 4 quoting Perrot and Chipiez, 5 states that 
the Hittitesjntroduced the Swastika on a bas-relief of Ibriz, Lycaonia, j 
where it forms a border of the robe of a king or priest offering a/ 
sacrifice to a god. 


M. J. de Morgan (the present director of the Gizeh Museum at Cairo), 

under the direction of the French Government, 

made extensive excavations and studies into the 

prehistoric antiquities and archaeology of iinasitm 

Armenia. His report is entitled "Le Premier 

AgeTTe Metaux dans FArmenie Busse." 6 He ex- 
pCavated a number of prehistoric cemeteries, and 
I found therein various forms of crosses engraved 
f~on ceintures, vases, and medallions. The Swas 

tika, though present, was more rare. He found 

it on the heads of two large bronze pins (tigs. 

35 and 30) and on one piece of pottery (fig. 37) CHKITHAN-THAGH. 

i/from the prehistoric tombs. The bent arms are D M w"Ancie,flg.m. 

all turned to the left, and would be the Suavastika of Prof. Max Miiller. 

1 "Det Saakaldte Hagebors," Copenhagen, 1877. 

2 "La Migration des Symboles," pp. 51, 52. 

3 Bull, do la Soc. d Anthrop., December 6, 1888, xi, p. 671. 

4 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 51. 

5 "Histoire do 1 Art dans I Aiitiquitd," iv. 

6 "Mission Scieutifique an Caucase." 





A In Caucasus, M. E. Chan tre 1 found tlie Swastika in great purity of 

form. Fig. 38 represents portions of a bronze plaque from that coun 
try, used, on a ceiuture or belt. Another of slightly 
different style, but with square cross and arms bent 
at right angles, is repre 
sented in his pi. 8, tig. 5. 
These belonged to the 
first age of iron, and 
much of the art was in 
tricate. 2 It represented 
animals as well as all ge 
ometric forms, crosses, 
circles (concentric and 

otherwise), spirals, meanders, chevrons, 

herring bone, lozenges, etc. These were 

sometimes cast in the metal, at other times 

repousse, and again were engraved, and 

occasionally these methods were employed 

together. Fig. 30 shows another form, 

frequently employed and suggested as a possible evolution of the 

Swastika, from the same locality and same plate. Fig. 40 represents 

Fig. 36. 


DeMorjjau, "Au Caucase," fitf. 

Fig. 37. 


Cheitban-thagh . 

I>e Morgan, "Au Cauraae," fit;. 179. 

Fig. 38. 

Swastika repousse. 
Necropolis of Koban, Caucasus. 

Chantre, " Le Caucase," pi. 11, fig. 3. 

signs reported by Waring 3 as from Asia Minor, which he credits, with 
out explanation, to Ellis s "Antiquities of Heraldry." 

1 " Recherches Anthropologiques dans le Caucase/ tome deuxieme, pdriode proto- 
Listorique, Atlas, pi. 11, fig. 3. 

2 Count Goblet d Alviella, "La Migration des Symboles," p. 51. 
3 "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 41, figs. 5 and 6, 


The specimen shown in fig. 11 is reported by Waring, 1 quoting 
Kzewusky, 2 as one of the several branding marks used on Circassian 
horses for identification. 
Mr. Frederick Kern 
ing ton, the celebrated 
artist and literateur, has 
anarticle, "Cracker Cow 
boy in Florida," ;3 wherein 
he discourses of the for 
gery of brands on cattle 
in that country. One of 
his genuine brands is a 
circle with a small cross 
in the center. The for 
gery consists in elongat 
ing each arm of the cross 
and turning it with a 
scroll, forming an ogee 
curiously enough, is prac 
tically the same brand 
used on Circassian horses (fig. 11). Max Ohnefalsch-Kichter 4 says that 
i Hstr umentsL _ti_coppej audumbaroasih ) are rec 
ommended in the Atharva^Yeda to make the Swas 
tika, which represents the figure "8; and thus he 
attempts to account for the use of that mark 
branded on the cows in India (supra, p. 772), on the 
horses in Circassia (fig. 11), and 
said to have been used in Arabia. 

Fig. 39. 


Triskelion in spiral. 
Koban, Caucasus. 

Chantre, "LeC a ucase,pl. ll,fig.4. 

Fin. 40. 



Ages," pi. 41, tigs. 5an<10. 


Fig. 41. 


Ogee Swastika, tet- 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in 
Remote Ages, jil. 4-2, 
fig. 20e. 

Many specimens of the Swastika were found by Dr. 
? Liejnaniijnjtoe ruins of Troy, principally on spindle 
^whorls, vases^~and bijoux "oFprecious metal. Zmig- 
rodzki 5 made from Dr. Schliemann s great atlas the 
following classification of the objects found at Troy, 
ornamented with the Swastika and its related forms: 

Fifty-five of pure form- 114 crosses with the four dots, points or 
alleged nail holes (Croix swasticale)-, 102 with three branches or arms 
(triskelion); 86 with five branches or arms; (>3 with six branches or 
arms; total, 420. 

Zmigrodzki continues his classification by adding those which have 

1 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ 7 pi. 42, fig. 20c. 
2 " Mines de TOrient/ v. 
3 Harper s Magazine, August, 1895. 
bulletins de la Soc. d Anthrop., 1888, n, p. 678. 

5 Dixieme Congrcs International d Anthropologio et d Archdologie 1 rdhistoricme. 
Paris. 1889, p. 474, 



relation to the Swastika thus: Eighty-two representing stars; 70 rep- 
V resenting suns ; 42 representing branches of trees or palms ; 15 animals 
< non-ferocious, deer, antelope, hare, swan, etc. ; total, 209 objects. Many 
/ of these were spindle whorls. 

Dr. Schliemann, in his works, " Troja 71 and " Ilios, 7 describes at length 
his excavations of these cities and his discoveries of the Swastika on 
many objects. His reports are grouped under titles of the various 
cities, first, second, third, etc., up to the seventh city, counting always 
from the bottom, the first being deepest and oldest. The same system 
will be here pursued. The first and second cities were 45 to 52 feet (13 
to 1C meters) deep; the third, 23 to 33 feet (7 to 10 meters) deep; the 
fourth city, 13 to 17.6 feet (4 to 5J meters) deep; the fifth city, 7 to 13 
feet (2 to 4 meters) deep ; the sixth was the Lydiau city of Troy, and 
the seventh city, the Greek Ilium, approached the surface. 

First and Second Cities. But few whorls were found in the first and 
second cities 1 and none of these bore the Swastika 
mark, while thousands were found in the third, 
fourth, and fifth cities, many of which bore the 
Swastika mark. Those of the first city, if unorua- 
mented, have a uniform lustrous black color and are 
the shape of a cone (fig. f>5) or of two cones joined 
at the base (figs. 52 and 71). Both kinds were 
found at 33 feet and deeper. Others from the same 
Fi(r 4 o city were ornamented by incised lines rubbed in 

s witu white chalk, in which case they were fiat. 2 In 
the second city the whorls were smaller than in 
swastika, right. the first. They were all of a black color and their 
Depth, 23 feet. incised ornamentation was practically the same as 

those from the upper cities. :i 

Zmigrodzki congratulated himself on having discovered among 
Schliemann s finds what he believed to be the oldest representation of 
the Swastika of which we had reliable knowledge. It was a frag- 
of a vase (fig. 42) of the lustrous black pottery peculiar to the 
whorls of the first and second cities. But Zmigrodzki was compelled 
to recede, which he did regretfully, when Schliemann, in a later edi 
tion, inserted the footnote (p. 3f>0) saying, that while he had found 
this (with a companion piece) at a great depth in his excavations, and 
had attributed them to the first city, yet, on subsequent examination, 
he had become convinced that they belonged to the third city. 

The Swastika, turned both ways y^ and ^J, was "frequent in the third, 
fourth, and fifth cities. 

The following specimens bearing the Swastika mark are chosen, out 
of the many specimens in Schliemann s great album, in order to make 
a fair representation of the various kinds, both of whorls and of Swas- 

1 " Ilios," pp. 229, 350, note 1. 

2 Ibid, figs. 63-70, p. 229. 

3 Ibid, p. 303. 



tikas. They are arranged in the order of cities, the depth being- indi 
cated in feet. 

The Third, or Burnt, City (23 to 33 feet deep). The spindle-whorl 
shown in fig. 43 contains two Swastikas and two crosses. 1 Of the one 

. 43. 


Depth, 23 feet. 

Srhliemann, " Ilios," fi K . ]S5S. 

Fig-. 44. 


Depth, 23 feet. 

Srlilifinami, "Ilios," fi K . 1S74. 

Fig. 45. 

Depth, 23 feet. 

Swastika, two arms are bent to the rig-lit at right angles, while the 
other two are bent to the right in curves. The other Swastika has but 
two bends, one at right angles, the 
other curved, both to the right. The 
specimen shown in fig. 44 has two 
Swastikas, in one of which the four 
arms are bent at right angles to the 
left. The entire figure is traced in 
double lines, one 
heavy and one 
light, as though 
to represent 
edges or shad 
ows, The second Swastika has its ends bent at an 
obtuse angle to the left, and at the extremities the 
lines taper to a point. 
The whorl shown in 
fig. 45 is nearly spher 
ical, with two Swas- 
tik as in the upper part. 
The ends of the four arms in both are bent 
at right angles, one to the right, the other 
to the left. Fig. 46 represents a spindle- 
whorl with two irregular Swastikas; but 
one arm is bent at right angles arid all the 
arms and points are uncertain arid of un 
equal lengths. The rest of the field is covered with indefinite and inex 
plicable marks, of which the only ones noteworthy are points or dots, 
seven in number. In fig. 47 the top is surrounded by a line of zigzag 

Fig. 46. 


Depth, 28 feet. 

S. liliein:uin, " Ilios," %. IN-. 

Fig. 47. 

Depth, 23 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fit, . ISM. 

1 All spindle-whorls from the hill 

>f Hissarlik arc represented- one-half natTiral 



Fig. 48. 


Depth, 2:5 fcot. 

Srhliemann, " Ilios," fi-. 19H-J. 

or dog-tooth ornaments. Within this field, on the upper part and 

equidistant from the central hole, are three Swastikas, the ends of all 

of which turn to the left, and but one at right angles. All three have 

one or more ends 
bent, not at any an 
gle, but in a curve 
or hook, making an 
ogee. Fig. 48 shows 
a large whorl with 
two or three Swas 
tikas on its upper 
surface in connection 
with several indefi 
nite marks appar 
ently without mean 
ing. The dots are 

interspersed over the field, the Swastikas all bent to the right, but 

with uncertain lines and at indefinite angles. In one of them the main 

line forming the cross is curved toward the central 

hole; in another, the ends are both bent in the 

same direction that is, pointing to the periphery 

of the whorl.. Fig. 49 shows a sphere or globe (see 

tigs. 75, 88) divided by longitudinal lines into four 

segments, which are again divided by an equa 
torial line. These segments contain marks or dots 

and circles, while one segment contains a normal 

Swastika turned to the left. This terra-cotta ball 

has figured in a peculiar degree in the symbolic 

representation of the Swastika. ( ireg says of it : 

Wo soo OH one hemisphere, the p-^ standing ibr /ous 
(=Indra) the sky god, and on the other side a rude representation of a sacred 
(somma) tree; a very interesting and curious western perpetuation of the original 
idea and a strong indirect proof of the p3-J standing for the emblem of the sky god. 

Fi$. 50 represents 
one of the biconical 
spindle- whorls with 
various decorations 
on the two sides, 
longitudinal lines 
interspersed with 
dots, arcs of con 
centric circles ar 
ranged in three 
parallels, etc. On one of these sides is a normal Swastika, the 
arms crossing at right angles, the ends bent at right angles to the left. 

Yig. 49. 

Srliliem.-iMM, "Ilios," %. I .tW. 

Fig. 50. 


Schliem.inn, " Ilios," fig. 194!). 

Archsoologia, XLVIII, pt. 2, p. 322. 



The specimen shown in fig. 51 contains four perfect Swastikas and two 
inchoate and uncertain. Both of the latter have been damaged by 
breaking the surface. The four Swastikas all have their arms bent to 
the right; some are greater than at right angles, and one arm is curved. 
Several ends are tapered to a point. Fig. 52 shows a whorl of biconical 
form. It contains two Swastikas, the main arms of which are ogee 

Fig. 51. 

Depth, 33 feet. 


Fig. 52. 


Depth, 33 feet. 

forms, crossing each other at the center at nearly right angles, the 
ogee ends curving to the right. In fig. 53 the entire field of the upper ^ 
surface is tilled with, or occupied by, a Greek cross, in the center of 
which is the central hole of the Avhorl, while on each of the four arms 
is represented a Swastika, the main arms all crossing at right angles, 
the ends all bent to the right at a slightly obtuse angle, Each of these 
bent ends tapers to a point, some 
with slight curves and a small flour 
ish. (See figs. 33 and 34 for refer 
ence to this flourish.) The specimen 
shown in fig. 54 has a center field in 
its upper part, of which the decora 
tion consists of incised parallel lines 
forming segments of circles, re 
peated in each one of the four quar 
ters of the field. The center hole 
is surrounded by two concentric 
rings of incised lines. In one of 

these spaces is a single Swastika; its main arms crossing at right 
angles, two of its ends bent to the left at right angles, the other two 
in the same direction and curved. 

The Fourth City (13.2 to 17.6 feet deep). Schliemanu says: 1 
We find among the successors of the burnt city the same triangular idols ; the same 
primitive bronze battle-axes ; the same terra-cotta vases, with or without tripod feet; 
the same double -handled goblets (Geita a/ncpiKvitEXXa}} the same battle-axes of 
jade, porphyry, and diorite; the same rude stone hammers, and saddle querns of 
trachyte. The number of rude stone hammers and polished stone axes are 

fully thrice as large as in the third city, while the masses of shells and cockles 

1 " Ilios," pp. 518, 571. 



Depth, 33 feet. 

De Mortillet, " Mus6e Prtfiis- 

toriijue," fig. 124(1. 

Fig. 54. 

Depth, 33 feet. 

De Mortillet, " Muse.f I re- 
,"%. 1241. 



Fig. 55. 


Depth, 13J feet. 

Sflilieiiwnn, " Ilis," fig. IS-iii. 

accumulated in the debris of the houses are so stupendous that they baflle all 

description. The pottery is coarser and of a ruder fabric than in the third city. 

* There were also found in the fourth city many needles of bone for female 

handiwork, bear tusks, spit rests of mica 
schist, whetstones of slate, porphyry, etc., 
of the usual form, hundreds of small silex 
saws, and some knives of obsidian. Stone 
whorls, which are so abundant at Myceme, 
are but rarely found here ; all of those which 
occur are, according to Mr. Davis, of steatite. 
On the other hand, terra-cotta whorls, with 
or without incised ornamentation, are found 
by thousands; their forms hardly vary from 
those in the third (the burnt) city, and the 
same may be generally said of their incised 
ornamentation. The same repre 

sentation of specimens of whorls are given 
as in the third city, and the same observa 
tions apply. 

Fig. 55 shows a simple cone, the upper surface being flat and without 
other decoration than three Swastikas equidistant from the hole and 
from each other, all made by 
the two crossed ogee lines 
with ends curved to the right. 
This specimen is much like 
that of fig. 71 (Madam Schlie 
mann collection in the II. S. 
National Museum, Cat. No. 
149704). Fig. 5G shows a re 
markable spindle-whorl. Its 
marks greatly excited the in- Fig . 5G . 


he devoted much space to the 
discussion of these and simi 
lar characters. The whorl is 
in the form of a cone. It bears upon its conical surface four Swastikas, 
the ends of three of which bend to the right and one to the left. There 

are but two of these ends which 
bend at right angles. Most of 
them are at an obtuse angle, while 
the ends of two are curved. Some 
taper to a point and finish with a 
slight flourish. The other marks 
which so interested Dr. Schlie 
mann were the chevron ornament 
(zigzag), drawn in parallel lines, 
which, he strongly argued, and 
fortified with many authorities, 
represented lightning. The second series of marks he called a " burn 
ing altar." This assertion he also fortified with authorities and with 

Depth, 13i feet. 

Si-hliemann, " Ilios," %. I 

Fig. 57. 

Depth, 13^ feet. 

Sohliemann, " Ilios," fig. 1804. 



Fig. 58. 


Depth, 13| f ee t. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," ti. 19s:?. 

illustrations of a similar sign from different countries. (See fig. 101.) 
Tbe third series of marks represented an animal, name and character 

unknown, with a head or tusks 
with two large branching horns 
or ears, a straight back, a stiff but 
drooping tail, four legs, and two 
rows of the remarkable dots- 
seven in one. six in the other _ 
placed over the back of the animal. 
(See figs. 99 and 100.) % Fig. 57 
represents another cone-shaped 
whorl, the flat surface of which is 
engraved with one perfect Swas 
tika, the two arms crossing each 
other at right^ angles and the two ends bending at right angles to 
the right; the other two are curved, also to the right. Two of the 
other figures Dr. 
Schliemann calls 
Swastikas, al 
though they are 
uncertain in some 
of their arms 
an dangles. The 
fourth character 
he imagined to 
be an inchoate or 
attempted Swas 
tika. Fig. 58 

shows a biconical whorl with curious and inexplicable characters. One 
of them forms a crude Swastika, which, while the main arms cross at 

right angles the ends are bent 
at uncertain angles, three to 
the left and one to the right. 
These characters are so unde 
termined that it is doubtful 
if they could have had any sig 
nification, either ornamental 
or otherwise. Fig. 59 is almost 
conical, the flat surface thereof 
being only slightly raised at 

Fig. 59. 


Depth, 13i f eot . 

Sohliemann, "Ilios," fi K . I .liio. 

the center. It is much the same 
form as the whorls shown in 
figs. 55 and 71. The nearly fiat 
surface is the top, and on it, 
equidistant from the center 
hole and from each other, are three ogee Swastikas of double lines 
with their ends all curved to the right. In the alternate spaces are 
small incised circles, with dots in the centers. In fig. 60 a biconical 

Fig. 60. 


Depth, 16 feet. 

Schliemann, "Ilios," fig. 1863. 



Fig. 01 . 


Depth, 18 foot. 

Si-hliemann, "Ilios." tig. 1!I5. 

whorl is shown. It has three of the circle segments marked in equi 
lateral positions, with three or four parallel lines, after the style shown 
in fig. 54. In the spaces are two Swastikas, in both of which the two 

main arms cross at right angles. Some 
of the ends bend at a right, and others 
at an obtuse, angle. In one of the 
Swastikas the bent ends turn toward 
each other, forming a rude figure 8. 
The specimen shown in fig. 61 is bicon- 
ical, but much flattened ; it contains 
five ogee Swastikas, of which the ends 
of four bend to the right and one to 
the left. In an interval between them 
is one of the burning altars. Fig. 62 
shows three Swastikas with double 
parallel lines. The main arms cross each other at right angles ; the ends 
are bent at nearly right angles, one to the left, one to the right, and 
the other both ways. Fig. 63 represents 
a spindle-whorl 
with a c u p - 
shaped depres 
sion around the 
central hole, 
which is sur 
rounded by three 
lines in concen 
tric circles, while 
on the field, at 
00 degrees from 

each other, are four ogee Swastikas (tetraskelions), the arms all turn 
ing to the left and spirally each upon itself. The specimen shown in 

fig. 64 is biconical, 
th o u gh , as u su al , 
the upper cone 
is the smallest. 
There are parallel 
lines, three in a set, 
forming the seg 
ments of three cir 
cles, in one space 
of which appears 
a Swastika of a 
curious and unique 
form, similar t o 
that shown in fig. 
60. The two main arms cross each other at very nearly right angles and 
the ends also bend at right angles toward and approaching each other, so 

Fig. 62. 


Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Srhlieinanii, "Ilios," fin- 1 

Fig. 63. 


Depth, 18 feet. 

Srhlifinann, " Ilios," %. Ixtis. 

Fig. 64. 

Depth, 10.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fitf. IMC,. 



Fig. 65. 


Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Schliemann, "Ilios," %. ISiifi. 

that if continued slightly farther they would close and form a decora 
tive figure 8. The specimen shown in fig. Go is decorated with parallel 

lines, three in number, arranged in 

segments of three circles, the periphery 

of which is toward the center, as in 

figs. GO and G4. In one of the spaces 

is a Swastika of curious form; the main 

arms cross each other at right angles, 

but the four ends represent different 

styles two are bent square to the left, 

one square to the right, and the fourth 

curves to the left at no angle. Fig. GG 

shows a biconical whorl, and its top is 

decorated to represent three Swastikas 

and three burning altars. The, ends of the arms of the Swastikas all 

bend to the left, some are at right angles and some at obtuse angles, 

while two or three are curved ; two 
of them show corrections, the marks 
at the ends having been changed in 
one case at a different angle and in 
another from a straight line to a 
curve. Fig. G7 shows four speci 
mens of Swastika, the main arms 
of all of which cross at right angles. 
The ends all bend to the right, at 
nearly right angles, tapering to a 
point and finishing with the slight 
fiourish noted in the Jain Swastika 
(fig. 34o). They are alternated with 
a chevron decoration. Fig. 68 shows three Swastikas, the ends of the 
arms of which are all bent to the left. One Swastika is composed of 

Fig. 66. 


Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fi K . 1X72. 

Fig. 67. 

Depth, 10.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 187:!. 


Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 1911. 

two ogee lines. Two arms of another are curved, but all others are 
bent at right angles, some of them tapering to points, finishing with a 
II. Mis. 90, pt. 2 52 



little flourish (figs. 07 and 34>). One of these ends, like that in fig. GO, 
has been corrected by the maker. Fig. G9 represents one Swastika in 
which the main arms cross at nearly right angles. Both ends of one 

arm turn to the left and those 
of the other arm turn to the 
right in figure 8 style. One 
of the ends is curved, the 
others bent at different 
angles. Fig. 70 shows the 
parallel lines representing 
segments of a circle similar 
to figs. 00, 04, 05, and 09, 
except that it has four in 
stead of three. It has one 
Swastika ; the main arms (of 
double lines) cross at right 

Depth, 10.8 feet. 

Schlieniaun, "Ilios," fig. 1*1. 

. G9. 


angles, the ends all curving 
to the left with a slight ogee. 
1893, the fortunate recipient 

Fig. 70. 

Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " llios," fig. 18IU. 

The II. S. National Museum was, durin 
of a collection of objects from Madame Schliemann, which her husband, 
before his death, had signi 
fied should be given to the 
United States as a token 
of his remembrance of and 
regard for his adopted 
country. He never forgot 
that he was an American 
citizen, and, preparing for 
death, made his acknowl 
edgments in the manner 
mentioned. The collection 
consisted of 178 objects, all 
from ancient Troy, and they made a fair representation of his general 
finds. This collection is in the Department of Prehistoric Anthropol 
ogy. In this collection is a spin 
dle whorl, found at 13J feet (4 
meters) depth and belonging to 
the fourth city. It had three 
Swastikas upon its face, and is 
here shown as fig. 71. ] 

The Fifth City. Schliemann 
says : 2 

The rude stone hammers found in 
enormous quantities in the fourth city 
are no longer found in this stratum, nor 
did the stone axes, which are so very 
abundant there, occur again here. In- 



Depth, 13.5 feet. 
Gift of Madame Schliemann. Cat. No. 149704, U. S. N. M. 

llios," fig. 1852. 

"Ibid, p. 573. 



stead of the hundreds of axes I gathered in the fourth city, I collected in ull only two 
Lere - The fori s of the terra-cotta whorls, too, are iniunumorable instances 

different here. These objects are of a much inferior fabric, and become elongated 
and pointed. Forms of whorls like Nos. 1801, 1802, and 1803 [see figs. 72, 73, and 74], 
which were never found before, are here plentiful. 

The Sixth and Seventh Cities. The sixth city is described in "Ilios " 
page 587, and the seventh on pages 608 and 618. Both cities contained 
occasional whorls of clay, all thoroughly baked, without incised or 

painted ornamentation, and sbed no fur 
ther light on the Swastika. 

Fig. 75 represents the opposite hemis 
pheres of a terr i-cotta ball, found at a 
depth of 26 feet, divided by in 
cised lines into fifteen zones, of 
which two are ornamented with 
Figs. 72, 73, 74. points and the middle zone, the 



Schliemaun, " Ilios," figs. 1801, 1802, 1S03. 


imens of 

Zmigrodzki says 1 that there 
were found by Schliemanu, at Hissarlik, fifty-five specimens of the Swas 
tika "pure and simple" (pp. 809, 826). It will be perceived by exami 
nation that the Swastika "pure and simple" comprised Swastikas of 
several forms; those in which the four arms of the cross were at other 
angles besides right angles, those in which the ends bent at square 
and other angles to the right; then those to the left (Burnouf and Max 
Miiller s Suavastika); those in which the bends were, some to the right 
and some to the left, in the same design ; where the points tapered off 
and turned outward with a 
flourish; where the arms 

bent at no angle, but were 
in spirals each upon itself, 
and turned, some to the 
right, some to the left. 
We shall see other related 
forms, as where the arms 
turn spirally upon each 
other instead of upon them 
selves. These will some 
times have three, five, six, 
or more arms, instead of 
four (p. 768). The cross and the circle will also appear in connections 
with the Swastika; and other designs, as zigzags (lightning), burning 
altars, men, animals, and similar representations will be found associ 
ated with the Swastika, and are only related to it by the association 
of similar objects from the same locality. A description of their pat- 
terns will include those already figured, together with Schliemann s 

1 Tenth Congr. Inter. d Anthrop. et d Arctueol. Prehist., Paris, 1889, p. 474. 

Fig. 75. 


Third city. Depth, 26 feet. 

.Schlieiuann, " Ilios," tigs. 45, 24fi. 



Fiji- 70- 

Schlieuiann, " Ilios," tig. 1849. 

comments as to signification and frequency. They become more impor 

tant because these related forms will be found in distant countries and 
among distant peoples, notably among the prehistoric peoples of Amer 
ica. Possibly thesedesign shave 
a signification, possibly not. 
Dr. Schliemann thought that in 
many cases they had. Professor 
Sayce supported him, strongly 
inclining toward an alphabetic 
or linguistic, perhaps ideo 
graphic, signification. No opin 
ion is advanced by the author 
on these theories, but the de 
signs are given in considerable 
numbers, to the end that the 
evidence may be fully reported, 
and future investigators, radi 
cal and conservative, imaginative and unimaginative, theorists and 
agnostics, may have a fair knowledge of this mysterious sign, and 
an opportunity to indulge their respective talents 
at length. Possibly these associated designs may 
throw some light upon the origin or history of the 
Swastika or of some of its related forms. 

The specimen represented in fig. 70 is not a 
spindle whorl, as shown by the number and loca 
tion of the holes. It bears a good representation 
of a Swastika the form of which has been noticed 
several times. The two main arms cross each other 
at nearly right angles. The ends of the arms all 
bend to the right at a slightly obtuse angle and turn 
outward with a nourish somewhat after the style of the Jain Swastika 
(fig. 34c). Fig. 77 represents a spindle- whorl with a Swastikaof the ogee 
style curved to the right. The center hole of the whorl forms the cen- 



Third city . Depth, 23 feet . 

Schlieumnn, " Ilios," lijr. IS .". . 

Fig. 78. 


Fourth city. Depth, 13.6 tVc-t. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 1871. 

Fig. 79. 


Third city. Depth, 33 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 1870. 

ter of the sign. The figure is of double lines, and in the interspaces are 
four dots, similar to those in figs. 90-08, and others which Dr. Schlieinanu 



Fig. 80. 


Fourth city. Depth, 23 feet. 

Schliemann, " llios," fig. 1S75. 

reports as common, and to which he attributes some special but unknown 
meaning. Swastikas and crosses of irregular shape and style are shown 
in the field of fig. 78. Two fairly 
well formed Swastikas appear, both 
of the ogee style, with the ends 
curved to the right. One is of the 
style resembling the figure 8 (see 
figs. GO and 04). Two others are 
crudely and irregularly formed, and 
would scarcely be recognized as 
Swastikas except for their associ 
ation. Fig. 79 represents uncertain 
and malformed Swastikas. The 
arms are bent \i\ different directions 
in the same line. Two of the main 
arms are not bent. The inexplicable dots are present, and the field 
is more or less covered with unmeaning or, at least, unexplained 

marks. Fig. 80 also illustrates 
the indefinite and inchoate style 
of decoration. One unfinished 
Swastika appears which, unlike 
anything we have yet seen, has 
a circle with a dot in the center 
for the body of the Swastika at 
the crossing of the main arms. 
Fig. 81 shows two Swastikas, 
both crossing their main arms 
at right angles and the ends 
ben din gal so at right angles one 
to the right, the other to the 
left. This specimen is inserted here because of the numerous decora 
tions of apparently unmeaning, or, at least, unexplained, lines. Fig. 82 
shows four segmented cir 
cles with an indefinite Swas 
tika in one of the spaces. 
The ends are not well turned, 
only one being well attached 
to the main arms. One of 
the ends is not joined, one 
overruns arid forms a sort 
of cross; the other has no 
bend. Fig. 83 contains an 
unmistakable Swastika, the 
main arms of which cross at 
right angles, turning to the 
left with an ogee curve. The peculiarity of this specimen is that the 
center of the sign is inclosed in a circle, thus showing the indifference 

Fig. 81. 


Srhliemann, " llios," tip. 1917. 

Fig. 82. 


Third city. Depth, 33 foot. 

Schliemann, " llios," fig. 1989. 



of the Swastika sign to other signs, whether cross or circle. The outer 
parts of the field are occupied with the parallel lines of the circle 

segment, as shown in many other 
specimens. The specimen shown in 
fig. 84 is similar in style to the last. 
The bodies of six Swastikas are 
formed by a circle and dot, while the 
arms of the cross start from the out 
side of the circle, extending them 
selves in curves, all of them to the 
right, (See fig. 13rf.) It has no other 
ornamentation. The same remark is 
to be made about the indifferent use 
of the Swastika in association with 
cross or circle. We have seen many Swastikas composed of the crossed 
ogee lines or curves. Figs. 85 and 86 show the same ogee lines and 
curves not crossed; and thus, while it may be that neither of them are 

Swastikas, yet they show a 
relationship of form from 
which the derivation of a 
Swastika would be easv. 

Fig. 83. 

Ogee Swastika with central circle. 
Third city. Depth, 23 feet. 

S-hliemann, " Ilios," %. 1987. 

Fig. 84. 



Third city. Depth, 2:5 feet. 

SrhHemann, " Ilios," fijr. 18C.2. 

Fig. 85. 


Schliemnnn, " Ilios," fitf. 1890. 

Attention has been called to decorations comprising segments of the 
circles incised in these whorls, the periphery of which is toward their 
centers (figs. 60, 64, 65, 69, 70, 82 
and 83). Also to the mysterious 
dots (figs. 46, 56, 75, 76, 77, 79,84, 
92, 96 and 97). Fig. 87 shows a 
combination of the segments of 
three circles, the dots within each, 
and two Swastikas. Of the Swas 
tikas, one is normal, turning to 

right, but at an Obtuse angle, ARE NOT CROSSED TO FORM SWASTIKAS. 

.., , . , , ", Si-hliemann, "Ilios," fig. 1889. 

with one end straight and the 

other irregularly curved. Fig. 88 represents two sections of a terra 
cotta sphere divided similar to fig. 49. Each of these sections contains 



Fig. 87. 


< Swatikas combined with segments and dots. 

a figure like unto a Swastika and which may be related to it. It is a 

circle with arms springing from the periphery, which anus turn all to 

the left, as they do in the ogee Swastika. One has seven, the other 

nine, arms. One has regular, 

the other irregular, lines and 

intervals. Fig. 89 represents a 

spindle- whorl of terra cotta 

nearly spherical, with decora 
tion of a large central dot and 

lines springing thereout, almost 

like the spokes of a wheel, then 

all turning to the left as volutes. 

In some countries this has been 

called the sun symbol, but there 

is no thing, to indicate that it had 

any signification at Hissarlik. 

One of the marks resembles the long-backed, four-legged animal (figs. 

99 and 100). 1 Figs. 90, 91, 1)2, and 93 show a further adaptation of the 

ogee curve developed into a 
Swastika, in which many arms 
start from the center circle 
around the central hole in the 
whorl, finally taking a spiral 
form. The relation of this to a 
sun symbol is only mentioned and 

Hot Specified OF declared. The 

inexplicable and constantly re 
curring dots are seen in fig. 90. 
It is not contended that these are necessarily evolutions of the Swas 
tika. We will see farther on many lines and forms of decoration by 

incised lines on these Trojan 

whorls, which may have had no 

reiatfcnT to the Swastika, but 

are inserted here because per-. 

sons rich in theories and bril-* 

limit in imagination have dc-1 

dared that they could see a 

resemblance, a relation, in this 

or some other decoration. As 

objects _ belonging to-the_same 

culture, from the same locality, 

and intimately associated with 

unmistakable Swastikas, they 

were part of the \_res gestcc, and as such entitled _ to 

dence in the case. The effect of their evidence is a legitimate subject 

for discussion and argument. To refuse these figures admission would 

Fig. 88. 

Central circles with extended arms turning 
left, ogee and zigzag. 

Sehliemann, "llios," fig. 199:*,. 

Fig. 89. 

Largo central dot with twelve arms, similar in form to 
the ogee Swastika. 

Sehliemann, " llios," fig. 1046. 

Tlios" p. 418. 

2 See p. 786 



be to decide tlie case against this contention without giving the oppos 
ing party an opportunity to see the evidence or to be heard in argu- 
/ ment. Therefore the objects are inserted. 

Specimens of other crosses are presented because the 
Swastika is considered to be a 
form of the cross. There may 
have been no evolution or rela 
tionship between them; but no 
/person is competent to decide 

Fig. 91. . . 

SI-INDLE-WHORL WITH ^from a mere inspection or by rea- 
CENTKAL HOLE AND / son of dissimilarity that there 
not. We have to plead ig- 



Central dot with ogee arms 
radiating therefrom in 
different directions, but 
in the form of a Swastika. 

Third city. Depth, 29 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," %. 1830. 

Third city. Depth, 

23 feet. noramus as to the growth and 

*" evolution of both cross and Swas- 

is lost in antiquity 

Fig. 92. 

Fourth city. Depth, 19.8 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," %. 1S37. 

tika, because the origin of both 
But all are fair subjects for discussion. There 

certainly is nothing improbable in the relationship and evolution 

between the Swastika and the cross. It may be almost assumed. 
Evidence leading to conviction 

may be found in associated contem 

poraneous specimens. M. Montelius, 

an archaeologist of repute in the 

National Museum at Stockholm, 

discovered eight stages of culture 

in the bronze age of that country, 

which discovery was based solely 

upon the foregoing principle applied 

to the libuLe found in prehistoric 

graves. In assorting his stock of 

fibula?, he was enabled to lay out a series of eight styles, each different, 

but with many presentations. He arranged them seriatim, according 

to certain differences in size, style, elegance of workmanship, etc., 
No. 1 being the smallest, and No. 8 the largest 
and most elaborate. They were then classified 
according to locality and association, and he dis 
covered that Nos. 1 and 2 belonged together, on 
the same body or in the same grave, and the same 
with Nos. 2 and 3, 3 and 4, and so on to No. 8, but 
that there was no general or indefinite intermix 
ture; Nos. 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 were not found 
together and were not associated, and so on. Nos. 
7 and 8 were associated, but not C and 8, nor 5 
and 7, nor was there any association beyond ad 

joining numbers in the series. Thus Moutelius was able to deter 

mine that each one or each two of the series formed a stage in the 
Culture of these peoples. While the numbers of the series separated 

Fig. 93. 


Third city. Depth, 29 feet. 

Schliemann, "Ilios," fig. 1833. 



from each other, as 1, 5, 8, were never found associated, yet it wasi 
conclusively shown that they were related, were the same object, all 
served a similar purpose, and together formed an evolutionary series ! 
showing their common origin, derivative growth and continuous inW 
provement in art, 
always by com 
munication be-1 
tween their 
makers or owner s. 
Thus it maybe 
with the other 
forms of crosses, 
and thus it ap 
pears to be with 
the circle a n d 
spiral Swastikas 
and those with 
ends bent in op 
posite and differ 
ent directions. 
Just what their 

relations are and at which end of the series the evolution began, is^ 
not argued. This is left for the theorists and imaginists, protesting, 
however, that they must not run wild nor push their theories beyond 
bounds. Fig. 94 represents four crosses, the main arms of which are 
at right angles, and each and all ends, instead of being turned at an 
angle which would make them Swastikas, are bifurcated and turn both 

Fig. 94. 


Four crosses with bifurcated arms. 

Third city. Depth, 23 feet. 

Fig. 95. 

Hole and largo circle in center 
with broad arms of Greek 
Third city. Depth, 26.4 feet. 

Schlieniann, " Ilios," &K. IS - O. 

Fig. 96. 


Hole and large circle in center, 
Eextended parallel arms with 
dots, forming a Greek cross. 
Third city. Depth, 23 feet. 

Schlieniann, "Ilios," tig. 1817. 

Fig. 97. 

Greek cross. Tapering anna 
with dots. 

Third city. Depth, 23 feet. 

Schlieniann, " Ilios," fig. 1818. 

ways, thus forming a foliated cross similar to the Maya cross, the "Tree 
of life." Figs. 95, 9G, and 97 show Greek crosses. Thej?enters of the 
crosses are occupied by the central hole of the whorTpwhlie^thelirm s 
extend to the periphery. In the centers of the respective arms are the 
ubiquitous dots. The question might here be asked whether these holes, | 
which represented circles, stood for the sun symbol or solar disk. The 

82 G 


question carries its own answer and is a refutation of those who fancy 
they can see mythology in everything 1 . Fig. 98 is the same style of 
figure with the same dots, save that it has three instead of four arms. 
Figs. 99 and 100 each show four of the curious 
animals heretofore represented (fig. 50) in connec 
tion with the Swastika, They are here inserted 
for comparison. They are all of the same form, and 
one description will 
serve. Back straight, 
tail drooping, four 
legs, round head show 
ing eye on one side, 



Central hole and three 
arms with dots. 

Thirdcity. Depth, 23 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 18H>. 

and long ears resem- 

Fig. 99. 


Four animals are shown similar to those 

found associated with the Swastika. 

Third city. Depth, 33 feet. 

Srhliemanir, "Ilios," tig. 1*77. 

bling those of a rabbit 
or hare, which, in fig. 50, are called horns. 
r The general remarks in respect to the 
i propriety of inserting crosses and burn 
ing altars (p. 8!M) apply with equal perti- 

[^ nency to these animals and to the unexplained dots seen on so many 

specimens. Fig. 101 shows both ends 
of a spindle-whorl, and is here in 
serted because it represents one of 
the "burning altars" of Dr. Sclilie- 
mann, associated with a Swastika, 
as in figs. 01, GO, and 08, and even 
those of figure-8 style (tigs. 04 and 

Dr. Schliemann found, during his ex- 
] cavations on the hill of Hissarlik, no 
I less than 1,800 spindle- whorls. A few 
were from the first and second cities ; 
they were of somewhat peculiar form (tigs. T2 and 74), but the greatest 
number were from the third city, thence upward in decreasing numbers. 
7" The Swastika pure and simple was 
found on 55 specimens, while its 
\ related or suggested forms were oil 
420 (pp. 809, 819). Many of the other 
whorls were decorated with almost 
every imaginable form of dot, dash, 
circle, star, lozenge, zigzag, with 
many indefinite and undescribable 
forms. In presenting the claims of 
the Swastika as an intentional sign, 
with intentional, though perhaps 
different, meanings, it might be unsatisfactory to the student to omit 
1 descriptions of these associated decorative forms. This description is 
impossible in words 5 therefore the author has deemed it wiser to insert 

j. 100. 

Four animals are shown similar to tin 
found associated with the Swastika. 
Fourth city. Depth, 19.6 feet. 

Schliemann, " Ilios," fig. 1S67. 

Fig. 101. 


Fourth city. Depth, 19.6 feet. 

Schliemann, "Ilios," fig. 1838. 



figures of these decorations as they appeared on the spindle-whorls T <^ 
found at Troy, and associated with those heretofore given with the ^ 
Swastika. It is not decided, however, that these have any relation to 
the Swastika, or that they had any connection with its manufacture or 
existence, either by evolution or otherwise, but they are here inserted to 
the end that the student and reader may take due account of the associa 
tion and make such comparison as will satisfy him. (Figs. 102 to 124.) 










Figs. 102-113. 

Schliemann, " Ilios." 






Figs. 114-124. 


Schliemann, " Ilios." 



Leaden idol of Hissarlik. Dr. Schlieiminn, in his explorations on 
the liill of Hissarlik, at a depth of 23 feet, in the third, the burnt , 
city, found a metal idol (fig. 125), which was determined on an analysis^ 
to be lead. 1 It was submitted to Professor Sayce who made the follow 
ing- report: 2 

It is the Artemis Nana of Chaldea, who became the chief deity of Carchemish, the 
Hittite capital, aud passed through Asia Minor to the shores and islauds of the 
JEgean. Sea. Characteristic figures of the goddess have 
been discovered at Myceme as well as in Cyprus. 

Ill "Troja" Professor Sayce says: 

Precisely the same figure, with ringlets on either side 
of the head, but with a different ornament (dots instead 
of Swastika) sculptured on a piece of serpentine was 
recently found in Ma>onia, and published by M. Salmon 
Reinach in, Kevtio Archeologiqne. By the side of the 
goddess stands the Babylonian Bel, and among the Baby 
lonian symbols that surround them is the representation 
of one of the terra-cotta whorls, of which Dr. Schlie- 
niann found such multitudes at Troy. 

The chief interest to us of Dr. Schlieinann s 
description of the idol lies in the last paragraph : :i 

The vulva is represented by a large triangle, in the 
upper side of which we see three globular dots; we also 
see two lines of dots to the right and left of the vulva. 
The most curious ornament of the figure is a Swastika,! Jl 
which we see in the middle of the vulva. SoV" 

far as we know, the only figures to which the idol before 
us has any resemblance are the female figures of white 
marble found in tombs in Attica and in the Cyclades. 
Six of them, which are in the museum at Athens, * 
represent naked women. * The vulva is repre 

sented on the six figures by a large triangle,. 
Similar white Parian marble figures, found in the Cy 
clades, whereon the vulva is represented by a decorated 
triangle, are preserved in the British Museum. Leuor- 
nieut, in "Les Autiquites de la Troade" (p. 46), says: 
"The statuettes of the Cyclades, in the form of a naked 
woman, appear to bo rude copies made by the natives, at 
the dawn of their civilization, from the images of the 
Asiatic goddess which had been brought by Phoenician 
merchants. They were found in the most ancient sepul- 
chers of the Cyclades, in company with stone weapons, 

principally arrowheads of obsidian from Milo, and with polished pottery without 
paintings. We recognize in them the figures of the Asiatic Venus found in such 
large numbers from the banks of the Tigris to the island of Cyprus, through the 
whole extent of the Chaldeo-Assyrian, Ararn;ean, and Phomiciau world. Their pro 
totype is the Babylonian Zarpanit, or Zirbanit, so frequently represented on the 
cylinders and by terra-cotta idols, the fabrication of which begins in the most 
primitive time of Chaldea and continues among the Assyrians. 

"Ilios/ fig. 226, p. 337. 
"Ibid, p. 694. 
Ibid, p. 338. 
See p. 795. 

. 125. 



Third city. Depth, 23 feet. 

Schlienumi, " Ilios." fig. 126 
1 >a natural size. 



It is to be remarked that this mark* is not on the vulva, as declared 
\ by Schliemani), but rather oil a triangle shield which covers tbe mom 

Professor Sayce is of the opinion, from the evidence of this leaden idol, 
/ that the Swastika was, among the Trojans, a symbol of the generative 
power of man. 

An added interestTeenters in these specimens from the fact that terra 
cotta shields of similar triangular form, fitted to the curvature of the 
body, were worn in the same way in prehistoric times by the aboriginal 
women of Brazil. These pieces have small holes at the angles, appar 
ently for suspension by cords. The U. S. National Museum has some 
of these, and they will be figured in the chapter relating to Brazil. 
The similarity between these distant objects is remarkable, whether 
they were related or not, and whether the knowledge or custom came 
over by migration or not. 

Oirl-xhaped rasev. It is also remarkable to note in this connec 
tion the series of owl-shaped terra-cotta vases of the ruined cities of 

sarlik and their 
relation to the Swas 
tika as a possible sy in 
bol of the generative 
power. These vases 
have rounded bot 
toms, wide bellies, 
high shoulders (the 
height of which is 
emphasized by the 
form and position of 
the handles), the 
mouth narrow and 
somewhat bottle 
shaped, but not en 
tirely so. What would 
be the neck is much 

larger than usual for a bottle, and more like the neck of a human figure, 
which the object in its entirety represents in a rude, but, nevertheless, 
definite, manner. At the top of the vase are the eyes, eyebrows, and 
the nose. It is true that the round eyes, the arched eyebrows, and the 
pointed nose give it somewhat an owlish face, but if we look at fig. 127, 
the human appearance of which is emphasized by the cover of the vase, 
which serves as a cap for the head and has the effect of enlarging it to 
respectable dimensions, we will see how nearly it represents a human 
.being. The U. S. National Museum possesses one of these vases in the 
Schliemann collection (fig. 12G). It has the face as described, while 
the other human organs are only indicated by small knobs. It and the 
three figures, 127, 128, and 129, form a series of which the one in 
the Museum would be the first, the others following in the order named. 

Fig. 126. 

Fourth i-ity. Depth, 16.5 feet. 

Cat. No. 14!t67i;, U. S. N. M. 
1 j natural size. 

Fig. 127. 

Oil RING. 

Fourth city. Depth, 20 feet. 

Schliemaun, "Ilios," fig. 988. 


No. 2 in the series has the female attributes indefinitely and rudely 
indicated, the lower organ being represented by a concentric ring. In 
No. 3 the mamma} are well shown, while the other organ has the con-w 
centric ring, the center of which is filled with a Greek cross with four 
dots, one. in each angle, the Croix swasticale of Zmigrodzki (fig. 12). 
No. 4 of the series is more perfect as a human, for the mouth is repre 
sented by a circle, the mamma} are present, while in the other locality 
appears a well-defined Swastika. The first three of these were found 
in the fourth city at 20 to 22 feet depth, respectively; the last was 
found in the fifth city at a depth of 10 feet. The leaden idol (fig. 125), 
with its Swastika mark on the triangle covering the private parts, may 
properly be considered as part of the series. When to this series is 
added the folium ritm of Brazil (pi. 1.8), the similarity becomes signifi 
cant, if not mysterious. But, with all this significance and mystery, it 

- 128. Fig. 129. 


Soliliemann, " Ilios," fig. 9SH. Schliemann, " Troja," n>. lul. 

1 natural size. 2 natural size. 

appears to the author that this sign, in its peculiar position, has an! 
equal claim as a symbol of blessing, happiness, good fortune, as that it/ 
represents the generative power. 

From the earliest time of which we have knowledge of the thoughts 
or desires of man we know that the raising up "heirs, of his body" 
constituted his greatest., blessing and liappiness, and their failure his 
greatest misery. The first amT~greatest command of God to man, as 
set forth in the Holy Bible, is to "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replen 
ish the earth. 771 This was repeated after the Deluge, 2 and when He 
pronounced the curse in the Garden, that upon the woman 3 was, "In 
sorrow thou shalt bring forth children. 77 God 7 s greatest blessing to 
Abraham, when He gave to him and his seed the land as far as lie could 
see, was that his seed should be as the dust of the earth, "so that if a 

1 Genesis i, 28. 

2 Genesis viii, 17; ix, 7. 

3 Genesis iii, 16. 


man can n amber the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be 

numbered." 1 " Tell the stars, if thou be able to number them * * * 

so shall thy seed be. * * * As the father of many nations," etc. 

We all know the story of Sarai, how, when she and Abraham had all 

riches and power on earth, it was as naught while they were childless, 

and how their greatest blessing was the Divine promise of an heir, and 

that their greatest happiness was over the birth of Isaac. This may 

be no proof of the symbolism of the Swastika, but it shows how, in 

high antiquity, man s happiness in his children was such as makes the 

./Swastika mark, in the position indicated, equally a symbol of good 

/fortune and blessing as it was when put on the spindle-whorls of 

iHissarlik, the vases of Greece, or the fibula* of Etruria. 

The aye of the Trojan cities. It may be well to consider for a moment 
the age or epoch of these prehistoric Trojan cities on the hill of His 
sarlik. Professor Virchow was appealed to by Schliemann for his 
opinion. He says : 2 

Other scholars have been inclined to ascribe the oldest cities of Ilissarlik to the 
Neolithic age, because remarkable weapons and utensils of polished stone are found 
in them. * This conception is unjustified and inadmissible. To the third 

century A. D. belongs the surface of the fortress hill of Ilissarlik, which still lies 
above the Macedonian wall; and the oldest "cities" although not only polished 
stones but also chipped Hakes of chalcedony and obsidian occur in them neverthe 
less fall within the age of metals, for even in the first city utensils of copper, gold, 
and even silver were dug up. No stone people, properly so called, dwelt upon the 
fortress hill of Hissarlik, so far as it has been uncovered. 

Yirchow s opinion that none of the cities of Ilissarlik were in the 
stone age may be correct, but the reason he gave is certainly doubtful. 
He says they come within the age of metals, for, or because, "utensils 
of copper, gold, and even silver were dug up among the ruins of the first 
city." That the metals, gold, silver, or copper, were used by the abo 
rigines, is no evidence that they were in a metal age, as it has been 
assigned and understood by prehistoric archaeologists. The great prin 
ciple upon which the names of the respective prehistoric ages stone, 
bronze, and iron were given, was that these materials were used for 
cutting and similar implements. The use of gold and silver or any 
metal for ornamental purposes has never been considered by archaeol 
ogists as synchronous with a metal age. Indeed, in the United States 
there are great numbers of aboriginal cutting implements of copper, of 
which the U. S. National Museum possesses a collection of five or six 
hundred; yet they were not in sufficient number to, and they did 
not, supersede the use of stone as the principal material for cutting 
implements, and so do not establish a copper age in America. In 
Paleolithic times bone was largely used as material for utensils and 
ornaments. Bone was habitually in use for one purpose or another, 
yet no one ever pretended that this establishes a bone age. In coun 
tries and localities where stone is scarce and shell abundant, cutting 

Genesis xiii, 16; xv, 5. 
"Ilios," preface, p. xi. 


implements were, in prehistoric times, made of shell; and chisels or 
hatchets of shell, corresponding to the polished stone hatchet, were 
prevalent wherever the conditions were favorable, yet nobody ever 
called it an age of shell. So, in the ruined cities of Jligsarlik, thejlrst 
five of them abounded in stone implements peculiar to the^Neolithic 
age, and while there may have been large numbers of iinplemelitsand 
utensils of other materials, yet this did not change it from the polished 
stone age. In any event, the reason given by Virchow i. e., that 
the use, undisputed, of copper, gold, and silver by the inhabitants of 
these cities is not evidence to change their culture status from that 
denominated as the polished stone age or period. 

Professor Virchow subsequently does sufficient justice to the antiquity 
of Schliemann s discoveries and says 1 while "it is impossible to assign 
these strata to the stone age, yet they are indications of what is the 
oldest known settlement in Asia Minor of a people of prehistoric times 
of some advance in civilization," and 2 that "no place in Europe is known 
which could be put in direct connection with any one of the six lower 
cities of Hissarlik." 

Professor Sayce also gives his opinion on the age of these ruins: 

The .antiquities, therefore, unearthed l>y Dr. Schliemann at Troy, acquire for us a 
double interest. They carry us hack to the later stone ages of the Aryan race. 


A consensus of the opinions of antiquarians is that the Swastika had 
no foothold among the Egyptians. Prof. Max Miiller is of this opinion 
as is also Count Goblet d Alviella. 4 

Waring 5 says: 

The only sign approaching the fylfot in Egyptian hieroglyphics that we have met 
is shown in fig. 3, pi. 41, where it forms one of the hieroglyphs of Isis, hut is not 
very similar to our fylfot. 

Mr. Greg says:* "In Egypt the fylfot does not occur." Many other 
authors say the same. Yet many specimens of the Swastika have been 
found in Egypt (figs. 130 to 13(i). Professor Goodyear, 7 says : 

The earliest dated Swastikas are of the third millenium U. C., and occur on the for 
eign Cypnan and Carian (?) pottery fragments of the time of the twelfth dynasty 
(in Egypt), discovered hy Mr. Flinders Petrie in 1889. (Kahun, Gnrob, and ITawara 
pi. 27, Nos. 1G2 and 173.) 

"Ilios,"app. 1, p. 685. 
2 - Ibid.,"app. 6, p. 379. 
3 "Trcja,"p. xii. 

"La Migration des Symboles," pp. 51, 52. 
; " Ceramic Art in Kemote Ages," p. 82. 
(i Archojologia, XLVII, pt. 1, p. 159. 

"Grammar of the Lotus/ pi. 30, figs. 2 and 10, p. 356. 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 1> 5, } 

Fig. 130. 



Naukratis, Ancient Egypt. Sixtl 
and fiftli centuries, P>. C. 

Petrie,Th:rd Memoir, Egypt Exploration Fun,! 
part 1, pi. 4, fig. 3, and Goodyear, Kraiiiina 
of the Lotus," pi. 60, fig. . 


Naul-ratis.Figs. 130 to 135, made after 
illustrations in Mr. W. Flinders Petrie s 
Third Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund 
(Pt. 1), found by him in Kaukratis, all show 

unmistakable Swas 
tikas. It should be 
explained that these 
/are said to be Greek 
\ vases which have 
/ been imported into 
/Egypt. So that, while 
found in Egypt and 
so classed geograph 
ically, they are not 
Egyptian, but Greek. 
Coptos (Acliwim- 
PanopoUx). Within 
r the past few years 
great discoveries 

have been made in Upper Egypt, in Sakkarah, 
Fayum, and Acluiiim^tlie last of which was 
the ancient city of Panopolis. The inhabit 
ants of Coptos and the surrounding or neigh 
boring cities were Christian Greeks, who mi 
grated from their count ry^TTufmg the first 
centuries of our era and settled in this land of 
Egypt. Strabo mentions these people and 
*neir ability as weavers and embroiderers. 
Discoveries have been made of their cemeteries, 
winding sheets, and grave clothes. These 
clothes have been subjected to analytic in 
vestigation, and it is the conclusion of M. 
Gerspach, the administrator of the national 
manufactory of the Gobelin tapestry, Paris, 1 
that they were woven in the same way as the 
Gobelins, and that, except being smaller, they 
did not differ essentially from them. He 
adds : 

These Egyptian tapestries and those of the Gobelius 
are the result of work which is identical except in some 
secondary details, so that I have been able, without 
difficulty, to reproduce these Coptic tapestries in the 
Gobelin manufactory. 

On one of these Coptic cloths, made of linen, 
reproduced in "Die Graber- und Tex ti If uncle 
von Achrnim-Panopolis," by R. Forrer, occurs 

<> { : 

Fig. 130a. 


Les Tapisseries Coptes," sec. 4, pp. 5, (5. 



a normal Swastika embroidered or woven, tapestry fashion, with 
woolen thread (fig. 13(J). It belongs to the first epoch, which includes 

Fig. lol. 


Naukratis, Ancient Egypt. 

I etrle, Thinl Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund, part 1, P l. 5, fig*. 15, 24. 

portions of thejirst and second centuries A. B. There were on these 
cloths an enormous amount of decoration, representing many figures, 

Fig. 132. 


Naukratis, Ancient Egypt. 

Petrie, Sixth Memoir of the F^ypt Exploration Fund, part -2, flff . 7, all(1 G o,ly,ar, "Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 30, fi 2. 

both natural and geometric, Among them was the Swastika variously 
applied and in different sixes, sometimes inserted in borders, and 



Fig. 133. 



Naukratis, Aurk-ut Egypt. 

IVtrir, Sixth Memoir of the Kgypt Exploration Fun.l, i>:irt . , 1>1. H, tig. 1. 

Fig. 134. 

Jsaukratis, Ancient Egypt. 

I etrie, Sixth Memoir the E^ypt Exploration Fuml, part >, pi. 8, fig. 1, ami Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. :W, ti. in. 



Fig. 135. 


Naukratis, Ancient Egypt. 

Petrie, Sixth M,,,oir of the E S yi>t Exploration Fun,!, part >, ],1. r,, %. 1. 

Fig. 136. 


Coptoa, Egypt. First and second centuries, A. I). 

Forrer, " Die Griiber- und Textilfunde von Achmin-Panopolis." 



sometimes adorning the corners of the tunics and togas as a large 
medallion, as shown in the figure. 1 


Waring, in his. "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ 7 discoursing upon the 
Swastika, which he calls fylfot, shows in pi. 4. *, fig. 2 (quoting from Dela- 

mare), the base of a col- 
/iimn from a ruined Ro- 


" man building in Algeria 
(fig. 137), on the torus of 
which are engraved two 
Swastikas, the a r m s 
crossing at right angles, 
all ends bent at right 
angles to the left. There 
are other figures (five 
and six on the same 
plate) of Swastikas from 
a Roman mosaic pave- 
iMnent in Algeria. Instead 
of being square,however, 
or at right angles, as 
might ordinarily be ex 
pected from mosaic, they are ogee. In one of the specimens the ogee 
ends finish in a point; in the other they finish in a spiral volute turning 
upon itself. The Swastika has been found on a tombstone in Algeria. 2 


Mr. R. B.yEneas McLeod, of Invergordon Castle, Ross-shire, Scotland, 
reported :i that, on looking over some curious bronze ingots captured at 
Coomassee in 1874, during the late Ashantee war, by Captain Eden, 
in whose possession they were 
at Inverness, he had found 
some marked with the Swas 
tika sign (fig. 138). These 
specimens were claimed to be 
aboriginal, but whether the 
marks were cast or stamped miox/E INGOTS I5EAHING SWAS^KAS. 

111 the ingot is not Stated. Comassee, Ashanter. 

Fig. 137. 


Roman ruins, Algeria. 

: Ornmio Art in Remote Ages," ] l. 4: ,, fitf. 2, quoting fr 


1 Forrer, "Die Griiber- imd Textilfunde von Aclimim-Pauopolis," p. 20. 

2 Bull. Soc. Fran?aise tie numisni. et d arclitfol., n, pi. 3, p. 3. 




The Swastika lias been discovered in Greece and in the islands of the 
Archipelago on objects of bronze and gold, but the principal vehicle 
was pottery 5 and of these the greatest number were the painted vases. 
It is remarkable that the vases on which the Swastika appears in the 

Fig. 140. 



Fig. 139. 


Continuous lines crossing each other at right 
angles forming figures resembling the Swas 

{^largest proportion should be the oldest, those belonging to the Archaic 
( period. Those already shown as having been found at Xaukratis, in 
) Egypt, are assigned by Mr. Flinders Petrie to the sixth and fifth cen- 
jturiesB. C., and their presence is accounted for by migrations from 

The Greek fret and Egyptian meander not thesameas the Swastika. Pro 
fessor Goodyear says:- "There is no proposition in archaeology which 
can be so easily demon 
strated as the assertion 
that the Swastika is 
originally a fragment of 
the Egyptian meander, 
provided Greek geo 
metric vases are called 
in evidence." 

Egyptian meander 
here means the Greek 
fret. Despite the ease 
with which he says it 
can be demonstrated 
that the Swastika was 
originally a fragment of 
the Egyptian meander, 
and with all respect for the opinion of so profound a student of classic 
ornament, doubts must arise as to the existence of the evidence neces 
sary to prove his proposition. 

Fig. 141. 



Dennis, " Ktruria," \, i>. rxiii. 

Fig. 142. 


:> the Loh 


pi. 60, 

p. 845. 
2 "Grammar of the Lotus," p. 352. 




Fig. 143. 


British Museum. 

Waring " Ceramic Art iu IU-mc>te Ages," pi. 41, (i-. 15. 

Professor Goodyear, and possibly others, ascribe the origin of the 
Swastika to the Greek fret ; but this is doubtful and surely has not been 

proved. It is difficult, if not impos 
sible, to procure direct evidence on 
the proposition. Comparisons may 
be made between the two signs; but 
this is secondary or indirect evidence, 
and depends largely on argument. 
ISTo man is so poor in expedients 
that he may not argue. Goldsmith s 
schoolmaster "e entho 7 vanquished, 
he could argue still." The Greek 
fret, once established, might easily 
be doubled or crossed in some of its 
members, thus forming a figure simi 
lar to the Swastika (fig. 139), which 
would serve as an ornament, but is 
without any of the characteristics of the Swastika as a symbol. The 
crossed lines in the 
Greek tret seem to 
have been altogether 
fortuitous. They gave 
it no symbolic charac 
ter. It Avas simply a 
variation of the fret, 
and at best was rarely 
used, and like it, was 
employed only for or 
nament and not with 
any signification not 
a sign of benediction, 
blessing, or good luck, as was the Swastika, The foundation principle 

of the Greek fret, so far as we can see its use, 
is its adaptability to form an extended orna 
mental band, consisting 
of doubled, bent, and 
sometimes crossed or in 
terlaced lines, always con 
tinuous and never ending, 
and running between two 
parallel border lines. Two 
interlacing lines can be 

used, crossing each other at certain places, both 
making continuous meanders and together forming 
the ornamental band (fig. 139). In the Greek fret 
the two lines meandered between the two borders 
back and forth, up and down, but always forming a continuous line. 
This seems to be the foundation principle of the Greek fret. In all this 

Fig. 114. 


Metropolitan Museum of Art, Xew York City. 

"esnola, " Cyprus, iU Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples," pi. -47, liy. 4n 

Fig. 145. 


Goodyear, "Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 1, tig. 11. 

Fig. 146. 

British Museum. 

Bohlau, Jahrbuch, 1SS5, p. 50, 
and Goodyear, " Grammar of 
the Lotus," pi. 37, fi^ . 9. 



requirement or foundation principle the Swastika fails. A row or band 

of Swastikas can not be made by continuous lines; each one is and 

must be separated from its 

fellows. The Swastika has 

four arms, each made by a 

single line which comes to 

an end in each quarter. 

This is more imperative 

with the meander Swastika 

than with the normal. If 

the lines be doubled on 
each other 
to be car 
ried along 
to form 
a ii o t h e r 
in the at 
tempt to 

Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples," appi 
Murray, p. 404, fig. 15. 



Cesla Cyprus ite Ancient 
Cities, Tombs, ami Temples," 
p. 300, and Ohnefalsch-Rfch- 

ter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., 

Fig. 147. 


make a cmoin,"c yi 
band, it 

will be found impossible. The four lines from each of 
the four arms can be projected, but each will be in a 
different direction, and no band can be made. It is 
somewhat difficult to describe this, and possibly not of 
great need. An attempt to carry out the project of 
WITH SWASTIKAS IN making a band of Swastikas, to 
be connected with each 
or to make them travel in 
given direction with continuous 
lines, will be found impossible. 
Professor Goodyear attempts to show how this 
is done by his figure on page 96, in connection 
with pi. 10, fig. 9, also figs. 173 and 174 (pp. 353 

and 354). These fig 
ures arc given in this 
paper and are, respec 
tively, Nos. 21, 25, 26, 
and 27. Exception is 
taken to the pretended 
line of evolution in 
these figures : (1) There 

is nothing to show any actual relationship 
between them. There is no evidence that 
they agreed either in locality or time, or that 
there was any unity of thought or design in 


Fig. 150. 


Bcjuotia, Greece. 

De Mortillet, " Musee Prehistori.jue," %. TJti5. 

Goodyea-r, "Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 61, lig. 1. 



MUSEUM, 1891. 

the minds of tlieir respective artists. (2) Single specimens are no 
evidence of custom. This is a principle of the common law which has 

Fig. 151. 


Waring. " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. I!: ., fit;. 2-1, and (, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. -IK, H-. r>. 

still a good foundation, and was as applicable in those days as it is 
now. The transition from the spiral to the Greek fret and from the 

Boiilan, Jah 

Fig. 152. 


Sunliawk, lotus,, and Swastikas. 

rli, 1886, pi. 8; K. iiiaohUevne Arclueologlque, 1885, II, p. 360 ; Pel-rot and Chipiez, 
in.l Cyprus," II ; Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 45, fig. . 


Greek fret to the Swastika can be shown only by the existence of the 
custom or habit of the artist to make them both in the same or adjoin- 

Fig. 153. 


Leydt-n Museum. 

Go...lyear, Grammar of the Lotus," pi. 61, %. 4. 

ing epochs of time, and this is not proved by showing a single speci 
men. (3) If a greater number of specimens were produced, the chain of 



evidence would still be incomplete, for the meander of the Greek fret will, 
as has just been said, be found impossible of transition into the mean 
der Swastika. It (the Swastika) does not extend itself into a band, but 
if spread at all, it spreads in each of theTfour "directions ( figs. 2.1 and 
25). The transition will be found much easier from the Greek meander 
fret to the normal Swastika and from that to the ^ 
meander Swastika than to proceed in the oppo- V 
site direction. Anyone who doubts this has j 

Fig. 154. 


Musce St. Germain. 

])e Mortiliet, " MuseePrehistorique," fig. j-jiu. 

Fig. 155. 


De Mortillet, " Musee Pr. historique," 

fi. 1944. 
% natural size. 

but to try to make the Swastika in a continuous or extended band or 
line (fig. 20), similar to the Greek fret. 

Figs. 133 and 134, from Naukratis, afford palpable evidence of the 
different origin of the Swastika and the Greek fret. Evidently Gre 
cian vases, though found in Egypt, these specimens bear side by side 
examples of the fret jiTul_the_^wai^ika_ and 

Fig. 156. 


Cesnola, " Cyprus, its Ancient Cities, Tombs, aii.l Temples," 

}il. 45, fig. 36. 

Fig. 157. 


Santorin, Ancient Tliera. 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote A-res," pi. 42, 
fig. 2. 

both of them complete and perfect. If one had been parent of the 
other, they would have belonged to different generations and would 
not have appeared simultaneously on the same specimen. Another 
illustration of simultaneous use is in fig. 194, which represents an 
Etruscan vase 2 ornamented with bronze nail heads in the form of 

1 See p. 795. 

2 Mate"riaux pour 1 Histoire Primitive efc Naturelle <le I Homme, xvm, p. 14, 



Swastikas, but associated with it is the design of the Greek fret, show 
ing them to be of contemporaneous use, and therefore not, as Professor 

Fig. 158. 


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 

C.HMlycnr, " Grammar ,.f the Lotus, pi. f,n, fi,;. 15. 

Goodyear believes, an evolution of one from the other. The specimen 
is in the Museum at Este, Italy. 

Fig. 159. 

Cesnola Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," RK- 151. 

The Greek fret has been in common use in all ages and all countries 
adopting the Grecian civilization. Equally in all ages and countries has 



appeared the crossed lines which have been employed by every architect 

and decorator, most or many of whom had no knowledge of the Swastika, 

either as an ornament or as a symbol. 1 

Swastika in panels. Professor Goodyear, in 

another place, 2 argues in a mann er which tacitly 

admits the foregoing proposition, where, in his 

endeavor to establish the true home of the 

Swastika to be in the Greek geometric style, 

he says we should 
seek it where it ap 
pears in u the largest 
dimension" and in 
u the most prominent 
way." In verification 
of this declaration, 
he says that in this 
style the Swastika 
systematically ap 
pears in panels ex 
clusively assigned to 
it. But he gives only 
two illustrations of 



Depth, 40 feet. 

Cesnuhi, " Cyprus, its Ancient Cities, Tombs, 
and Temples," p. 2 lit. 

Fig. 161. 


Ogee Swastika, tetraskelion in 


Sclilieiiuiiin, " Mycenae," fig. 3?<5. 

the Swastika in panels. 

These have been copied, and are shown in figs. 
140 and 142. The author has added other speci 
mens, figs. 141 to 148, from Dennis s "Etru- 
ria," from Waring s "Ceramic Art," and from 
Oesnola and Ohnefalsch-Kichter. It might be too much to say that 
these are tbe only Swastikas in Greece appearing in panels, but it 
is certain that the great 
majority of them do not 
thus appear. There 
fore, Professor Good- 
year s theory is not sus 
tained, for no one will 
pretend that four speci 
mens found in panels 
will form a rule for the 
great number which did 
not thus appear. This 
argument of Professor 
Goodyear is destructive 
of his other proposition 
that the Swastika sign originated by evolution from the meander or; 
Greek fret, for we have seen that the latter was always used in a baud 

] Athenic vases painted by Andokides, about 525 B. C v represent tbe dress of the 
goddess, ornamented with Swastika and Croix swasticale. Am. Jo urn. Arclueol., 
January-March, 1896, xi, No. 1, tigs. <), 11. 

2 " Grammar of tbe Lotus/ pp. 348, 353. 

Fig. 162. 



" Monument! Inedite," LXV, p. 2, and Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. -It;, fig. 1. 



and never iu panels. Although the Swastika and the Greek fret have 
a certain similarity of appearance in that they consist of straight lines 
bent at right angles, and this continued many times, yet the similarity 

Fig. 163. 


Sphinx with spiral scrolls, and two meander 

Swastikas (right). 


tin- I...tns," ].!. ::i, fi-. x. 

Fig. 104. 

3 hex, scroll, and meander Swastika (right). 

ihlau, .Inhrliui-li, 1>^7, .MI,II. 121, ami Gooilycar, "Gramma 
(.f Hit- Loins," pi. Ii!, %. - . 

is more apparent than real: for an analysis of the motifs of both show 
them to have been essentially different in their use, and so in their 
foundation and origin. 

Fig. 165. 


Kain, meander Swastika (left), circles, dots, and crosses. 

. "Necropole de Cainire," LI. ami Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," pi. JS, fi^. 7. 

Swastikas with four arms, crossing at right angles, with ends bent to 
the right. The author has called this the normal Swastika. He has 
been at some trouble to gather such Swastikas from Greek vases as was 



possible, and has divided them according to forms and peculiarities. 
The first group (figs. 140, 143, 140, 147, 148, and 150) shows the normal 
Swastika with four arms, all bent at right angles and to the right. In 
the aforesaid division no distinction has been made between specimens 
from different parts of Greece an I the islands of the Grecian Archi 

ng, inc. 


" I y of Art in I hrni.-iu ami Cyprus," II, j>. 3HO, fig. 2IJ7 ; Goodyear, " Grammar of the 1 
t Citi.-s, Tombs, and Temples," Appendix by Murray, p. -Hi), pi. -14 

C esnola, " Cyprus, its Ar 


pelago, and these, with such specimens as have been found in Smyrna, 
have for this purpose all been treated as Greek. 

Swastikas ivithfour arms crossing at right anylex, cntlx bent to the left. 

Figs. 141, 142, 144, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 150, and 157 represent the 
normal Swastika with four arms, all bending at right anglesjbut to tlio 
left. The vases on \vhicli they 
have been found are not 
scribed as to color or form, 
would be difficult to do so cor 
rectly; besides, these descrip 
tions are not important in our 
study of the Swastika. Fig. 
155 represents a vase or pitcher 
(oinochoe, Greek oivoSj wine, 
and j6G? 7 to pour) with painted 
Swastika, ends turned to the 
left. It is in the Museum of 
St. Germain, and is figured by 
M. ])e Mortillet in " Musee Pre- 
historique." Fig. 150 represents 

in the New York Museum. It is described by Cesnola 1 and by 
Perrot and Chipiez. 2 Fig. 157 is taken from a fragment of archaic / 
Greek pottery found in Santorin (Ancient Thera), an island in the 

1 " Cyprus, its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples," pi. 45, fig. 36. 
" History of Art in Pheiiicia and Cyprus/ n, p. 302, fig. 239. 

Pig. 1G7. 


Cosnola Collection, Metropolitan Musei 
York City. 

of Art, New 




Fig. 108. 


Cesnola Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Now 
York City. 

Greek Archipelago, This island was first inhabited by the Pheni- 
cians, afterwards by the (1 reeks, a colony of Avhom founded Gyrene 
in Africa. This specimen is cited by Kochette and figured by 
Waring. 1 

Swastikas with four arms crossing at other than right angles, the ends 
ogee and to the left. Figs. 158, 159, and 100 show Swastikas with four 

arms crossing at other than 
right angles, many of them 
ogee, but turned to the left. 
Fig. 101 is a representation 
of a wooden button or clasp, 
much resembling the later 
gold brooch of Sweden, class 
ified by Montelius (p. 807), 
covered with plates of gold, 
from Sepulcher iv, Mycenae 
(Schliemann, My cense, fig. 385, 
p. 259). The ornament in its 
center is one of the ogee 
Swastikas with four arms 
(tetraskelion) curved to the 

lyear," Grammar of the Lotus," ,,1.48, fig. 15. ] e ft. It gllOWS a(lot ill CJlCll 

,^of the four angles of the cross similar to the Suavastika of Max 

jMuller and the ( roix xicasticalc of Zmigrodzki, which Burnouf attrib- 

"\nted to the four nails which fastened the cross Arani (the female 

/principle), while the Pramantha (the male), produced, by rotation, 

the holy fire from the sacred cross. An almost exact reproduction 

of this Swastika will be found on 

the shield of the Pima Indians of 

New Mexico (fig. 258). 

Dr. Schliemann reports that the 

Swastika in its spiral form is rep 
resented innumerable times in the 

sculptured ceiling of the Thalamos 

in the treasury at Orchomeiios. 

(See figs. 21 and 25.) 
He also reports 2 that Swastikas 

(turned both ways) maybe seen in 

the Royal Museum at Berlin incised 

on a balustrade relief of the hall 
</which surrounded the temple of Athene at Pergamos. Fig. 102 repre 
sents a spiral Swastika with four arms crossing at right angles, the ends 

all turned to the left and each one forming a spiral. 

1 " Ceramic Art in Kemote Ages," pi. 42, fig. 2. 
a "Troja/ p. 123. 

Fig. 169. 


Figure of horse, solar diagram, Artemis with 
geese, and Swastikas (normal and meander, 
right and left). 

Goodyear, " Grammar of tlifi Lotus," j>l. fil, fit:. I - 1 . 



Waring 1 figures and describes a Grecian oinochoe from Camirus, 
Rhodes, dating, as lie says, from 700 to 500 B. 0., on which, is a band 
of decoration similar to fig. 130. It is about 10 inches high, of cream 
color, with ornamentation of dark brown. Two ibexes follow each other 
with an ogee spiral Swastika between the forelegs of one. 

Meander patter n, with ends bent to right and left. Figs. 103, 164, and 
165 show the Swastika in meander pattern. Fig. 163 shows two Swas 
tikas, the arms of both 
bent to the right, one 
six, the other nine times. 
The Swastika shown in 
fig. 164 is bent to the 
right eight times. That 
shown in fig. 165 bends 
to the left eight times. 

Swastikas of different 
kinds on the same object. 
The next group (figs. 167 
to 176) is of importance 
in that it represents ob 
jects which, bearing the 

normal Swastika, also show on the same object other styles of Swas 
tika, those turned to the left at right angles, those at other than right 
angles, and those which are spiral or meander. The presence on a 
single object of different forms of Swastika is considered as evidence of 
showing them tobe alfthe same sign that is, they were all Swastikas, 

Fig. 170. 


of geese, circles and dots, and Swastikas (right and left). 
British Museum. 

"Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 97, fig. !>. 

Fig. 171. 

Geese, lotus circles, and two Swastikas (right and left). 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," p. 271, %. 145. 

whether the arms were bent to the right_or to the left, ogee or in curves, 
at right angles_or_ atother thauright angles, in spirals or meanders. 

Many exampieaToi 1 vases simHartofig. 172 are shown in the London, 
Paris, and New York museums, and in other collections. (See figs. 
149, 159.) Fig. 174 shows an Attic painted vase (Lcbes] of the 
Archaic period, from Athens. It is a pale yellowish ground, probably the 

1 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ frontispiece, fig. 3, and p. 115. 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 54 



natural color, with figures in maroon. It belongs to the British Museum. 
It bears on the front side five Swastikas, all of different styles; three 
turn to the right, two to the left. The main arms cross at right angles, 
but the ends of four are bent at right angles, while one is curved 
(ogee). Three have the ends bent (at right angles) four times, making 
a meander form, while two make only one bend. They seem not to be 
placed Avith any reference to each other, or to any other object, and are 

Fig. 172. 


Ibex, lotus, geese, and six Swastikas (normal, meander, and oge, all left)., " Grammar of the Lotus," p. - 51, pi. 38. 1 

scattered over the field as chance or luck might determine. A speci 
men of Swastika interesting to prehistoric archaeologists is that on a 
vase from Cyprus (Musee St. Germain, No. 21557), on which is repre 
sented an arrowhead, stemmed, barbed, and suspended by its points 
between the Swastika. 3 

Dr. Max Ohnefalsch-Bichter presented a paper before the Societe 

, similar in style, with Swastikas, is shown in the "Grammar 
of the Lotus/ pi. 37, fig. 4. 

-Matoriaux pour 1 Histoire Primitive et Natiirelle <le THornine, 1881, xvi, p. 416 



d Anthropologie in Paris, December 0, 1888, reported in the Bulletin of 
that year (pp. 668-081). It was entitled "La Croix gammee et la Croix 
caiitonnee en Chypre." (The Croix gammee is the Swastika, while 
the Croix cantonncc is the 
cross with dots, the Croix 
sicasticale of Zmigrodzki.) In 
this paper the author describes 
his finding the Swastika dur 
ing his excavations into pre 
historic Cyprus. On the first 
page of his paper the follow 

ing statement appears: 

Fig. 173. 


Deer, solar diagrams, and three Swastikas (single, 

double, and meander, right). 


/,., " Meliosche ThoujrefasHe," an.l Goo.lyeur, " Grammar of the Lotus," 

The Swastika comes from India 
as an ornament jn form of a cone 
(conique) of metal, gold, silver, or 
bronze gilt, worn on the ears (see 
G. Perrot: "llistoire de 1 Art," in, 
p. 562 et fig. 384), and nose-rings (see 
S. Keinach : " Chronique d Orient," 
3 e s<5rie, t. iv r , 1886). I was the first to make known the nose-ring worn by the god 
dess Aphrodite-Astarte, even at Cyprus. In the Indies the women still wear these 
ornaments in their nostrils and ears. The fellahin of Egypt also wear similar 
jewelry ; but as Egyptian art gives us no example of the usage of these ornaments in 

Fig. 174. 



ch, < History of Ancient Pottery," quote,! by Waring in " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," ,,l. 41, fig. 15 ; Dennis, " The Cities and 

Cemeteries of Etruria," i, j>. 91 . 

antiquity, it is only from the Indies that the Phenicians could have borrowed them. 
The nose-ring is unknown in the antiquity of all countries which surrounded the 
island of Cyprus. 

The first pages of his memoir are employed in demonstrating that 



the specimens of the Swastika foundjnCy^rus, the most of which are 
set forth in this paper (ngs.TT7=TS2)^hq^ and 

according to his theory demonstrate their mi 
gration or importation. He does not specify 
the evidence on which he bases his assertion 
of Phenician influence in Cyprus, except in 
one or two par 
ticulars. Speak 
ing of the spec- 

mfn ^ !i imeu shown in 

Ml 6 Irn iig. 177 of the 
present paper, 
he says : 

It represents the 
sacred palm under 
which Apollo, the 
god of light, was 
Lorn. * At 

Cyprus the palm 
did not appear 
only with the Phe- 
nicians; it was 
not known prior to 
that time (p. 674). 

The design shown in fig. 178 he de 
scribes as representing two birds in the 
attitude of adoration before a Swastika, 
all being figured on a Greek cup of the 
style Dipylon. 1 

Dr. Ohnefalsch-Kichter adds: 

Tig. 175. 


SerpentH, crosses, and Swastikas 
(normal, right, left, and mean 

Goodyear, " Grammar of the Lotus," V \. 6<>, 
fig. 9. 

Ohnefclach-RU.-!^, Bull. Soc. d A 

On the vases of Dipylon the Swastikas are generally e 

nients, mostly meanders. But this is not 
"rule in Cyprus. The Swastika disappeared 
from there as it came, in its sacred form, with 
the Phenician influence, with the Phenician 
inscriptions on the vases, with the concentric 
circles without central points or tangents. 

He says 2 that the Swastika as well 
as the "Croix cantonnee" (with points 
( or dots), while possibly not always the 
equivalent of the solar disk, zigzag 
{ lightning, or the double hatchet, yet 
/ are employed together and are given 
^ signification, and frequently 

replace each other. It is his opinion 3 

Ohnefalsch-R,chter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888. P . ^j. ^ g WaS tika ill CypIUS had UCarly 

673, fig. 3. __ _ _ . __ 

IG . Hiwchfield, "Vasi archaici Ateniesi," Aiioali dell Institute di corrispondenza 

archii-ologica, 1872, Tav. d Ag. K. 6, 52. 

2 Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, pp. 674-675. 

3 Ibid., p. 675. 

Fig. 177. 




Fig. 178. 


Musee St. Germain. 

Ohnefalsrh-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 
1888, p. 674, fig. 6. 

always a signification more or less religious, although it may have been 
used as an ornament to fill empty spaces. His interpretation of the 
Swastika in Cyprus is that it will signify tour a tour the storm, the light 
ning, the sun, the light, the seasons 
sometimes one, sometimes another of 
these significations and that its form 
lends itself easily (facilement) to the^ohrr 
disk, to the fire wheel, and to the sun 
chariot. In support of 
this, he cites a figure -A 
(fig. 179) taken from 
Cesnola, 1 in which the 

wheels of the chariot are decorated with four Swas 
tikas displayed in each of the four 
quarters. The chief personage on 
the car he identifies as the god of 
Apollo-Eesef, and the decoration 
on his shield represents the solar 
disk. He is at once the god of 
war and also the god of light, 
which identifies him with Helios^ 
The other personage is Herakles/ 
Mecquars, the righthand of Apollo, 
both of them heroes of the sun. 

The su 
preme god- 
dess of the 

Isle of Cyprus was JAphrodite-Astarte, 2 whose 
presence with a prepon 
derating Phenieiaii in 
fluence can be traced 
back to the period of the 
age of iron, her images 
bearing signs of the 
Swastika, being, accord 
ing to Dr. Olmefalsch- 
Richter, found in Cyprus. 
In fig. 180 the statue of 
this goddess is shown, 
which he says Avas found 
by himself in 1884 at 
Curium. It bears four 

Swastikas, two on the shoulders and two on 
the forearms. Fig. 181 represents a centaur 
found by him at the same time, on the right arm of which is a Swastika 
painted in black, as in the foregoing statue. 

Fig. 179. 


Snn 8j-mbol(?) on shield and four Swastikas (two 
right and two left) on quadrants of chariot wheels. 

Cesnnla, " Salaminia," p. 240, fig. 22fi, and Ohnefalsch-Rirhter, 
., Paris, 1X88, p. 675, fig. 7. 

Bull. Soc. d Anthr 

Fig. 180. 


Curium, Cyprus. 

O .inefalsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthjop., 
Paris, 1888, p. 676, fig. 8. 

Fig. 181. 


Cesnola, "Salaminia," p. 243, fig. 230; 
Ohnefalsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d An 
throp., Paris, 1888, p. 676, fig. fl. 

"Salaminia," p. 240, fig. 226. 

2 Aphrodite = Phenieiaii Ashtoreth, Astarte= Babylonian Ishtar. 

3 See p. 773. 



We have found, in the course of this paper, many statues of human 
figures bearing the mark of the Swastika on some portion of their gar 
ments. M. Ohiiefulsch-liichter, on page G77, gives the following expla 
nation thereof: 

It appears to me that the priests and priestesses, also the boys who performed the 
; services in the sacred places, were in the habit of burning or tattooing Swastikas 
upon their arms. In 1885, among th* votive offerings found in one of tho 

. sacred places dedicated to Aphrodite- Astoret, near Idalium, was a stone statuette, 
I representing the young Adonis Kiiiyras in a squatting posture, with tlie Swastika 
( tattooed or painted in red color upon his naked arm. 

And, says Kichter, when, later on, the custom of 
tattooing had disappeared, they placed the Swastika 
on the sacerdotal garments. He has found in a 
Greek tomb in 1885, near Polistis Chrysokon, two 
statuettes representing female dancers in the service 
of Aphrodite-Ariadne, one of which (fig. 182) bore 
six or more Swastikas. In other cases, says he 
(p. G78), the Croix cantonnee (the Croix swasticale 
of Zmigrodzki) replaced the Swastika on the gar 
ments, and he cites the statue of Hercules strangling 
the lion in the presence of Athena, whose robe is 
ornamented with the Croix cantonnee. He repeats 
that the two signs of the cross represent the idea 
of light, sun, sacrifice, rain, storm, and the seasons. 

Fig. 182. 


Six Swastikas (four 
right and two loft). 
Polistis Chrysokon. 

Ohnefalsch-Richtcr, Bull. So. . 
d Anthrop., 1 uris, ]*SN, }>. 
677, fig. 10. 


Prehistoric archaeologists claim that bronze was 
introduced into Europe in prehistoric times from the 
extreme Orient. The tin mines of the peninsula of 
Burma and Siam, with their extension into China 
on the north, Malacca and the islands of the archipelago on the 
south, are known to have been worked in extremely ancient times and 
are believed to have furnished the tin for the first making of bronze. 
The latter may not be susceptible of proof, but everything is consistent 
therewith. After it became known that copper and tin would make 
bronze, the discovery of tin would be greatly extended, and in the 
course of time the tin mines of Spain, Britain, and Germany might be 
opened. A hundred and more prehistoric bronze foundries have been 
discovered in western Europe and tens of thousands of prehistoric 
bronze implements. If bronze came originally from the extreme 
Orient, and the Swastika belonged there also, and as objects of bronze 
belonging to prehistoric times and showing connection with the Orient, 
like the tintinnabulum (fig. 29) have been found in the Swiss lake 
dwellings of prehistoric times, it is a fair inference that the Swastika 


mark found on the same objects came also from the Orient. ThisA 
inference is strengthened by the manufacture and continuous* use of] 
the Swastika on both bronze and pottery, until it practically covered, 
and is to be found over, all Europe wherever the culture of bronze prel/ 
vailed. Nearly all varieties of the Swastika came into use during theV 
Bronze Age. The objects on which it was placed may have been 
different in different localities, and so also another variety of form 
may have prevailed in a given locality; but, subject to these exceptions, 
the Swastika came into general use throughout the countries wherein 
the Bronze Age prevailed. As we have seen, on the hill of Hissarlik ^ 
the Swastika is found principally on the spindle- whorl; in Greece and ( 
Cyprus, on the pottery vases; in Germany, on the ceintures of bronze; | 
in Scandinavia, on weapons and on toilet and dress ornaments. In/ 
Scotland and Ireland it was mostly on sculptured stones, which are/ 
many times themselves ancient Celtic crosses. In England, France,* 
a-Ld Etruria, the Swastika appears on small bronze ornaments, princi 
pally fibulae. Different forms of the Swastika, i. e., those to the right, 
left, square, ogee, curved, spiral and meander, triskelion and tetraske- 
lion, have been found on the same object, thereby showing their inter 
relationship. No distinction is apparent between the arms bent to the^ 
right or to the left. This difference, noted by Prof. Max Miiller, seems 
to fail altogether. 
Greg says : l 

About 500 to 600 B. C., the fylfot, (Swastika) curiously enough begins to dis- S 
appear as a favorite device of early Greek art, and is rarely, if ever, seen on the^ 
regular Etruscan vase. 

This indicates that the period of the use of the Swastika during the 
Bronze Age in Europe lay back of the period of its disappearance in 
the time of early Greek art, and that it was of higher antiquity than 
would otherwise be suspected. 

Dr. Max Ohnefalsch-Kichter says: 2 

The Swastika makes absolute default in Cyprus during all the age of bronze and / 
n all its separate divisions according as the vases were decorated with intaglio or ^ 
relief, or were painted. 

Etruria and Itahj.The Etruscans were a prehistoric people. The 
country was occupied during the two ages of stone, Paleolithic and 
Neolithic, and during the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were probably 
the descendants of the Bronze Age people. The longest continued 
geographical discussion the world has heard was as to who were the 
Etruscans, and whence or % ichat route did they come to their country? 
It was opened by Herodotus and Dionysius Halicarnassus in the fourth 
century B. C.; while Dr. Brinton and the late President Welling have- 
made the latest contributions thereto. The culture of the Etruscans 

1 Archreologia, XLVIII, pt. 2, p. 305. 

2 Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, p. 679. 




was somewhat similar to that of the Bronze Age peoples, and many of 
the implements had great resemblance, but with sufficient divergence 
to mark the difference between them. There were different stages of 
culture among the Etruscans, as can be easily and certainly determined 
from their tombs, modes of burial, pottery, etc. 

The Swastika appears to have been employed in all these epochs or 
stages. It was undoubtedly used during the Bronze Age, and in Italy 
it continued throughout the Etruscan and into the Roman and Christian 


While it may be doubtful if any specimen of Swastika can be identi 
fied as having belonged to the Neolithic Age- in Europe, there can be 
no doubt that it was in common use during the Bronze Age. Professor 
Goodyear gives it as his opinion, and in this he may be correct, that 
the earliest specimens of Swastika of which identification can be made 
are on the hut urns of central Italy. These have been considered as 

belonging definitely to the ./ 
Bronze Age in that country.-" 
Fig. 183 is a representation of 
one of these hut urns. It 
shows upon its roof several 
specimens of Swastika, as will 
be apparent from examina 
tion. There are other figures, 
incised and in relief. One of 
them is the celebrated u burn 
ing altar mark of Dr. Schlie- 
inann. This specimen was 
found iii the Via Appia near 
Rome, and is exhibited in 
the Vatican Museum. Similar 
specimens have been found in 
other parts of Etruria. The 
author saw in the Municipal 
Museum at Corneto many of 
them, which had been exca 
vated from the neighboring 
cemetery, of . tbe^prj^bistoric 

city of Corneto-Tarquinii. They were of pottery, but made as TTtb 
represent rude huts of skin, stretched on cross poles, in general appear 
ance not unlike the cane and rush conical cabins used to this day by the 
peasants around Rome. They belonged to the Bronze Age, and ante 
dated the Etruscan civilization. This was demonstrated by the finds 
at Corneto-Tarquinii. Tombs to the number of about 300, containing 
them, were found, mostly in 1880-81, at a lower level than, and were 
superseded by, the Etruscan tombs. They contained the weapons, 
tools, and ornaments peculiar to the Bronze Age swords, hatchets, 
pins, fibula, bronze and pottery vases, etc., the characteristics of which 

Fig. 183. 


Burning altar" mark associated with Swastikas. 
Etruria (Bronze Age). 



were different from Etruscan objects of similar purpose, so they could 
be satisfactorily identified and segregated. The hut urns were recep- . 
tacles for the ashes of the cremated dead, which, undisturbed, are to 
be seen in the museum. The vases forming part of this grave furni 
ture bore the Swastika mark ; three have two Swastikas, one three, one 
four, and another no less than eight. 

Dennis figures a hut urn from Alba Longa, 1 and another from the 
Alban Mount. 2 He says (note 1) : 

These remarkable urns were first found in 1817 at Montecucco, near Marino, and at 
Monte Crescenzio, near the Lago do Castello, beneath a stratum of pcperlno (tufa) 
18 inches thick. They were embedded in a yellowish volcanic ash and rested on a 
lower and earlier stratum of pepermo.* 

Curiously enough, the three or fourjQronged mark^called " burning- 
altar" by Dr. Schliemann, is on both hut urns in Dennis s "Cities 
and Cemeteries of Etruria." Dr. Schliemann argues strongly in favor 
of the relationship between Swastika and the " burning altar " sign, 
but assigns no other reason than the similarity of the marks on the two 
objects. He appears unable, in " Ilios," to cite any instance of the 
Swastika being found on the hut urns in connection with the " burning 
altar" sign, but he mentions the Swastika five times repeated on one 
of the hut urns in the Etruscan collection in the museum of the Vati 
can at Rome. 4 The photograph of the hut urn from the A atican (fig. 
183) supplies the missing link in Schliemann s evidence. The roof of 
the hut urn bears the " burning altar" mark (if it be a burning altar, 
as claimed), which is in high relief (as it is in the Dennis specimens), 
and was wrought in the clay by the molder when the hut was made. 
Such of the other portions of the roof as are in sight show sundry 
incised lines which, being deciphered, are found to be Swastikas or 
parts of them. The parallelogram in the front contains a cross and has 
the appearance of a labyrinth, but it is not. The other signs or marks, 
however, represent Swastikas, either in whole or in part. This speci 
men completes the proof cited by^Schliemann, and associates 
Swastika with the "burning altar" sign in the Etruscan country, as 
well as on the hill of Ilissarlik and in other localities. 

Dennis supposes the earliest Etruscan vases, called by many different 
names, to date from the twelfth century B. C. to 540 B. C., 5 the latter 
being the epoch of Theodoros of Samos, whose improvements marked 
an epoch in the culture of the country. He says: 

These vases were adorned with annular bands, zigzag, waves, meanders, con 
centric circles, hatched lines, Swastikas, and other geometric patterns. 

] " Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," i, p. 69. 

2 Ibid., ir, p. 457. 

3 Anuali delF Institute, Rome, 1871, pp. 239-279; Bulletino Institute, Rome, 1871, 
pp. 34-52; Pigorini and Sir John Lubbock, " Notes on Hut Urns and other objects 
from Marino," London, 1869; Virchow, "Die Huttenuruen von Marino," Berlin, 1883. 

<"Troja,"p. 122. 

5 "Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," i, p. Ixxxix. 



Fig. 184. 



Cunia-, Italy. 

Waring, " (Yrainic Art in Remote Agt-s," },1. -U , %. 1. 

A fragment of Archaic Greek pottery is reported by Eochette from 
the necropolis of Cumjje, in the campagna of Italy, and is shown in fig! 

184. Eochette reports it as an exam 
ple of a very early period, believed by 
him to have been Phenician. When 
we consider the rarity of Phenician 
pottery in Italy compared with the 
great amount ot Greek pottery found 
there, and that the Phenicians are not 
known to have employed the Swas 
tika, this, combined with the difficulty 
of determining the place of origin of 
such a fragment, renders it more likely 
to have been Greek than Phenician. 
A reason apparently moving Eochette 
to this decision was the zigzag orna 
mentation, which he translated to be a 
Phenician sign for water; but this 
pattern Avas used many times and in many places Avithout having any 
such meaning, and is no proof of his 

Figs. 185 and 18G represent the one- 
handled cinerary urns peculiar to the 
Bronze Age in Italy. They are be- 
lieA 7 ed to have been contemporaneous 
with or immediately succeeding the 
hut urns just 
shown. T li e 
cinerary urn 
shown in fig. 
185 Avas found 
at Marjtio, 
near Albano, 
in the same lo 
cality and un 
der the same 
condition as 
the hut urns. 

Fig. 186. 

Fig. 185. 


Sail Mariiio, near Albano, Italy. 
Vatican Museum. 

The original is in the Vatican Museum and Avas 
figured by Pigorini in "Archseologia," I860. 
Fig. 180 shows a one-handled urn of pottery 
with Swastika (left) in intaglio, placed in a 
band of incised squares around the body of the 
vessel below the shoulder. A small though 
good example of Etruscan AA r ork is shoAvn in the gold fibula (fig. 187). 
\ Jt is ornamented on the outside with the fine gold filigree Avork peculiar 


Cervetri, Italy. 

"Conestabile due Disci! in Bronzo," j.l. 5, 

fig. 2. 
-?i natural size. 



to the best Etruscan art. On the inside are two Swastikas. Jt is in 
the Vatican Museum of Etruscan antiquities. Fig. 188 represents 
another specimen of Etruscan gold filigree work with a circle and 

Swastika. It is a a bulla," an ornament 
said to indicate the rank of the wearer 
among the Etruscan people. It is deco 
rated with a circle and Swastika inside. 
The figure is taken from 
u L Art pour Tous," 
J-]87 . and is reproduced by 


Etruscan Museum, Vatican. 

Catalogue of the Etruscan Museum, part 1, pi. W, tig. C,. 
}4 natural size. 

Fig. 188. 


Waring, " Ceramic Art in Re 
mote Ages," pi. 4 2, fix. 4,,. 


An ornamental 
Swastika (fig. 189) is 
found on a silver bowl 

from Cervetri (Caere), Etrurin. It is furnished by 

Grifi, and reproduced by Waring. This specimen is 

to be remarked as having a small outward nourish 

from the extreme end of each arm, somewhat similar 

to that made by the Jains (fig. 33), or on the "Tablet of honor" of 

Chinese porcelain (fig. 31). Fig. 190 shows an Etruscan bronze fibula 
with two Swastikas and two Maltese crosses in 
the pin shield. It is in the Museum of Copen 
hagen, and is taken from 
the report of the Congres 
Internationale d Authropo- 
logie et d Archa^ologie Pre- 
historique, Copenhagen, 
1875, page 480. This speci 
men, by its rays or crotch 
ets around the junction of 
the pin with the shield, fur 
nishes the basis of the argument by Goblet d A.1- 

viella 1 that the Swastika was evolved from the 

circle and was a symbol of the sun or sun-god. 

(See p. 785.) 
Bolognawas the siteof the Eoman city Bononia, 

and is supposed to have been that of Etruscan 

Felsina. Its Etruscan cemetery is extensive. 

Different names have been given to the excava 
tions, sometimes from the owner of the land and 

at other times from the names of excavators. The 

first cemetery opened was called Villanova. The 

culture was different from that of the other parts 

of Etruria. By some it is believed to be older, by others younger, than 

the rest of Etruria. The Swastika is found throughout the entire 

1 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 67. 

2 See p. 786. 


Cervetri (Caere), Etruria. 

Waring, "Ceramic Art in Remote 
Ages,"j>l. 41, fig. IS. 

Fig. 100. 


Copenhagen Museum. 

Goblet d Alviella, fig. 19 a, De Mortillet, 

" Muse"e Prehistorique," iig. 1203. 

Ji natural size. 



Yillanova epoch. Fig. 191 shows a pottery vase from the excavation 
Arnoaldi. It is peculiar in shape and decoration, but is typical of that 
epoch. The decoration was by stamps in the clay (intaglio) of a given 
subject repeated in the narrow bands around the body of the vase. Two 
of these bands were of small Swastikas with the ends all turned to the 

right. Fig. 192 shows a fragment of pottery 
from the Felsina necropolis, Bologna, orna 
mented with a row of Swastikas stamped 
into the clay in a manner peculiar to the 

Fi<r. 193 shows the end view of one of the 


bobbins from Bologna, Italy, in the posses 
sion of Count Gozzadini by whom it was 
collected. The decoration on the end, as 
shown by the figure, is the Swastika. The 
main arms are made up of three parallel 
lines, which intersect each other at right 
angles, and which all turn to the right at 
right angles. The lines are not incised, 
as is usual, but, 
like much of the 
decoration belong 
ing to this culture, 
are made by little 

Fig. 191. 


Necropolis Arnoaldi, Bologna. 
Museum of*Bologna. 

Goz/.;i lini, " Seavi ArchH-olojfici," etc., pi. 4, fig. S. 

points consecutively placed, so as to give the 
appearance of a continuous line. 

Swastikas turning both ways are on one 
or both extremities of many terra-cotta cyl 
inders found in the terramare at Coazze, 
province of Verona, de 
posited in the National 
(Kircheriano) Museum at 
Rome. (See figs. 380 and 

y.t namrai size. 

381 for similar bobbins.) 

The museum at Este, Italy, contains an elegant 
pottery vase of large dimensions, represented in 
fig. 194, the decoration of which is the Greek fret 
around the neck and the Swastika around the body, 
done with small nail heads or similar disks inserted 
in the clay in the forms indicated. This association 
of the Swastika and the Greek fret on the same 
>/ object is satisfactory evidence of their contemporaneous existence, and 
is thus far evidence that the one was not derived from the other, espe 
cially as the authorities who claim this derivation are at variance as to 
which was parent and which, child. (See fig. 133.) 

A Swastika of the curious half-spiral form turned to the left, such 

Fig. 192. 


Necropolo Felsmea, Italy. 
Museo Bologna. 

Gozzadini, " Due Sepolcri," etc., p. 7. 

Fiji. 193. 


Typo Villanova, Bologna. 

De Mortillet, " Musee Prt?hist<>- 
riqui ," iig. 1239. 



Fig. 194. 


Este, Italy. 

Mate"riaux pour 1 Histoire Primiiiveet Na- 
turelle de 1 Homine, 188-4, p. 14. 

as lias been found iu Scandinavia and also among the Pueblo Indians 

of the United States, is in the museum at Este. 
When in the early centuries of the Christian era the Huns madejl 

their irruption into Europe, they apparently possessed a knowledge or! 

the Swastika. They settled in certain towns of northern Italy, drove 

off the inhabitants, and occupied the territory 

for themselves. On the death of Attila and 

the repulse of the Huns and their general 

return to their native country, many small 

tribes remained and gradually became assim 
ilated with the population. They have re 
mained in northern Italy under the title of 

Longobards. In this Lougobardiau civiliza\/ 

tion or barbarism, whichever we may call it, 

and in their "style of architecture and orna 
ment, the Swastika found a prominent place, 

and is spoken of as Longobardian. 
Itis needless to multiply citations of the Swas- , 

tika in Roman and Christian times. It would/ 

would appear as though the sign had descended! 

from the Etruscans and Samnites along the) 

coast and had con tinned in use during Roman times. 
Schlieinann says l that it is found frequently in the 
wall paintings at Pompeii ; even more than a hun 
dred times in a house in the recently excavated 
street of Vesuvius. It may have contested with 
the Latin cross for the honor of being the Christian 
cross, for we know that the St. Andrew s cross in 
connection with the Greek letter P (fig. 6) did so, 
and for a long time stood as the monogram of 

Christ and was the Labarum of Constantine. 

All three of these are on the base of the Archi- 

episcopal chair in the cathedral at Milan. 2 
Siviss lake dwellings. Figs. 195 and 19G are 

interesting as giving an insight into the method 

of making the sign of the Swastika. Fig. 195 

shows a fragment of pottery bearing a stamped 

intaglio Swastika (right), while fig. 196 repre 
sents the stamp, also in pottery, with which the 

imprint was made. They are figured by Keller, 3 

and are described on page 339, and by Chantre. 4 

They were found in the Swiss lake dwelling of Bourget (Savoy) by the 

Due de Chaulues, and are credited to his Iflrtseum of Chambery. 

>"Ilios,"p. 352. 

2 There are bronze hatchets from Italy, with Swastikas in intaglio and in relief, in 
Muse~e St. Germain. De Mortillet, "Musee" Prehistorique," iigs. 1153, 1154. 
3 Lake Dwellings," pi. 161, figs. 3, 4. 
4 " Age du Bronze," pt. 2, tiga. 53-55, p. 195. 

Fig. 195. 


Fig. 196. 


Swiss lake dwelling of Bourget, 

Mus6e de Cliaiiib6ry. 

Chantre, " Age du Bronze," figs. 53, 55, 
and Keller, "Lake Dwellings of Eu 
rope," pi. 161, fig. 3. 



Germany and Austria. Fig. 197 represents a fragment of a cein- 
ture of thin bronze of the Halstattieu epoch of the Bronze Age from a 
tumulus in Alsace. It 
is made after the style 
common to that period; 
the work is repousse and 
the design is laid off by 

Fig. 197. 


Thin bronze repousse -with Swastikas of various kinds. 
Bronze Age, Halstattien epoch. 

De Mortillet, " Muse"e I rehistorique," fig. 1255. 

Fig. 198. 

Thin bronze open work with intricate Swas 
Halstattien epoch. 

]>* Mortill.-t, "Miis. I r. -historiinif," f\ K . 1 J.iT, mid 
Chantrc. "Le Caucasty n, p. . r >rt, fit;. ii5. 

diagonal lines which 
divide the field into loz 
enges, wherein the Swas 
tika is represented in va 
rious forms, some turned 

square to the right, others to the left, while one is in spiral and is turned 

to the left. Other forms of the cross 
also appear with dots in or about the 
( corners, which Burnouf associates with 
|the myth of Agni and fire making, and 
jwhich Zmigrodzki calls the Croix swas- 
Vicale. This specimen is in the collec 
tion Vessel at Haguenau. Another 
ceinture was found at the same place 
and is displayed with it. 
Jt bears representations 
of the cross of different 
forms, one of which might 
be a Swastika with dotted 
cross lines, with the arms 

turned spirally to the left. Fig. 198 represents another 
fragment of a bronze ceinture from .the same country and 
belonging to the same epoch. It is from the tumulus of 

Metzstetten, Wiirtemberg, 
and is in the Museum of 
Stuttgart. It is not re 
pousse, but is cut in open 
work of intricate pattern in which the 
Swastika is the principal motif. A 
bronze fibula (fig. 199) is in the museum 
at Mayence, the body of which has the 
form of the normal Swastika. The arms 
are turned to the right and the lower 
one is broken off. The hinge for the 
pin was attached at one side or arm of 
the Swastika and the retaining clasp 
for the point at the other. Fig. 200 
represents a prehistoric sepulchral urn 
\, with a large Swastika, the arms being indicated by three parallel 
lines, after the same manner as the Swastika on the clay bobbin from 

Fig. 11)9. 


Museum of May 

IV Murtill.-t, "Musu. 


Fig. 200. 

North Germany. 

Waring, "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. , fig. 94. 



Bologna (fig. 19o). It is reported by Liscli and Schroter, though the 

locality is not given. It is figured by Waring, 
and decoration are of the type Villanova, thus 
identifying it with northern Italy. 

The Swastika sign is on one of the three 

pottery vases found on Bishops Island, near 

Konigswalde, on the right bank of the Oder, 

and on a vase from lieichersdorf, near Guben ; 

l^on a vase in the county of Lipto, Hungary, 2 

and on pottery from the Cavern of Barathegy, 

H uugary. 3 Fig. 201 represents a spearhead of 

iron from B rai i d en burg ? North Ger i n a n y . It 

bears the mark of the Swastika with the ends 

turned to the left, all being at right angles, 

fthe ends ornamented with three dots recalling 

yZmigrodzki s Croix swasticale (figs. 12 and 13). 

43y tlie side of this Swastika is a triskelion, or 

tliree armed ogee sign, with itsends also~dec- 

orated with the same three dots. 

What relation there is between all these 
marks or signs and others similar to them, but 
separated by great distances of both time and 
space, it would be mere speculation to divine. 
M. E. Chantre reports his investigations 
in certain Ilalstattien cemeteries in Italy 
and Austria, 4 At San Margarethen, on the 
road between Kudolfswerth and Kronau, Ba 
varia, he encountered a group of tumuli. 
Many objects of the " bel age du bronze" 

were found: 

The form, appearance, 

Fig. 201. 


Brandenburg, Germany. 

Waring, "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 

44, fig. 

,d" Viking Age 

Fig. 202. 


Chantre, Ms 

naux pou 
de I Hoin 

1 Histoire Primitivt 
ne, 1884, pp. 14, 120. 

Belgium, possesses 

s a 

among others, 
a bronze pin 
(fig. 202) with a 
short stein, but 
large, square, 
flat head, was 

found, with a normal Swastika engraved 
with small dots, pointille, such as has 
been seen in Italy, Austria, and Armenia. 
Belgium. The Museum of Xamur, 
small object of bone, both points of which have 

1 Zeitschrift fiir Ethnographic, Berlin, 1871 and 1876. 

2 Coll. Majlath Bela: Hainpel, "Antiquite s Prdhistoriques de la Hongrie;" Er/ter- 
gom, 1877, pi. 20, No. 3. 

3 Hampel, u Catalogue de 1 Exposition des Musdes des Provinces/ Budapest, 1876, 
p. 17; Schliemsum, a llios,"p. 352. 

4 Materiaux pour 1 Histoire Primitive et Naturelle de 1 Homme, 1884, pp. 14, 120. 


been broken; its use is somewhat indeterminable, but it is believed by 
the curator of that museum and others to have been an arrowhead or 
spearhead. In form it belongs to Class A of stemmed implements, is 
lozenge-shaped, without shoulder or barb. It is a little more than two 
inches long, five-eighths of an inch wide, is flat and thin. On one side 
it bears two oblique or St. Andrew s crosses scratched in the bone; on 
the other, a figure resembling the Swastika. It is not the normal Swas 
tika, but a variation therefrom. It is a cross about three-eighths of 
an inch square. The main stem lines cross each other at right angles; 
the ends of each of these arms are joined by two incised lines, which 
gives it the appearance of two turns to the right, but the junction is 
not well made, for the lines of the cross extend in every case slightly 
farther than the bent end. The variation from the normal Swastika 
consists of the variation produced by this second line. This object was 
lately found by M. Dupont, of Brussels, in the prehistoric cavern of 
Sinsin, near Namur. Most, or many, of these caverns belong to Paleo 
lithic times, and one, the Grotte de Spy, lias furnished the most cele 
brated specimens of the skeletons of Paleolithic man. But the cavern 
of Sinsin was determined, from the objects found therein, to belong to 
the Bronze Age. 

Scandinavia. The evidences of prehistoric culture have great re- 
J semblance throughout Denmark, Sweden, and Norway; so it is believed 
I that during the prehistoric ages their peoples had the same culture, and 
the countries have been classed together as Scandinavia. 

A bronze sword is reported by Mr. George Stephens as having been 
found at S;ebo, Norway, with runes and a Swastika inlaid with silver. 
This specimen (fig. 203) was the subject of discussion before the Inter 

u M THOR H o 

Fig. 203. 


Inlaid with silver on a hronzo sword. 

Saebo, Norway. 

national Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology, 2 at 
Budapest, 1870. Its runes were translated by Stephens, and being 
read from right to left, "OH THURMUTH," or "owns me Thurmuth." 
But on the same page he gives another sign for Thu and renders L-pj as 
Odin or (W)oden. In the discussion before the congress it seems to 
have been agreed that the sign ^p, stood for "blessing," "good luck," 
or some beneficent charm or benediction. A spearhead has been for 

1 "Old Northern Runic Monuments," pt. 3, p. 407. 

2 Proceedings of the Eighth Session, i, pp. 457-460. 



years displayed in the museum at Torcello, near Venice, Italy, with a 
Swastika sign (fig. 2040.) prominent as an engraved sign. 1 Associated 
with it, but not a part of it, was an inscription (fig, 2047;), which has 
always been attrib 
uted to the Etrus 
cans. Mr. I. Undset, 
an archaeologist in 
the museum of Chris- 
tiania, made an ex- , AE 1TQ N E 


Torcello, Italy. Torcello, Italy. 

Du Chaillu, " Viking Age." I, 

Italy in 1883, and on 

seeing this spearhead 
recognized the inscription as runic and belonging to Scandinavia, The 
arms of the Swastika turned to the left, and the ends were finished 
with three dots of the same style as those described employed in the 

Croix swasticale ( fig. 12). Figs. 205 and 206 
represent articles of dress or toilet, and 
bear the Swastika. The first shows a red 
ding comb, the Swastika on which turns to 
the right. It was probably of bone or 
horn, as are those of modern times. Fig. 
20(5 shows a brooch, the interior decora 
tion of which is a combination of Swas 
tikas more or less interlaced. It is of 
bronze and was used as a dress ornament. Fig. 207 shows a large 
brooch, the bodies and bar of which are almost covered with the 
tetraskelion style of Swastika. There are six of the four armed Swas 
tikas, four of which turn to the left and two to the right. Another is 
a triskeliou, the arms of which turn to the right. 

Fig. 205. 



Fig. 206. 



In Scandinavia more than in other countries the Swastika took the, 
form of a rectangular body with arms projecting from each corner and 
bending in a spiral form, sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left. 

1 Dn Cbaillu, - Viking Age/ i, fig. 335. 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 55 



These are found more frequently on fibula or brooches and on swords 
and scabbards. In fig. 208 is shown a placque for a ceinture or belt, 
with a buckle to receive the thong. It contains 
two ogee Swastikas (tetraskelions). In this and 
fig. 207 the border and accessory decoration con 
sist largely of ogee curves, which, here repre 
sented separate, would, if placed together as a 
cross, form the same style of Swastika as those 
mentioned. Figs. 209 and 210 show sword 
scabbards, with Swastikas turned both ways. 
Fig. 211 shows two triskelions. Fig. 212 repre 
sents a gold brooch from a grave at Fyen, re 
ported by Worsaae and figured by Waring. 1 
The brooch with ogee 
Swastika bears inter 
nal evidence of Scan 

ship." There are other 
Swastikas of the same 

Fig. 207. 


Tetraskelions (right and left), 

triskelioii (left). 


general form and style 
in distant localities, 

Fig. 208. 


Twoogee Swastikas (tetraskelions). 

this specimen 
serves to emphasize 
the extent of possible 
communication be 
tween distant peoples in prehistoric times. 
Fig. 213 represents a piece of horse-gear of 
bronze, silver plated and ornamented with 
Swastikas. Two of these are normal, the ends bent at right angles to 
the left, while the other is fancifully made, the only specimen yet found 

of that pattern. 2 
It is not seen that 
these fanciful ad 
ditions serve any 
purpose other than 
decoration. They 
do not appear to 
have changed the 
symbolic meaning 
of the Swastika. 
Fig. 214 represents 
a sword scabbard belonging to the Vimose find, with a normal Swas 
tika. Ludwig Miiller reproduces a Swastika cross from a runic stone 

Eig. 209. 


Two ogee Swastikas (tetra 
skelions), right ami left. 

Fig. 210. 


Ogee Swastika. 

Fig. 211. 



Two triskelions, right 
and left. 

1 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 43, fig. 11 ; "Viking Age/ n, fig. 1311 ; Engle- 
hardt, "L Aucien Age dti Fer," fig. 28. 

2 Du Chaillu, "Viking Age," I, fig. 379. 



Fig. 212. 


Island of Fyen. 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 43, 
fig. 11. 

in Sweden. In an ancient church in Denmark, the baptismal font is 

decorated with Swastikas, showing its use in early Christian times. 

(See p. 878 for continuation of Swastika 0111 

Scandinavian or Danish gold bracteates.) 
Mr. Paul du Chaillu, in his u Viking Age," 

mentions many specimens of Scandinavian 

and,, Norse antiquities bearing Swastika 

marks ofdivers styles : Bronze vessels (vol. 

1, p. 100, note 1) ; iron spear point with runes 

and Swastika inlaid with silver, discovered 

in a tumulus with burnt bones, Muncheburg, 

fig. 336; another of the same, Yolhynia, 

Eussia, fig. 337; pottery vessel containing 

burnt bones, pointed iron knife, bronze 

needle, and melted glass beads, Born holm, 

fig. 210; iron spearhead, Vimose bog find, 

(p. 207); border of finely woven silk cloth 

with gold and silver threads, from a mound (vol. 2, p. 289, fig. 1150). 

Scotland and Ireland. Specimens of 
the Swastika have been found on the 
Ogain stones in Scotland and Ireland 
(p. 1ST}. In the churchyard of Aglish, 
county Kerry, Ireland, stand two stones 
bearing Ogam inscriptions. At the tojk 
of one is an ancient Celtic cross iuclosecr 
in a circle similar to fig. 7; immediately 
under it are two Swastika marks of four 
arms crossing at right angles, each arm 
bent to the right also at right angles. 
On two corners of the stone are inscrip 
tions of the usual Ogam characters. The 
translation may be given, but seems to 
be unimportant and without apparent 

bearing upon this question. They are somewhat obliterated and their 

reading difficult. So far as made out, they are as follows: Maqimaqa 

and Apiloggo. 

Fig. 213. 


Silver plated on bronze. 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 44, fig. Iti 
Du Chaillu, " Viking Age," I, fig. 379. 


Fig. 214. 

Vimoso bog find. 

In Scotland, the Newton stone, in the grounds of the Newton House, 
bears an Ogam inscription, the meaning of which has no bearing upon 



Fig. 215. 


Greek cross in circle, normal Swastika in square, and ogee 

Swastika in quatrefoil. 


the subject. But on the upper part of one of its faces appears an 
inscription, boldly and deeply incised, of forty-four characters arranged 
horizontally in six lines. These are of so remarkable a type as to have 

puzzled every philologist 
and paleographer who has 
attempted their decipher 
ment. The late Alexander 
Thomson, esq., of Banchory, 
Scotland, circulated a pho 
tograph and description 
of this monument among 
antiquarians with a re 
quest for their decipher 
ment of it. Various readings have been given by the learned gentle 
men, who have reported it to be Hebrew, Phenician, Greek, Latin, 
Aryan, Irish, and Anglo Saxon respectively. Brash 1 
gives his opinion that the inscription is in debased 
lionian letters of a type frequently found in ancient 

inscriptions, its peculiarities 
being much influenced by the 
hardness of the stone at the 
time of cutting and of the sub 
sequent weather wear of ages. 
The interest of this monument 
to us is that the third character 
in the fourth line is a Swastika. 
It is indifferently made, the 
lines do not cross at right an 
gles, two of the ends are curved, and the two 
others bent at a wider than right angle. 
There are four characters in the line closely 
following each other. (See p. 797.) 

The Logie stone, in Aberdeen shire, Scot 
land, bearing Ogam characters, contains a figure or mark reported 
by George M. Atkinson 
as a Swastika. 2 

On the Celtic crosses 
of Scotland certain 
marks appear which are 
elsewhere found asso 
ciated with Swastika, 
and consequently have some relation therewith. The " Annam Stone" 
bears the mark of a Swastika (left) within three concentric circles, 
around the outside of which is a circle of dots. 3 

1 " Ogaiu Inscribed Monuments," p. 359, pi. xlix. 

2 Ilml., p. 358, pi. xlviii. 

Greg, Arcbaiologia, XLVIII, pt. 2, pi. 19, fig. 27. 

Fig. 216. 


Ogee Swastika. 

Munro, " Lake Dwellings of 
Europe," pi. 124, figs. 

Fig. 217. 


Munro, " Lake Dwellings of Europe," p. 
384, pi. 124, figs. 20-22. 

Fig. 218. 

Crannog of Lochlee, Tarbolton, Scotland. 

Alunro, " Lake Dwellings of Europe," p. 417. 



Ludwig Miiller reports the Swastika in Scotland and Ireland on * 

Christian tombs, associated with Latin crosses. 1 
A sculptured stone in Ireland (fig. 215) shows on the face three r 

varieties of the cross, a Greek cross in a circle, a Swastika with square! 

ends turned to the right, within a rectangle, 

and an ogee (tetraskelion) turned to the 

right, inclosed in a quatrefoil. 2 
An Irish bowl showed a Swastika thus ^. 

Dr. R. Munro 3 reports from the Crannog of 

Lesnacroghera country, Antrim, Ireland? 

two pieces or disks of thin bronze, repousses 

(fig. 216), bearing the sign of the Swastika 

and having the four arms of the spirals 

turned to thevleft. The similarity of this 

figure with those shown on the shields of 

the Pima Indians of New Mexico and Ari 
zona (figs. 257 and 
258) is to be re 
marked. Fig. 217 
shows a triskelion 
of symmetric spi- 

Fig. 219. 


Crannoy of Lochlee. Tarboltori, Scot- 

Fig. 220. 


Museum of Toulouse. 

rals turned to the right. In the Crannog of 
Lochlee, near Tarbolton, a bronze pin was found 
(fig. 218), the head of which was inclosed in a 
ring. On one side of the head was engraved a 
Greek cross, on the other was a normal Swas 
tika turned to the right. The same crannog 
furnished a piece of ash wood five inches square, 
which had been preserved, as were all the other 
objects, by the peat, on which was carved a 
triskelion (fig. 219) after the form and style of 
those on the Missouri mound pottery. 


!)H Mortillet, " Musee Prehistoric} 


France. The employment of the Swastika in 
France did not cease with the Bronze or Iron 
ages, but continued into the occupation of Gaul 
by the Romans. 

Fig. 220 represents a stone altar erected in the south of France 
among the Pyrenees about the time of the advent of the Eomans. It 
has a Swastika engraved on its pedestal. The upper arm has been 
carried beyond the body of the sign, whether by intention is not 

1 "La Migration des Symboles," p. 49. 

2 Zmigrodzki "Zur Geschichte der Susistika," taf. 6, fig. 248. 

3 "Lake Dwellings of Europe/ p. 384, pi. 124, figs. 20-22. 



apparent. Fig. 221 represents a pottery buttle with another specimen 
of Swastika belonging- to the same (Gallo-Eoman) epoch, but coming 
from the extreme north of, the neighborhood of Rouen. Lt is to 
be remarked that the ends of this Swastika give the outward curve or 

n flourish similar to that noticed by Dr. Schlie- 
tnann on the spindle-whorl of Troy, and is yet 
[^employed in making the Jain Swastika (fig. 33). 
M. Alexander Bertram! 1 speaks of the dis 
covery at Yelaux, in the department of Bouches- 
du-Ehone, of the headless statue of a crouching 
or squatting guard which has a row of Swas 
tikas across his breast, while beneath is a range 
of crosses, Greek or Latin. The newest exam 
ples of the Swastika belonging to this epoch 
have been found at Estinnes, JIainaut, and at 
Anthee, Namur, Belgium, on pieces of Roman 
tile ; also on a tombstone in the Roman or Belgo- 
Roman cemetery of Jnslenville near Pepinster. 2 
This is a Pagan tomb, as evidenced by the in 
scriptions commenced U D. M." (Diis Manibus).* 


Fig. 221. 


Gallo-Eoman Epoch. 
Museum of Rouen. 

I),- Mortillet, " Mus^e Prehistorique," fij;. 

Britain. Greg reports 4 a silver disk l.J inches 

in diameter, with a triskelion made by punched 

dots, in the same style as the pin heads from Armenia (figs. 35 and 3G). 
This was from grave 95 in an Anglo-Saxon ceme- 
>tery at Sleafors, England, excavated by George W. 
Thomas and sold at Boston; bought by A. W. 
Franks and given to the British Museum. Grave 
143 had a large cruciform fibula of bronze, partly 
gilt, similar to those from Scandinavia, with a 
Swastika on the central ornament thus ^\S t The 
slight curve or flourish on the outer end of the 
bent arm of this specimen resembles the Jain Swas 
tika (fig. 33), though this bends to the left, while 
the Jain Swastikas bend to the right. Fig. 222 
shows an Anglo-Saxon bronze gilt fibula with a 
peculiar form of Swastika leaving a square with 
dot and circle in its center. It was found in Long 

Wittenham, Berkshire, was reported in Archaiologia, 6 and is figured 

Tig. 222. 


Simulation of Swastika. 
Long Wittenliam, Berk 
shire, England. 

1 "L Autel de Saintes et les triades gauloises," Revue Archaeol., 1880, xxxix, p. 343. 

-Institut ArcliR-ologique Liegeois, x, 1870, p. 106, pi. 13. 

3 "La Migration des Syraboles/ p. 47, lig. 13. 

"Archa-ologia, L, pt. 2, p. 406, pi. 23, fig. 7. 

5 See fig. 238. 

6 Archa>ologia, xxxi. 



by Waring. 1 A figure having great similarity to this, even in its pe 
culiarities and called a Swastika, was found on a shell in Toco Mound, 
Tennessee (fig. 238). Fig. 223 represents an Anglo-Saxon urn from 
Shrophain, Norfolk . Its decoraHons~consist of isolated figures like 
crosses, etc., arranged in horizontal bands around the vessel, and 
separated by moldings. The lower row consists of Swastikas of small 
size stamped into the clay and arranged 
in isolated squares. There are twenty 
Swastikas in the band; though they all 
turn to the right, they are not repetitions. 
They were made by hand and not with 
the stamp. They are white on a blackish 
ground. The original, which is in the 
British Museum, is cited by Kemble and 
figured by Waring. 2 


Fig. 223. 


3inndof twenty hand-made Swastikas, 

white, on blackish ground. 

Shropham, Norfolk, England. 

British Museum. 

Waring, "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 8, 
fig. 50. 

There has been much ink and imagination 
used, most of which has been wasted, in the 
discussion of this branch of this subject. 
The opinion has been expressed by many 
personsTthat the triskelion which formed 
the armorial emblem of the island of Sicily, 
and also of the Isle of 
Man, is but an evolu 
tion from or modification of the Swastika. In 
the judgment of the author this is based rather 
upon the _ similarity of the _desigiis_than upon any 
likeness in their origin and history. The accept 
ance by modern writers 
of this theory as a fact 
is only justified from its 
long-continued repetition. 
Triskelion, Lycia. The 

tr i skelioi ijon_ancieiit coins first_apj)ears cm the 
coins of Lycia, in Asia Minor, about B.C. 480. 
It was ad optetTfoFS icily by~Agathocles, B. C*. 
317 to 307. The coins of Lycia were first three 
cocks heads and necks joined together equidis 
tant in the center of the field, as shown in fig. 224, while figs. 225 and 
220 bear a center dot and circle. This forms a hub an d^ axle. Out 
of this hub spring three arms or rays, practically equidistant, the outer 
ends being bent to the left. They increase in size as they progress 

Fig. 224.3 


Triskelion with three arms 
representing cocks heads 
and necks. 

Figs. 225 and 226. 3 


Triskelions with cent ral dots and 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," 
pi. 42, figs. 12, ] . ,. 

1 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," pi. 43, iig-. 10. 
2 Tl)id. ; pi. 3, iig. 50. 
3 See p. 787. 


outward and are largest at the outer eiids. In fig. 22G there is a mint 
mark or counter mark of the same design as the triskelion, except that 
it has but two arms or rays (diskelion). 

Perrot and Chipiez, 1 speaking of Lycia, say: 

The device of many of lier coins is the " triskelis" or so-called "triquetra" (liter 
ally, three-cornered, triangular), a name derived from three serpents heads, which 
usually figure in the iield, much after the fashion of those supporting the famous 
tripod at Delphi,- consecrated by the Greeks to Apollo after the battle of Tlata a. 
The number of heads is not constant, some coins having as many as four, "tetras- 
kelis," while others have but two, "diskelis." 3 

[ The Greeks connected the symbol with the cult of Apollo, which 

| they represented as very popular and of hoary antiquity in Lycia. 

I The three-rayed design appears to have gained the victory over the 

others, and came into commoner use. It is found on Assyrian coins, 

and also as a countermaik-Qn coins of Ajexanderj B.C. 333 to 31 > 3. A 

comparisqn_pf these designs wTTfi^lTe^\vastika will, it is believed, show 

t hen 7 ~tfls sii 1 1 iT; irltyj a iul the non-existence of relationship. In the 

LycTan designs, whether with two, three, or four rays, there is a central 

hub out of which the spokes spring. In the center of the hub is the 

Ismail circle and dot which might represent the^axle on which the 

/jnachine revolved. In fact, the Lycian design is a fair representation 

of the modern screw propeller, and gives the idea of a whirling motion. 

Compare these peculiarities with the Swastika. The Swastika is 

almosf^aiways square, is always a cross IflT right angles or near it, and 

whatever may become of the ends or arms of the cross, whether they 

be loft straight, bent at right angles, or in a curve, it_still^m^sjhiiidi3a 

qf_a_cross. There is no center except such as is made by the crossing 

of the two arms. There is not, as in these triskelions, a central hub. 

There is no dot or point around which the design or machine could be 

made to reyol^e, asTiTthese Lycian triskelions; nothing of the central 

boss, cup, or nave, which forms what the Germans call the "Kad- 

Kreuz," wheel cross, as distinguished from the square cross. 

In this regard Greg says: 

If R. Brown s lunar and Semitic or Asiatic origin of the triquetra, however, should be 
established, then the entire argument of the triquetra being derived from the fylfot, 
or- vice versa, falls to the ground. That the device arose out .of the triskele 

and triquetra I do not think can be proved. It is clear the LC. was a far older and 

re widely spread symbol than the triskele, as^wJilLas^a more purely Aryan one. 

Waring, explaining the tetraskelion (four-armed), declares it to have 
preceded the triskelion (three-armed), and he explains its meaning, 4 
citing Sir Charles Fellows, as being a harpago, a grappling iron, a cant 
ing sign for Ilarpagus, who conquered Lycia for Cyrus, circa, 5G4 B. C. 

1 " History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria, and Lycia/ p. 391. 

2 An unique cast of this tripod is iu the U. S. National Museum, Department of 
Oriental Antiquities. 

3 The number of heads may have been regulated by the size of the coins in ques 
tion, probably answering to different values. 

4 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages/ p. 85. 



Fig. 227. 


British Museum. 

Barclay Head, " Coins of the Ancients," etc., pi. 35, fig. i 8. 

This, with the statement of Perrot and Chipiez (p. 872 of this paper), 
is a step in explanation of the adoption of the triskelion, and together 
they suggest strongly that it had no relation to the Swastika. At the 
date of the appearance of the triskelion on the Lycian coins the Swas 
tika was well known throughout the Trojan peninsula and the 
Sea, and tbe difference be 
tween them was so well rec 
ognized that one could not 
possibly have been mistaken 
for the other. 

Triskelion^ Sicily. N o w 
we pass to the consideration 
^ the triskelion of Sicily. 
Fig. 227 represents a_cpin _of 
^ Sicily. On the obverse the 
^ head of Persephone, on the 
(/^"reverse the " quailriga, and above, the triskeliou. Other specimens of 
the same kind, bearing the same triskelion, are seen in Barclay Head s 
work on the " Coinage of Syracuse" and his u Guide to the Ancient Coins 
in the British Museum." They belong to the early part of the reign of 
Agathocles, B. C. 317 to 310. In these specimens the triskelion is quite 
small; but as the coins belong to the period of the finest engraving and 
die sinking of Greece, the representation, however minute, is capable of 
decipherment. Fig. 228 is taken from the shield 
of a warrior on a Greek vase representing Achilles 
and Hector, in which the armorial emblem of 
Sicily, the triskelion, occupies the entire field, 1 
and represents plainly that it is three human legs, 
conjoined at the thigh, bent sharply at the knee, 
with the foot and toes turned out. Some of these 
have been represented covered with mail armor 
and the foot and leg booted and spurred. It is 
evident that these are human legs, and so were 
not taken from the screw propeller of Lycia, while 
they have no possible relation to the crossed arms 
of the Swastika, and all this despite their simi 
larity of appearance. This is rendered clearer 
by Waring, 2 where the armorial emblem on a 

warrior s shield is a single human leg, bent in the same manner, 
instead of three. Apropos of Swastikas on warriors shields, refer 
ence is made to figs. 257 and 258, which represent two shields of Pima 
Indians, New Mexico, both of which have been in battle and both 
have the four-armed Swastika or tetraskelion. There is not in the 
Swastika, nor was thjBr^e^^r^jinjjeentral part, any hub, any axis, 
revolution. It is asserted that_originally the triskelion of Sicily, 

Fig. 228. 

From a Greek vase, represent 
ing Achilles aud Hector. 

Agrigeiitum, Sicily. 

Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote 
Ages," pi. 42, fig. 24. 

1 " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages, "-pi. 13, fig. 24. 
Ibid., pi. 13, iig. 21. 


sibly of Lycia, \vag_asymbol ofthe sun, morning, midday, and afternoon, 
respectively. But this was purely theoretical and without other foun 
dation than the imagination of man, and it accordingly gave way in due 
course. Pliny denies this theory and attributes the origin of the tris- 
kelion of Sicily to the triangular form of the island, ancient Triuacria, 
which consisted of three large capes equidistant from each other, 
pointing in their respective directions, the names of which were Pelorus, 
Pachynus, and Lilybu um. This statement, dating to so early a period, 
accounting for the triskelion emblem of Sicily, is much more reasonable 
and ought to receive greater credit than that of its dev^lution_from the 
Swastika, which theory is of later date and has none of these corrobo- 
rations in its favor. We should not forget in this argument that the 
Swastika in its normal form had been for a long time known in Greece 
and Tnl^TrelsTands and countries about Sicily. 

Among hundreds of pattons of the Swastika belonging to both 

^ heiMsl11Iefes~inT(PEo~iririiges, none of them have sought to represent 

/anything else than Just what they appear to be7 plain marks orjines. 

There is no likeness between the plain lines of the Swastika and the 

bent form of the human leg, with the foot turned outward, incased in 

chain armor and armed with spurs. 

Whenever or however the triskelion occurred, by whom it was in 
vented, what it represented, how it comes to have been perpetuated, is 
all lost in antiquity and may never be known ; but there does not seem 
to be any reason for believing it to have been an evolution from the 

Triskelion, Tale of Man. The triskelion of Sicily is also the armorial 
emblem of the Isle of Man, and the same contention has been made 
for it, i. e., that it was a modification of the Swastika. But its migra 
tion direct from Sicily to the Isle of Man can be traced through the 
pages of history, and Mr. John Newton, 1 citing the Manx Note Book 
for January, 1880, has given this history at length, of which the follow 
ing is a resume: 

Prior to the thirteenth century the Isle of Man was under dominion 
of the Norse Vikings, and its armorial emblems were theirs; usually a 
ship under full sail. Two charters of Harold, King of Man (1245, 1246 
in the Cotton MSS.), bear seals with this device. Twenty years later, 
after the conquest of the island by, and its cession to, Alexander III of 
Scotland, A. D. 1266, the Norse emblems disappeared entirely, and are 
replaced by the symbol of the three legs covered with chain armor and 
without spurs. "It appears then," says Newton, "almost certain, 
though we possess no literary document recording the fact, that to 
Alexander III of Scotland is due the introduction of the i Tre Oassyn 
as the distinguishing arms of the Isle of Man." He then explains how 
this probably came about: Frederick II (A. I). 1197-1250), the Norman 
King of Sicily, married Isabella, the daughter of Henry III of England. 

AtheujBiun, No. 3385, September 10, 1892, p. 353. 


A quarrel between the King of Sicily and the Pope led the latter to 
offer the crown to Henry III of England, who accepted it for his son. 
Edmund (the Hunchback), who thereupon took the title of King o f 
Sicily and quartered the Sicilian arms with the Koyal arms of England. 
The negotiations between Henry and the Pope progressed for several 
years (1255 to 1259), when Henry, finding that he could no longer 
make it an excuse for raising money, allowed it to pass into the limbo 
of forgotten objects. 

Alexander III of Scotland had married Margaret, the youngest 
daughter of Henry III, and thus was brother-in-law to Edmund as well 
as to Frederick. In 1256, and while these negotiations between Henry 
and the Pope concerning Sicily were in progress, Alexander visited, at 
London, his royal father-in-law, the King of England, and his royal 
brother-in : law, the King of Sicily, and was received with great honors. 
About that time Haco, the Norse king of the Isle of Man, was defeated 
by Alexander III of Scotland, and killed, soon after which event (126G) 
the Isle of Man was ceded to the latter. The Norse coat of arms disap 
peared from the escutcheon of the Isle of Man, and, being replaced by 
the three legs of Sicily, Mr. Newton inquires : 

What more likely than that the King (Alexander III), when he struck the Norwe 
gian flag, should replace it by one bearing the picturesque and striking device of 
Sicily, an island having so many points of resemblance with that of Man, and over 
which his sister ruled as Queen and her brother had been appointed as King? 

However little we may know concerning the method of transfer of 
the coat of arms from Sicily to the Isle of Man, we are not left at all in 
doubt as to the fact of its accomplishment; and the triskelion of Sicily 
became then and has been ever since, and is ow, the armorial emblem 
of the Isle of Man. 

The Duke of Athol, the last proprietary of the Isle of Man, and who, 
in 1765, sold his rights to the Crown of England, still bears the arms of 
Man as the fifth quartering, "The three human legs in armor, con 
joined at the upper part of the thigh and flexed in triangle, proper 
garnished," being a perpetuation of the triskelion or triquetruin of 
Sicily. 1 

The arms of the Isle of Man afford an excellent illustration of the 
migration of symbols as maintained in the work of Count Goblet 
d Alviella: but the attempt made by others to show it to be an evolu 
tion from and migration of the Swastika is a failure. 

Punch marks on Corinthian coins mistaken for Swastikas. But is the 
Swastika really found on ancient coins ? The use of precious metals as 
money dates to an unknown time in antiquity. Gold was used in early 
Bible times (1500 B. C.) among nearly every people as money, but it 
was by weight as a talent, and not as minted coin. The coinage of 
money began about 700 B. C. in Lydia. Lydia was a province on the 
western side of the peninsula of Asia Minor looking out toward Greece, 

Debrett s " Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 


while Lycia, its neighbor, was a province on the southern side looking 
toward the island of Rhodes. The Lydians began coinage by stamping 
with a punch each ingot or nugget of gold or silver, or a mixture oi 
them called "Electrum." In the beginning these ingots were marked 
upon but one side, the reverse showing plainly the fiber of the anvil 
on which the ingot was laid when struck with the punch. But in a 
short time, it may have been two hundred years, this system was 
changed so as to use a die which would be reproduced on the coin when 
it was struck with a punch. The lion, bull, boar, dolphin, and many 
other figures were employed as designs for these dies. Athens used 
an owl; Corinth, Pegasus; Metapontine, a sheaf of wheat; Naples, a 
human-headed bull. The head and, occasionally, the entire form of 
the gods were employed. During almost the entire first period of nigh 
three hundred years the punch was used, and the punch marks show 
on the reverse side of the coins. These punch marks were as various 
as the dies for the obverse of the coins, but most of them took a 
variety of the square, as it would present the greatest surface of 

resistance to the punch. Even 
the triskelion of the Lycian 
coins is within an indented 
square (figs. 225 and 220). A 
series of these punch marks is 
given for demonstration on pi. i). 
A favorite design was a square 
punch with a cross of two arms 


passing through the center, di- 

Ol> verso and reverse. . ,, 

vidiug the field into four quar- 

Puncli mark resembling Swastika. 

ters. Most of the punch marks 

on the coins of that period were of this kind. These punch marks and 
the method and machinery with which they were made are described 
in standard numismatic works. 1 

It is believed by the author that the assertions as to the presence of 
the Swastika on these ancient coins is based upon an erroneous inter 
pretation of these punch marks. Fig. 229 shows the obverse and 
reverse of a coin from Corinth. It belonged to the first half of the 
sixth century B. C. The obverse represents a Pegasus standing, while 
the reverse is a punch mark, said to have been a Swastika; but, exam 
ining closely, we will find there is no Swastika in this punch mark. 
The arms of the normal Swastika consist of straight lines crossing each 
other. In this case they do not cross. The design consists of four gam 
mas, and each gamma is separated from its fellows, all forming together 
very nearly the same design as hundreds of other punch marks of 
the same period. If each outer arm of this mark is made slightly 
longer, the Swastika form disappears and the entire design resolves 

1 Snowden, " Mint Manual of Coins of all Nations/ Introduction, pp. ix-xiv; Ack- 
erman, "Roman Coins/ pi. 14. 


1 2 3 

4 5 (> 

10 11 1:2 


Fig. 1. COIN OF LYDIA. Electrum. Oblong sinking between two squares. 
Babylonian stater. The earliest known coinage. Circa TOO B. C. 

2. PHENICIAN HALF STATER. Electrum. Incuse square with cruciform 


3. SILVER COIN OF TEOS. Incuse square. Circa 544 B. C. 

4. SILVER COIN OF ACANTHUS. Incuse square. 

5. SILVER COIN OF MENDE. Incuse triangles. 

6. SILVER COIN OF TERONE. Incuse square. 

7. COIN OF BiSALT^. 1 Incuse square. Octadrachm. 

8. SILVER COIN OF ORRESCIIJ Incuse square. Octadrachm. 

9. CORINTHIAN SILVER COIN. Incuse square divided into eight triangular 

compartments. The earliest coin of Corinth, dating B. C. 625 to 585. 

10. SILVER COIN OF ABDERA. Incuse square. 

11. SILVER COIN OF BYZANTIUM. Incuse square, granulated. 

12. SILVER COIN OF THRASOS (THRACE). Incuse square. 

The Bisalta^ and Orrescii were Tliracian tribes who dwelt in the valleys of the Strymon and 
the Angites, to the north of the Pangsean Range. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 





itself into the square habitually employed for that purpose; If the 
punch mark on this Corinthian coin be a Swastika, it depends upon the 
failure to make the extreme end of the bent arm an eighth of an inch 
longer. This is too fine a point to be relied upon. If this punch mark 
had these arms lengthened an eighth of an inch, it 
would confessedly become a square. 

Swastika on ancient Hindu coins. It is not to be 
inferred from this opposition that the Swastika never 
appeared on ancient coins. It did appear, but seems 
to have been of a later date and to have belonged 
farther eastL among thejlindus. Fig. 230 shows an 
ancient (Hindu?) coin reported by Waring, who cites 
Cunningham as authority for its having been found 
at Ujain. The design consists of a cross with inde 
pendent circles on the outer end of each of the four 
arms, the circles being large enough to intersect each other. The field 
of each of these circles bears a Swastika of normal form. Other coins 
are cited of the same style, with small center dots and concentric circles 
in the stead of the Swastika. What meaning the Swastika has here, 
beyond the possible one of being a lucky penny, is not suggested. 

Other ancient Hindu coins bearing the Swastika (figs. 231-234) are 
attributed to Cunningham by Waring. 2 These are said by Waring to 
be Buddhist coins found at Behat near Scharaupur. Mr. E. Thomas, 
in his article on the u Earliest IndiajiJjQinage," 3 ascribes thernjo the 

Fig. 230. 


Waring, " Ceramic Art in Re 
mote Ages," pi. 41, fig. 18. 

Fig. 231. 

Fig. 232. Fig. 233. Fig. 234. 


Waring, " Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," jil. 41, figs. 211-24. 

reign of Kmnanda, a Buddhist Indian king contemporary with or prior 
to Alexander, about 330 B. C. 

The coins of Krananda, 4 contemporary of Alexander the Great, 5 
bear the Swastika mark, associated with the principal Buddhist marks, 
the trisula, the stpph^ Kn-piWI t,rf ft ] g R.cred cone, etc. Waring says 6 

that according to Priusep s "Engravings of Hindu Coins," the Swastika 
seems to disappear from them about 200 B. C. ; nor is it found on the 

1 See p. 788. 

2 "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages, pi. 41, figs. 20-23. 

3 Numismatic Chron.(new series), iv. 

4 "La Migration dcs Symboles," figs. 17, 123. 

5 Edward Thomas, Journ. Royal Asiatic Soc.Cucw series), i, p. 475. 

6 "Ceramic Art hi Remote Ages/ p. 83. 



Fig. 235. 


Gaza, Palestine. 

Warinjr, "Ceramic Art in 
Remote Ages," jil. 42, fig. H. 

Indo-Bactrian, the Indo-Sassanian, or the later Hindu or subsequent 
Mohammedan, and he gives in a note the approximate dates of these 
dynasties : Early native Buddhist monarchs from about 500 B. C. to the 
conquest of Alexander, about 330 B. C. ; the Indo-Bactrian or Greek 
successors of Alexander from about 300 to 12G B. C. ; the Indo-Parthian 
or Scythic from about 126 B. C. ; the second Hindu dynasty from about 
5G B. 0.; the Indo-Sassanian from A. D. 200 to G3G, 
and subsequent to that the Indo-Mohammedan from 
the eleventh to the close of the thirteenth century; 
the Afghan dynasty from A. ]). 1290 to 152G, and the 
Mongol dynasty to the eighteenth century, when it was 
destroyed by Nadir Shah. (See p. 772.) 

Swastika on coins in Mesembria and Gaza. Mr. Percy 
Gardner, in his article, "Aresas a_Sun-god, n finds the 
Swastika on a coin of Mesembria in Thrace. He ex 
plains that "Mesembria is simply the Greek-word 
for noon, midday (JA~effrji)j/3pia)7* The coins of this city 
bear the inscription ME2^f^^ which Greg 2 believes refers by a kind of 
pun to the name of the city, and so to noon^or the sun or solar light. 
The answer to this is the same given FhToughout 
this paper, that it may be true, but there is no evi 
dence in support of it. Max Muller :! argues that 
this specimen is decisive of the meaning of the 
sign Swastika. Both these gentlemen place great 
stress upon the position which jjic Swajstjkajjield. 
in the field relative to other objects^ and so deter 
mine it to have represented the sun or sunlight; 
but all this seems non xequitur. A coin from Gaza, 
Palestine, ancient, but date not given, is attrib 
uted to B. llochette, and by him to Muuter (fig. 
235). The Swastika sign is not perfect, only two 
arms of the cross being turned, and not all four. 

Swastika on Danish gold bracteates. Fig. 23G 

represents a Danish gold bracteate with a portrait 

head, two serpents, and a Swastika with the outer ends finished with a 

curve or flourish similar to that of the Jains (fig. 33). 

/ There are other bracteates with the Swastika mark, which belong 

to the Scandinavian countries. 4 Some of them bear signs referring to 

Christian civilization, such as raising hands in prayer; and from a 

7 determination of the dates afforded by the coins and other objects the 

(^ Swastika can be identified as having continued into the Christian era. 

The coinage of the ancient world is not a prolific field for the dis- 

1 " Numismatic Chron./ pt. I, 1880. See p. 788 of this paper. 

2 Archscologia, XLVIII, pt. 11, 1885, p. 306. 
3 Atheii!i>nin, August 20, 1892. 

4 " Viking Age/ n, iigs. 1307, 1309. 

Fig. 236. 


, "Ceramic Art 
Ages," pi. 1, fig. 


covery of the Swastika. Other specimens may possibly be found than 
those here given. This search is not intended to be exhaustive. Their 
negative information is, however, valuable. It shows, first, that some 
of the early stamj)s_or designs on coins which have been claimed as > 
Swastikas were naug^TTln^^ marksj~secoud, it shows 

a limited use of the Swastika on the coinage and that it came to an end 
in very earlyjtimes. Numismatics afford great aid to archeology from 
tiie facility and certainty with which it fixes dates. Using the dates 
furnished by the coinage of antiquity, it is gravely to be questioned 
whether the prolific use of the Swastika in Asia Minor (of which we 
have such notable examples on specimens of pottery from the hill of His- 
sarlik, in Greece) did not terminate before coinage began , or before 
480 B. 0., when the period of finer engraving began, and it became the 
custom to emplo^onjeo^ 

sacred animals*. Thus the use of the jjwastika became relegated to 
objects of commoner_use, or those hjsmjigj^^ 

tion and folklore wherein the possible value of the Swastika as an 
amulet or sign with power to bring good luck could be better employed; 
or, as suggested by Mr. Greg, that the great gods which, according to 
him, had the Swastika for a symbol, fell into disrepute and it became 
changed to represent something else. 


Fains Island and Toco Mounds, Tennessee. That the Swastika found 
its way to the Western Hemisphere in prehistoric times can not be 
doubted. A specimen (fig. 237) was taken by Dr. Edward Palmer in 
the year 1881 from an ancient mound opened by him on Fains Island, 
3 miles from Baiubridge, Jefferson County, Tenn. It is figured and 
described in the Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1 as 
follows : 

A shell ornament, 011 the convex surface of which a very curious ornamental design 
has been engraved. The design, inclosed by a circle, represents a cross such as 
would be formed by two rectangular tablets or slips slit longitudinally and inter 
laced at right angles to each other. The lines are neatly and deeply incised. The 
edge of the ornament has been broken away nearly all around. 

The incised lines of this design (fig. 237) represent the Swastika 
turned to the left (though the description does not recognize it as such). 
It has small circles with dots in the center, a style of work that may 
become of peculiar value on further investigation, but not to be con 
founded with the dots or points in what M. Zmigrod/ki calls the Croix 
swasticale. The mound from which this specimen came, and the objects 
associated with it, show its antiquity and its manufacture by the abo 
rigines untainted by contact with the whites. The mound is on the 

Tagc4GG, fig. 140. 



Fig. 237. 


Fains Island, Tennessee. 

fat. No. fiM , 8 IT. S. N. M. 

east end of Fains Island. It was 10 feet in height and about 100 feet 
in circumference at the base. In the bed of clay 4 feet beneath the 
surface were found the remains of 32 human skeletons; of these, only 

17 skulls could be preserved. 
There had been no regularity in 
placing the bodies. 

The peculiar form of this Swas 
tika is duplicated by a Kunic 
Swastika in Sweden, cited by 
Ludwig Miiller and by Count 
d Alviella, 1 

Thefollowing objects were found 
in the mound on Fains Island as 
sociated with the Swastika shell 
(fig. 237) and described, and many 
of them figured : 2 A gorget of the 
same Fulgur shell (fig. 239); a 
second gorget of Fnlgur shell with 

ai l CHgraVCd BpluCT (fog. ^ t O) j a 

pottery vase with a figure of a 
frog ; three rude axes from four to 
seven inches in length, of diorite 

and quartzite; a pierced tablet of slate; a disk of translucent quartz 1J 

inches in diameter and three-quarters of an inch in thickness; a mass 

of pottery, much of it in fragments, and a number of bone implements, 

including needles and paddle-shaped ob 
jects. The shell objects (in addition to 

the disks and gorgets mentioned) were 

pins made from the columelliu of Fulgur 

(Busycon perversumf) of the usual form 

and about four inches in length. There 

were also found shell beads, cylindrical 

in form, an inch in length and upward of 

an inch in diameter, with other beads 

of various sizes and shapes made from 

marine shells, and natural specimens of 

lo spinosa, Unio probatus. Fi 23g 

The Specimen represented in fig. 238 is ENGRAVED SHELL WITH SWASTIKA, CIRCLES, 

a small shell from the Big Toco mound, 

Monroe County, Tenn., found by Mr. 

Emmert with skeleton No. 49 and is fig. 

2G2, Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, page 

383, although it is not described. This is a circular disk of Fulgur 


Toco Mound, Monroe County, Tenn. 
Cat. No. 115624, U. S. N. M. 

. Royal Danish Acad. Sci., 5th ser., in, p. 94, fig. a; "La Migration des Sym- 
boles," p. 50, fig. 16. 
2 Third Ann. Eep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1881-82, p. 464 ct seq., figs. 139-141. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 10. 


Toco Mound, Tennessee. 
Cat. No. 115560, U. S. N. M. 


shell, much damaged around the edge, 1-J inches in diameter, on which 
has been engraved a Swastika. It has a small circle and a dot in 
the center, around which circle the arms of the Swastika are inter 
laced. There are also circles and central dots at each turn < f the 
four arms. The hatch work in the arc identifies this work with that 
of other crosses and a triskelion from the same general locality 
figs. 302, 305, and 306, the former being part of the same find by Mr. 
Eimnert. Fig. 222, a bronze gilt fibula from Berkshire, England, bears 
a Swastika of the same style as fig. 238 from Tennessee. The circles 
and central dots of fig. 238 have a similarity to Peruvian ornamenta 
tion. The form and style, the broad arms, the circles and central dots, 
the lines of engravings, show such similarity of form and work as mark 
this specimen as a congener of the Swastika from Fains Island (fig. 
237). The other objects found in the mound associated with this Swas 
tika will be described farther on. 

There can be no doubt of these figures being the genuine Swastika, 
and that they were of aboriginal workmanship. Their discovery 
immediately suggests investigation as to evidences of communication 
with the Eastern Hemisphere, and naturally the first question would 
be, Are there any evidences of Buddhism in the Western Hemisphere? 
When I found, a few days ago, the two before-described representa 
tions of Swastikas, it was my belief that no reliable trace of Buddha or 
ihe Buddhist religion had ever been found among the aboriginal or 
prehistoric Americans. This statement Avas made, as almost all other 
statements concerning prehistoric man should be, with reserve, and 
subject to future discoveries, but without idea that a discovery of evi 
dence on the subject was so near. In searching the U. S. National 
Museum for the objects described in the Second Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology under the title of "Art in Shell among the Ancient 
Americans," the writer discovered a neglected specimen of a mutilated 
and damaged shell (pi. 10), marked as shown on the back, found by 
Mr. Emmert, an employe of the Bureau of Ethnology, in the year 1882. 
Its original field number was 267, Professor Thomas s 6542, the Museum 
number 115562, and it was found in the Big Toco mound, Monroe County, 
Tenn. It is not figured nor mentioned in any of the Bureau reports. 
It is greatly to be regretted that this shell is so mutilated. In its 
present condition no one can say positively what it is, whether a statue 
of Buddha or not 5 but to all appearances it represents one of the 
Buddhist divinities. Its material, similar to the hundred others found 
in the neighborhood, shows it to have been indigenous, yet parts of its 
style are different from other aboriginal North American images. Atten 
tion is called to the slim waist, the winged arms, the crossed legs, the 
long feet, breadth of toes, the many dots and circles shown over the 
body, with triple lines of garters or anklets. All these show a different 
dress from the ancient North American. The girdle about the waist, 
and the triangular dress which, with its decorations and arrangement 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 56 


of dots ami circles, cover the lower part of the body, are to be remarked. 
While there are several specimens of aboriginal art from this part of the 
country which bear these peculiarities of costumes, positions, appear 
ance, and manner of work, showing them to have been in use among 
a portion of the people, yet they are not part of the usual art products. 
There is a manifest difference between this and the ordinary statue of 
the Indian or of the mound builder of that neighborhood or epoch. 

It is not claimed that this shell proves the migration of Buddhism 
from Asia, nor its presence among North American Indians. " One 
swallow does not make a summer. 7 But this figure, taken in connec 
tion with The Swastika, presents a set of circumstances corresponding 
with that possibility which goes a long distance in forming circum 
stantial evidence in its favor. 

M. Gustave d Eichthal wrote a series of essays in the Eevue Archje- 
ologique, 18M4-G5, in which he collated the evidence and favored the 
theory ol Buddhist influence in ancient America. Other writers have 
taken the same or similar views and have attributed all manner of 
foreign influence, like the Lost Tribes of Israel, etc., to the Xorth 
American Indian, 1 but all these theories have properly had but slight 
influence in turning public opinion in their direction. Mr. V. K. 
Gandhi, in a recent letter to the author, says of this specimen (pi. 10): 

While Swastika technically means the cross with the arms beut to the right, later 
on it came to signify anything which had the form of a cross; for instance, the 
posture in which a persons sits with his legs crossed is called the Swastika posture; - 
also when a person keeps his arms crosswise over his chest, or u woman covers her 
breast with her arms crossed, that particular attitude is called the Swastika atti 
tude, which has no connection, however, with tho symbolic meaning of the Swastika 
with four arms. The figure [pi. 10], a photograph of which you gave me the other 
day, has the same Swastika posture. In matters of concentration and meditation, 
Swastika posture is oftentimes prescribed, which is also called Sukhasana, mean 
ing a posture of ease and comfort. In higher forms of concentration, the posture is 
changed from Sukhasaua to Padmasana, the posture which is generally found in 
Jain and Buddhist images. The band around the waist, which goes from the navel 
lower on till it roaches the back part, has a peculiar significance in the Jain phi 
losophy. The Shvetamber division of the Jain community have always this kind 
of band in their images. The object is twofold: The first is that the generative 
parts ought not to be visible; the second is that this band is considered a symbol 
of perfect chastity. 

There can be no doubt of the authenticity of these objects, nor any 
suspicion against their having been found as stated in the labels 
attached. They are in the Museum collection, as are other specimens. 
They come unheralded and with their peculiar character unknown. 
They were obtained by excavations made by a competent and reliable 
investigator who had been engaged in mound exploration, a regular 
employe of the Bureau of Ethnology, under the direction of Prof. 

1 This theory was first announced by Antonio de Montezinos and published by 
MAXASSEH ben ISRAEL in Amsterdam, 1636. In Leser Library, Phil., and Cohen 
Library, Balto. Catalogued by Dr. Cyrus Adler. First English Ed. by Moses Wall, 
London : 1651, repiiblished by Dr. Grossmaun, Am. Jews Annual, 1889, p. 83. 

2 Max Miiller and Ohuefalsch-Richter agree with this. See pp. 772, 773 of this paper. 


Cyrus Thomas during several years, and always of good reputation and 
unblemished integrity. They come with other objects, labeled in the 
same way and forming one of a series of numbers among thousands. 
Its resemblance to Buddhist statues was apparently undiscovered or 
unrecognized, at least unmentioned, by all those having charge of it 
and in its mutilated condition it was laid away among a score of other 
specimens of insufficient value to justify notice or publication, and 
is now brought to light through accident, no one having charge of it 
recognizing it as being different from any other of the half hundred 
engraved shells theretofore described. The excavation of Toco mound 
is described by Professor Thomas in the Twelfth Annual Eeport of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, pages 379-384. 

We can now be governed only by the record as to the objects asso 
ciated with this shell (pi. 10), which shows it to have been found with 
skeleton No. 8, in Big Toco mound, Monroe County, Tenn., while the 
Swastika of figure 238 was found with skeleton No. 49. Toco mound 
contained fifty-two skeletons, or, rather, it contained buried objects 
reported as from that many skeletons. Those reported as with skele 
ton No. 8 were, in addition to this gorget: One polished stone hatchet, 
one stone pipe, and one bowl with scalloped rim. Toco mound seems 
to have been exceedingly rich, having furnished 198 objects of consid 
erable importance. Association of discovered objects is one of the 
important means of furnishing evidence in prehistoric archeology. It 
is deemed of sufficient importance in the present case to note objects 
from Toco mound associated with the Buddha statue. They are given 
in list form, segregated by skeletons : 

Skeleton JSTo. 

4. Two polished stone hatchets, one discoidal stone. 

5. One polished stone hatchet. 

7. Two large seashells. 

8. One stone pipe, one polished stone hatchet, one ornamented shell gorget (the 

Buddha statue, pi. 10), one ornamented bowl, with scalloped rim. 

9. Two polished stone hatchets. 

12. A lot of small shell beads. 

13. Four bone implements (one ornamented), one stone pipe, two shell gorgets 

(one ornamented), one bear tooth. 

17. One polished stone hatchet. 

18. Two polished stone hatchets, one stone pipe, one boat-shaped bowl ( orna 

mented), one shell gorget (ornamented), one shell mask, one shell pin, one 

shell gorget, one bear tooth, lot of shell beads. 
22. Two polished stone chisels, one stone disk. 
24. One polished stone hatchet. 

26. Two polished stone hatchets, one waterworn stone, two hammer stones. 

27. One polished stone hatchet. 

28. Two polished stone hatchets, one ornamented bowl. 
31. One polished stone hatchet, one polished stone chisel. 

33. Two polished stone hatchets, one two-eared pot, one small shell gorget, three 

shell pins, fragments of pottery. 

34. Three polished stone hatchets. 
36. One discoidal stone. 


Skeleton No. 

37. One polished stone chisel, one stone pipe, one shell mask (ornamented). 

41. One polished stone hatchet, one stone pipe, pottery vase with ears (orna 
mented), one shell mask, one shell pin, four arrowheads (two with serrated 
edges;, two stone perforators. 

43. Lot of shell beads. 

49. One polished stone hatchet, one spade-shaped stone ornament (perforated), one 
spear-head, one stone pipe, one pottery bowl with two handles, two shell 
masks (ornamented), twenty-seven bone needles, two beaver teeth, one bone 
implement (raccoon), piece of mica, lot of red paint, two shell gorgets (one 
ornamented with Swastika, fig. 238), thirty-six arrow-heads, lot of Hint 
chips, fragment of animal jaw and bones, lot of large shells, one image pot. 

51. One shell pin, one shell mask, one arrow-head, two small shell beads. 

52. One shell mask, one shell gorget, one shell ornament. 

These objects are now in the TJ. S. National Museum and in my 
department. The list is taken from the official catalogue, and they 
number from 115505 to 115684. I have had the opportunity of compar 
ing the objects with this description and find their general agreement. 
Dr. Palmer, the finder, was an employe of the Bureau of Ethnology, is 
a man of the highest character, of great zeal as an archaeologist and 
naturalist, and has been for many years, and is now, in the employ of 
the Bureau or Museum, always witli satisfaction and confidence. Mr. 
Emmert was also an employe of the Bureau for many years, and 
equally reliable. 

The specimens of shell in this and several other mounds, some of 
which are herein figured, were in an advanced stage of decay, pittM, 
discolored, and crumbling, requiring to be handled with the utmost care 
to prevent disintegration. They were dried by the collector, immersed 
in a weak solution of glue, and forwarded immediately (in 1885), with 
other relics from the neighborhood, to the Bureau of Ethnology and 
National Museum tit Washington, where they have remained ever since. 
There is not the slightest suspicion concerning the genuineness or 
antiquity of this specimen or of those bearing the Swastika as belong 
ing to the mound-building epoch in the valley of the Tennessee. 

Other figures of sufficient similarity to the Swastika have been found 
among the aborigines of North America to show that these do not 
stand alone; and there are also other human figures which show a style 
of work so similar and such resemblance in detail of design as to estab 
lish the practical identity of their art. One of these was a remarkable 
specimen of engraved shell foand in the same mound, Fains Island, 
which contained the first Swastika (fig. 237). It is described in the 
Second Annual Eeport of the Bureau of Ethnology, page 301, under 
the name of McMahon s mound. It is a large polished Fulgur shell 
disk which, when entire, has been nearly 5 inches in diameter (fig. 239). 
A little more than one-third has crumbled away, and the remaining 
portion has been preserved only by careful handling and immediate 
immersion in a solution of glue. It had been engraved on the concave 
side. The design represents two human figures plumed and winged, 



armed with eagles 7 talons and engaged in mortal combat. The design 
apparently covered the entire shell, leaving no space for encircling 
lines. The two figures are in profile and face each other in a fierce onset. 
Of the right-hand figure, only the body, one arm, and one leg remain. 
The left-hand figure is almost complete. The outline of the face, one 
arm, and one foot is all that is affected. The right hand is raised above 
the head in the act of brandishing a long knife pointed at both ends. 
The other combatant, clutching in his right hand a savage-looking 

Fig. 239. 


Two fighting figures with triangular breech-clout, garters and anklets, and dots and circles. 
Fains Island, Tennessee. 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 452, fig. 128. 
Cat. No. 62930, U. S. N. M. 

blade with its point curved, seems delivering a blow in the face of his 
antagonist. Of the visible portions of the figures, the hands are vigor 
ously drawn, the thumbs press down upon the outside of the forefingers 
in a natural effort to tighten the grasp. The body, arms, and legs are 
well defined and in proper proportion, the joints are correctly placed, 
the left knee is bent forward, and the foot planted firmly on the ground, 
while the right is thrown gracefully back against the rim at the left, 
and the legs terminate in well-drawn eagles feet armed with curved 



talons. The head is decorated with a single plume which springs from 
a circular ornament placed over the ear; an angular figure extends 
forward from the base of this plume, and probably represents what is 
left of the headdress proper. In front of this on the very edge of the 

crumbling shell is one-half 
of the lozenge-shaped eye, 
the dot representing the pu 
pil being almost obliterated. 
The ankles and legs just be 
low the knee and the wrists 
each have three lines repre 
senting bracelets or anklets. 
It is uncertain whether the 
leg is covered or naked ; but 
between the waistband and 
the leggings, over the abdo 
men, is represented on both 
figures a highly decorated 
triangular garment, or, pos 
sibly coat of mail, to which 
particular attention is called. 1 
In the center, at the top, just 
under the waistband, are four 
circles with dots in the cen 
ter arranged in a square ; out 
side of this, still at the top, 
are two triangular pieces, 
and outside of them are two 
more circles and dots ; while 
the lower part of the trian 
gle, with certain decorations 
of incised lines, completes 
the garment. This decora 
tion is the same on both fig 
ures, and corresponds exactly 
with the Buddha figure. An 
ornament is suspended on 
the breast which shows three 
more of the circles and dots. 
The earring is still another. 
The right-hand figure, so far 
as it can be seen, is a duplicate 
of the left, and in the drawing 
it has, where destroyed, been indicated by dotted lines. It is remarkable 
that the peculiar clothing or decoration of these two figures should be 
almost an exact reproduction of the Buddha figure (pi. 10). Another 

Fig. 240. 


Entowah Mound, Georgia. 

Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 

1 Cf. Ghandi, p. 882, of this paper. 



interesting feature of the design is the highly conventionalized wing 
which fills the space beneath the uplifted arm. This wing is unlike 
the usual specimens of aboriginal art which have been found in such 
profusion in that neighborhood. But it is again remarkable that this 
conventionalized wing and the bracelets, anklets, and garters should 
correspond iii all their peculiarities of construction and design with the 

Fig. 1^41. 


Repousse work . 

Kntowah Mound, Georgia. 

Cat. No. 91117, U. S. X. M. 

wings on the copper and shell figures from the E to wall mound, Georgia 
(figs. 240, 241, and 242) . Behind the left-hand figure is an ornament 
resembling the spreading tail of an eagle which, with its feather arrange 
ment and the detail of their mechanism, correspond to a high degree 
with the eagle effigies in repousse copper (fig. 243) from the mound in 

1 Fifth Aim. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84, pp. 1)6-106, iigs. 12, 4:*, 45. 



Union County, 111., shown in the Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology (p. 105) and in the Twelfth Annual Report (p. 309). 

Hopewcll Mound, Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio. A later discovery 
of the Swastika belonging to the same period and the same general 
locality that is, to the Ohio Valley was that of Prof. Warren K. Moore- 
head, in the fall and winter of 1891-92, in his excavations of the Hope- 
well mound, seven miles northwest of Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio. 1 
The locality of this mound is well shown in Squier and Davis s work on 
the "Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 7 (pi. 10, p. 120), under the name 
of " Clark s Works," here reproduced as pi. 11. It is the large irregular 

unnumbered triple mound 
just within the arc of the 
circle shown in the center 
of the plan. The excava 
tion contemplated the de 
struction of the mound by 
cutting it down to the sur 
rounding level and scat 
tering the earth of which 
it was made over the sur 
face; and this was done. 
Preparatory to this, a sur 
vey and ground plan was 
made (pi. 112). I assisted 
at this survey and can 
vouch for the general cor 
rectness. The mound was 
surrounded by parallel 
lines laid out at right an 
gles and marked by stakes 
50 feet apart. The mound 
was found to be 530 feet 
long and 250 feet wide. 
Squier and Davis reported 
its height at 32 feet, but the excavation of the trenches required but 18 
and 10 feet to the original surface on which the mound was built. It was 
too large to be cut down as a whole, and for convenience it was decided 
by Mr. Moorehead to cut it down in trenches, commencing on the north 
east. Nothing was found until, in opening trench 3, about five feet 
above the base of the mound, they struck a mass of thin worked copper 
objects, laid flat one atop the other, in a rectangular space, say three 
by four feet square. These objects are unique in American prehistoric 
archeology. Some of them bore a resemblance in form to the scalloped 
mica pieces found by Squier and Davis, and described by them in 

Fig. 242. 


Triangular breech-clout with dots and circles. 
Entowah Mound, Georgia. 

Cat. Xo. 91443, I . S. X. M. 

1 These explorations were made for the Department of Ethnology at the World s 
Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 1 1 . 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 12, 


Ross County, Ohio. 
Moorehead, " Primitive Man in Ohio, " PI. xxxiv. 



their "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley" (p. 240), and 

also those of the same material found by Professor Putnam in the 

Turner group of mounds in the valley 

of the Little Miami. They had been 

apparently laid between two layers of 

bark, whether for preservation or mere 

convenience of deposit, can only be 


The following list of objects is given, 
to the end that the reader may see what 
was associated with 
these newly found 
copper Swastikas: 
Five Swastika 
crosses (fig. 244)- a 
long mass of copper 
covered with wood 
on one side and 
with squares and 
five similar designs 
traceable on the re 
verse ; smaller mass 

of copper; eighteen single copper rings; a num 
ber of double copper rings, one set of three and 
one set of two; live pan lids or hat-shaped rings; ten circular disks 
with holes in center, represented in fig. 245, orig 
inally placed in a pile and now oxidized together; 

also large circular, 
stencil-like orna 
ments, one (fig. 
24G) 7J inches in 
diameter; another 
(fig. 247) some what 
in the shape of a 
St. Andre w s cross, 

Fi-. 241. 


Hope-well Mound, Itoss 
Coanty, Ohio. 

Fig. 243. 


Ilepousse work. 
Union County, 111. 

Cat. Xo. 91507, U. S. X. M. 

the extreme length 

Fig. 245. 


Hopewell Hound, Uosa 
County, Ohio. 

over the arms 
being Sf inches. 

About five feet below the deposit of 
sheet copper and 10 or 12 feet to the 
west, two skeletons lay together. They 
Avere covered with copper plates and 
fragments, copper hatchets, and pearl 

beads, shown in the list below, laid in rectangular form about seven 
feet in length and five feet in width, and so close as to frequently 

Fig. 240. 

Hopewell Mound, lloss County, Ohio 




Hope well Mound, Ross 
County, Ohio. 

Ai natural siz.-. 

Fig. 248. 

Hopewt ll Mound, Koss County. Ohio. 

?; natural size. 

There were also found sixty-six copper hatchets, ranging from 1 
to 22^ inches in length; twenty-three copper plates and fragments; 
one copper eagle ; eleven semicircles, bars, etc. ; 
two spool-shaped objects; four comb-shaped effigies; 
one wheel with peculiar circles and bars of copper; 
three long plates of copper; pearl and shell beads 
and teeth; a lot of extra fine pearls; a lot of wood, 
beads, and an unknown metal; a lot of bones; a hu 
man jaw, very large; a 
fragmentary fish resem 
bling a sucker (fig. 248); 
one stool of copper with 
two legs ; broken copper 
plates; one broken shell; 
bear and panther tusks; 
mica plates ; forty fragmentary and entire 
copper stencils of squares, circles, diamonds, 
hearts, etc.; copper objects, saw-shaped: 
twenty ceremonial objects, rusted or oxidized copper; two diamond- 
shaped stencils, copper (fig. 
249); four peculiar spool- 
shaped copper ornaments, 
perforated, showing re 
pousse work (fig. 250). 

I made sketches of two or 
three of the bone carvings, 
for the purpose of showing 
the art of the people who 
constructed this monument, 
so that by comparison with 
that of other known peoples 
some knowledge may be ob 
tained, or theory advanced, 
concerning the race or tribe 
to which they belonged and 
the epoch in which they 
lived. Fig. 251 shows an 
exquisite bone carving of a 
paroquet which, belongs 
much farther south and not 
found in that locality in 
modern times. The design 
shown in fig. 252 suggests 
a Mississippi Kite, but the zoologists of the Museum, while unable to 
determine with exactitude its intended representation, chiefly from the 
mutilated condition of the fragment, report it more likely to be the 

Fig. 249. 

Hopewell Mound, lloss County, Ohio. 

3, natural size. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson, 

PLATE 13. 


Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. 
Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio, " frontispiece. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 14, 

bb O 

i 5 E 
fe 1 l: 2 


j t, 5 

S s 

o S 



head of the u leather-back " turtle, Fig. 253 probably represents an 
otter with a iish in his mouth. 

In trench No. 3, 15 skeletons (numbered 264 to 278, inclusive), were 
found on the base line, all extended. Objects of coa! 7 bone, shell, or 
stone, had been placed with nearly all of them. Nos. 265 and 266 were 
laid on blocks of burnt earth 3 inches higher than the base of the 
mound. One of the skeletons in this mound (No. 248) is shown in pi. 
13. It was a most remarkable specimen, and forms the frontispiece of 
Prof. W. K. Moorehead s volume u Primitive Man in Ohio," where it is 
described (p. 195) as follows: 

At his head were imitation elk horns, neatly made of wood and covered with sheet 
copper rolled into cylindrical forms over the prongs. The antlers were 22 inches 

Fig. 250. 

Repousse and intaglio decoration . 
Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. 

Natural size. 

high and 19 inches across from prong to prong. They fitted into a crown of copper 
bent to fit the head from occipital to upper jaw. Copper plates were upon the breast 
and stomach, also on the back. The copper preserved the bones and a few of the 
smews. Jt also preserved traces of cloth similar to coffee sacking in texture, inter 
woven among the threads of which were 900 beautiful pearl beads, bear teeth split 
and cut, and hundreds of other beads, both pearl and shell. Copper spool-shaped 
objects and other implements covered the remains. A pipe of granite and a spear 
head of agate were near the right shoulder. The pipe was of very fine workman 
ship and highly polished. 

While digging out skeletons 280 to 284, Professor Moorehead says 
they touched the edge of an altar (pi. 14). It was on the base line and 
15 feet north of the copper find before described. On the 5th of Janu 
ary, 1892, the altar was uncovered, and the earth, charcoal, and objects 
within it put into five soap boxes and transported to headquarters, 



where the material was assorted in my presence and with my aid. The 
mass on the altar had been charred throughout. It contained, in part, 
mica ornaments, beads, spool-shaped objects, whale, bear, and panther 
teeth, flint knives, carved effigies of bone and stone, some of which were 
broken, while others were whole. There were stone tablets, slate orna 
ments, copper balls, frag 
ments of cloth, rings of 
chlorite, quartz crystals 
perforated and grooved, 
and a few pieces of flint 
and obsidian, with several 
thousand pearls drilled for 
suspension. These objects 
were heaped in the cavity 
of the altar without any 
regularity. All were af 
fected by heat, the copper 
being fused in many cases. 
The teeth and tusks were 
charred, split, and cal- 
Fi<:.25i. cined. There were no 


Hopcweii Mound, EOSH County, ohi... charcoal, and from the ap 

pearance of the debris, es 
pecially the wood, earth, and bone, one might suppose that after the fire 
had started it had not been allowed to burn to ashes as if in the open 
air, but had been covered, with earth, and so had smoldered out as in a 
charcoal pit. 

Evidence was found of an extended commerce with distant localities, 
so that if the Swastika existed in America it might be expected here. 
The principal objects were as follows: A number of large seashells 
(Fulgur) native to the southern Atlan 
tic Coast COO miles distant, many of 
them carved; several thousand pieces 
of mica from the mountains of Virginia 
or North Carolina, 200 or more miles 
distant; a thousand large blades of 
beautifully chipped objects in obsid 
ian, which could not have been found 
nearer than theBocky Mountains, 1,000 
or 1,200 miles distant; four hundred 
pieces of wrought copper, believed to 
be from the Lake Superior region, 150 
miles distant; fifty- three skeletons, the copper headdress (pi. 13) made 
in semblance of elk horns, 16 inches high, and other wonderful things. 
Those not described have no relation to the Swastika. 

Fig. 252. 


Hopewell Mound, Itoss County, Ohio. 

Natural size. 



These objects were all prehistoric. None of them bore the slightest 
evidence of contact with white civilization. The commoner objects 
would compare favorably with those found in other mounds by the same 
and other investigators. 
Much of it may be undeter 
mined. It is strange to find 
so many objects brought such 
long distances, and we may not 
be able to explain the problem 
presented j but there is no 

modem Or European in flu- AN OTTEB WITH A PISH IN ITS MOUTH. 

ence into it. By what people 

were these made! In what epoch? For what purpose? What did 
they represent? How did this ancient, curious, and widespread sign, 
a recognized symbol of religion of the Orient, find its way to the bot- 


Fig. 254. 


Decoration, red on yellow ground. 

Poinsett County, Ark. 

Cat. No. 91230, U. S. N". M. 

torn of one of the mounds of antiquity in the Scioto Valley ! These 
are questions easy to ask but difficult to answer. They form some of 
the riddles of the science of prehistoric anthropology. 

Mounds in Arkansas. A water jug in the collection of the II. S. 
National Museum (fig. 254) was obtained in 1883 by P. W". Norris, of 


the Bureau of Ethnology, from a mound iu Poinsett County, Ark. It 
is of yellow ground, natural color of clay, and decorated with light 
red paint. The paint is represented in the cut by the darkened sur 
faces. The four quarters of the jug are decorated alike, one side of 
which is shown in the cut. The center of the design is the Swastika 
with the arm crossing at right angles, the ends turned to the right, the 
effect being produced by an enlargement on the right side of each arm 
until they all join the circle. A similar water jug with a Swastika 
mark of the same type as the foregoing decorates Major Powell s desk 
in the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Marquis Nadaillac 1 describes and figures a grooved ax from Peniber- 
tou, N. J., on which some persons have recognized a Swastika, but 
which the Marquis doubts, while Dr. Abbott 2 denounces the inscrip 
tion as a fraud. 


The- Kansas. The llev. J. Owen Dorsey 3 describes the mourning 
customs of the Kansas Indians. In the course of his description he 
tells of a council of ceremony held among these Indians to decide if 
they should go on the warpath. Certain sacred songs were sung which 
had been arranged according to a chart, which Mr. Dorsey introduces 
as pi. 20, page G7C. The outside edge of this chart bore twenty-seven 
ideographs, which suggest or determine the 
song or speech required. No. 1 was the sacred 
pipe; No. 2, the maker of all songs ; No. 3, song 
of another old man who gives success to the 
hunters; No. 4 (fig. 255 in the present paper) 
is the Swastika sign, consisting of two ogee 
lines intersecting each other, the ends curved 
to the left. Of it, Mr. Dorsey says only the 

Fig. 255. Fig. 4. Taclje way uu, wind songs. The winds are dei- 

KANSA INDIAN WAR CHART. ties ; they are Kazanta (at the pines), the east wind; 

Swastika sign for winds and Ak a, the south wind; A k ajifiga or A k uya, the west 

wind songs. wind; and Hnia (toward the cold), the north wind. 

j. <hven Dorsey, American Natural^, The warriors used to remove the hearts of slain foes, 

juh, ISKS.I). 670. putting them in the lire as a sacrifice to the winds. 

Iii the Eleventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (p. 525) 
Mr. Dorsey repeats this statement concerning the names of the winds, 
and shows how, in their invocations, the Kansas began with the east 
wind and went around to the right in the order here given. His tig. 195 
illustrates this, but the cross has straight arms. In response to my 
personal inquiry, Mr. Dorsey says the war chart 4 was drawn for him, 
with the Swastika as represented, by Pahanle-gaqle, the war captain, 

1 " Prehistoric America," p. 22, note 24, fig. 9. 

2 "Primitive Industry/ p. 32. 

3 American Naturalist, xix, July, 188T>, p. 670. 
* Ibid., pi. 20. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 1 5. 

Sac Indians, Cook County (Kansas) Reservation. 


who had official charge of it aud who copied it from one he had inher 
ited from his father and his < i father s fathers ; and Mr. Dorsey assured 
me that there can be no mistake or misapprehension about this Indian s 
intention to make the sign as there represented. Asked if the sign 
was common and to be seen in other cases or places, Mr. Dorsey replied 
that the Osage have a similar chart with the same and many other 
signs or pictographs over a hundred but except these, he knows of 
no similar signs. They are not in common use, but the chart and all 
it contains are sacred objects, the property of the two Kansas gentes, 
Black Eagle and Chicken Hawk, and not to be talked of nor shown 
outside of the gentes of the council lodge. 1 

The Sac Indians. Miss Mary A. Owen, of St. Joseph, Mo., sending 
some specimens of beadwork of the Indians (pi. 15) from the Kansas 
Reservation, two of which were garters and the third a necklace 13 
inches long -and 1 inch wide, in which the Swastikas represented are 
an inch square, writes, February 2, 1895, as follows : 

The Indians call it [the Swastika] the "luck," or "good luck." It is used in 
necklaces and garters by the sun worshippers among the Kickapoos, Sacs, Pottawat- 
oniies, lowas, and (I have been told) by the Winnebagoes. I have never seen it on 
a Wiimebago. The women use the real Swastika and the Greek key pattern, in the 
silk patchwork of which they make sashes and skirt trimmings. As for their think 
ing it an emblem of fire or deity, I do not believe they entertain any such ideas, as 
some Swastika hunters have suggested to me. They call it "luck," and say it is the 
same thing as two other patterns which I send in the mail with this. They say they 
"always" made that pattern. They must have made it for a long time, for you can 
not get such beads as compose it, in the stores of a city or in the supplies of the 
traders who import French beads for the red folk. Another thing. Beadwork is 
very strong, and this is beginning to look tattered, a sure sign that it has seen long 

These sun worshippers or, if you please, Swastika wearers believe in the Great 
Spirit, who lives in the sun, who creates all things, and is the source of all power 
and beneficence. The ancestors are a sort of company of animal saints, who inter 
cede for the people. There are many malicious little demons who thwart the ances 
tors and lead away the people at times and fill them with diseases, but no head 
devil. Black Wolf and certain ghosts of the unburied are the worst. Everybody 
has a secret fetish or "medicine," besides such general "lucks" as Swastikas, bear 
skins, and otter and squirrel tails. 

Of the other cult of the peoples I have mentioned, those who worship the sun as 
tbe deity aud not the habitation, I know nothing. They are secret, suspicious, and 
gloomy, and do not wear the "luck." I have never seen old people wear the "luck." 

Now, I have told you all I know, except that it [the Swastika] used in ancient 
times to be made in quill embroidery on herb bags. 

Miss Owen spoke of other garters with Swastikas on them, but 
she said they were sacred, were used only during certain ceremonies, 
and she knew not if she could be able to get or even see them. Dur 
ing the prolongation of the preparation of this paper she wrote two or 
three times, telling of the promises made to her by the two Sac women 
who were the owners of these sacred garters, and how each time they 

This was the last time I ever saw Mr. Dorsey. He died within a month, beloved 
and regretted by all who knew him. 



had failed. Yet she did not give up hope. Accordingly, in the winter 
of 1890, the little box containing the sacred garters arrived. Miss 
Owen says the husbands of these two Sac women are Pottawatomies 
on the Cook County (Kans.) Reservation. They are sun worshippers. 
These garters have been sketched and figured in pi. 16. 

The Pueblos. The Pueblo country in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, 
and Arizona, as is well known, is inhabited by various tribes of Indians 
speaking different languages, separated from one another and from all 
other tribes by differences of language, customs, and habit, but some 
what akin to each other in culture, and many things different from 
other tribes are peculiar to them. These have been called the "Pueblo 
Indians" because they live in pueblos or towns. Their present country 
includes the regions of the ancient cliff dwellers, of whom they are 
supposed to be the descendants. In those manifestations of culture 
wherein they are peculiar and different from other 
tribes they have come to be considered something 
superior. Any search for the Swastika in America 
which omitted these Indians would be fatally 
defective, and so here it is found. Without spec 
ulating how the knowledge of the Swastika came 
to them, whether by independent invention or 
brought from distant lands, it will be enough to 
show its knowledge among and its use by the 
peoples of this country. 

In the Annual Report of the Bureau of Eth 
nology for the year 1880-81 (p. 394, fig. 562) is 
described a dance rattle made from a small gourd, 
ornamented in black, white, and red (fig. 256). 
The gourd has a Swastika on each side, with the 
ends bent, not square, but ogee (the tetraskelion). 
The I". S. National Museum possesses a large 
number of these dance rattles with Swastikas on 
their sides, obtained from the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Ari 
zona. Some of them have the natural neck for a handle, as shown in 
the cut; others are without neck, and have a wooden stick inserted 
and passed through for a handle. Beans, pebbles, or similar objects 
are inside, and the shaking of the machine makes a rattling noise which 
marks time for the dance. 

The Museum possesses a large series of pottery from the various 
pueblos of the Southwest; these are of the painted and decorated 
kind common to that civilization and country. Some of these pieces 
bear the Swastika mark; occasionally it is found outside, occasion 
ally inside. It is more frequently of the ogee form, similar to that on 
the rattle from the same country (fig. 256). The larger proportion of 
these specimens comes from the pueblos of Santa Clara and St. Ilde- 

Fig. 256. 


Ogeo Swastika 011 each side. 

Sec-oiul Annual Report of the Bureau 

of Ethnology, fig. 5-J6. 
Cat. No. 42042, U. S. >. M. 

Report of National Museum, 1894, Wilson 











PLATE 16. 

< a 
* c 

te 1 

2 ! 


o i 


Dr. Scliliemann reports : l 

We also see a Swastika (turned to the left) scratched on two terra cotta bowls 
of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, preserved in the ethnological section of the 
Royal Museum at Berlin. 

G. ^ordenskiold, 2 in the report of Ms excavations among the ruined 
pueblos of the Mesa Verde, made in southwestern Colorada during 
the summer of 1891, tells of the finding of numerous specimens of the 
Swastika, In pi. 23, fig. 1, he represents a large, shallow bowl in the 
refuse heap at the "Step House." It was 50 centimeters in diameter, 
of rough execution, gray in color, and different in form and design 
from other vessels from the cliff houses. The Swastika sign (to the 
right) was in its center, and made by lines ot small dots. His pi. 27, 
fig. 6, represents a bowl found in a grave (g on the plan) at " Step 
House." Its decoration inside was of the usual type, but the only 
decoration on the outside consisted of a Swastika, with arms crossing 
at right angles and ends bent at the right, similar to fig. 9. His pi. 
18, fig. 1, represented a large bowl found in Mug House. Its decora 
tion consisted in part of a Swastika similar in form and style to the 
Etruscan gold "bulla," fig. 188 in this paper. Certain specimens of 
pottery from the pueblos of Santa Clara and St. Ildefonso, deposited 
in the U. S. National Museum (Department of Ethnology), bear Swas 
tika marks, chiefly of the ogee form. 3 

The Navajoes.DY. Washington Matthews, U. S. A., than whom no 
one has done better, more original, nor more accurate anthropologic work 
in America, whether historic or prehistoric, has kindly referred me to 
his memoir in the Fifth Annual Eeport of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
comprising 82 pages, with 9 plates and 9 figures, entitled "The Moun 
tain Chant 5 a Navajo ceremony." It is descriptive of one of a number 
of ceremonies practiced by the shamans or medicine men of the Navajo 
Indians, New Mexico. The ceremony is public, although it takes place 
during the night. It lasts for nine days and is called by the Indians 
Pdsilyidje qagal" literally, chant toward (a place) within the moun 
tains." The word "dsilyi" may allude to mountains in general, to the 
Carrizo Mountains in particular, to the place in the mountains where 
the prophet (originator of these ceremonies) dwelt, or to his name, or to 
all of these combined. " Qatfil" means a sacred song or a collection of 
sacred songs. J)r. Matthews describes at length the myth which is the 
foundation of this ceremony, which must be read to be appreciated, 
bat may be summarized thus: An Indian family, consisting of father, 
mother, two sous, and two daughters, dwelt in ancient times near the 
Carrizo Mountains. They lived by hunting and trapping; but the 

" Troja/ p. 123. 

2 "The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Southwestern Colorado/ P. A. Norstedt 
& Sou, Chicago, 1893. 

15 From letter of Mr. Walter Hough, Winslow, Ariz. "I send you two pieces of 
pottery [bearing many ogee Swastikas] from the ruins near here formerly inhabited 
by the Moki. Many of the bowls which we have found in this ruin had the Swastika 
as a major motif in the decoration." 

See also The Archaeologist, III, No. 7, p. 248. 
H. Mis. 90, pt.2 57 


place was desert, game scarce, and they moved up the river farther 
into the mountains. The father made incantations to enable his two 
sons to capture and kill game 5 he sent them hunting each day, direct 
ing them to go to the east, west, or north, but with the injunction not 
to the south. The elder son disobeyed this injunction, went to the 
south, was captured by a war party of Utes and taken to their home 
far to the south. He escaped by the aid of Yaybichy (Qastcdelgi) and 
divers supernatural beings. His adventures in returning home form 
the body of the ceremony wherein these adventures are, in some degree, 
reproduced. Extensive preparations are made for the performance of 
the ceremony. Lodges are built and corrals made for the use of the 
performers and the convenience of their audience. The fete being 
organized, stories are told, speeches made, and sacred songs are sung 
(the latter are given by Dr. Matthews as " songs of sequence," because 
they must be sung in a progressive series on four certain days of the 
ceremony). Mythological charts of dry sand of divers colors are made 
on the earth within the corrals after the manner of the Navajo and 
Pueblo Indians. These dry sand paintings are made after a given 
formula and intended to be repeated from year to year, although no 
copy is preserved, the artists depending only upon the memory of their 
shaman. One of these pictures or charts represents the fugitive s 
escape from the Utes, his captors, down a precipice into a den or cave 
in which burnt a fire "on which was no wood. 7 Four pebbles lay on 
the ground together a black pebble in the east, a blue one in the 
south, a yellow one in the west, and a white one in the north. From 
these flames issued. Around the fire lay four bears, colored and placed 
to correspond with the pebbles. When the strangers (Qastceelci and 
the Navajo) approached the fire the bears asked them for tobacco, and 
when they replied they had none, the bears became angry and thrice 
more demanded it. When the Navajo fled from the Ute camp, he had 
furtively helped himself from one of the four bags of tobacco which the 
council was using. These, with a pipe, he had tied up in his skin robe; 
so when the fourth demand was made he filled the pipe and lighted it 
at the fire. He handed the pipe to the black bear, who, taking but one 
whiff, passed it to the blue bear and immediately fell senseless. The 
blue bear took two whiffs and passed the pipe, when he too fell over 
unconscious. The yellow bear succumbed after the third whiff, and 
the white bear in the north after the fourth whiff. Now the Navajo 
knocked the ashes and tobacco out of his pipe and rubbed the latter 
on the feet, legs, abdomen, chest, shoulders, forehead, and mouth of 
each of the bears in turn, and they were at once resuscitated. He 
replaced the pipe in the corner of his robe. When the bears recovered, 
they assigned to the Kavajo a place on the east side of the fire where 
he might lie all night, and they brought out their stores of corn meal, 
tciltcin, and other berries, offering them to him to eat; but Qastceelej 
warned him not to touch the food, and disappeared. So, hungry as he 
was, the Indian lay down supperless to sleep. When he awoke in the 

Report of National Museum, 1894.- Wilson. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, "The Mountain C hant : A Navajo C erer 

PLATE 17. 


," Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84, PI. xvn. 


morning, the bears again offered food, which he again declined, saying 
he was not hungry. Then they showed him how to make the bear 
kethaivns, or sticks, to be sacrificed to the bear gods, and they drew 
from one corner of the cave a great sheet of cloud, which they unrolled, 
and on it were painted the forms of the "yays" of the cultivated plants. 

In Dr. Matthews s memoir (marked third, but described on p. 447 
as the second picture), is a representation of the painting which the 
prophet was believed to have seen at the home of the bears in the 
Carrizo Mountains. This is here reproduced as pi. 17. In the center 
of the figure is a bowl of water covered with black powder; the edge of 
the bowl is garnished with sunbeams, while outside of it and forming a 
rectangle are the four ctfbitlol of sunbeam rafts on which seem to stand 
four gods, or " yays," with the plants under their special protection, 
which are painted the same color as the gods to which they belong. 
These plants are represented on their left hand, the hand being open 
and extended toward them. The body of the eastern god is white, so 
is the stalk of corn at his left in the southeast; the body of the southern 
god is blue, so is the beanstalk beside him in the southwest; the body 
of the western god is yellow, so is his pumpkin vine in the northwest; 
the body of the north god is black, so is the tobacco plant in the north 
east. Each of the sacred plants grows from five Avhite roots in the cen 
tral waters and spreads outward to the periphery of the picture. The 
figures of the gods form a cross, the arms of which are directed to the 
four cardinal points; the plants form another cross, having a common 
center with the first, the arms extending to the intermediate points of 
the compass. The gods are shaped alike, but colored differently; they 
lie with their feet to the center and heads extended outward, one to 
each of the four cardinal points of the compass, the faces look forward, 
the arms half extended on either side, the hands raised to a level with 
the shoulders. They wear around their loins skirts of red sunlight 
adorned with sunbeams. They have ear pendants, bracelets, and arm 
lets, blue and red, representing turquoise and coral, the prehistoric and 
emblematic jewels of the Navajo Indians. Their forearms and legs are 
black, showing in each a zigzag mark representing lightning on the 
black rain clouds. In the north god these colors are, for artistic rea 
sons, reversed. The gods have, respectively, a rattle, a charm, and a 
basket, each attached to his right hand by strings. This basket, repre 
sented by concentric lines with a Greek cross in the center, all of the 
proper color corresponding with the god to whom each belongs, has 
extending from each of its quarters, arranged perpendicularly at right 
angles to each other, in the form of a cross, four white plumes of equal 
length, which at equal distances from the center are bent, all to the 
left, and all of the same length. Thus are formed in this chart four 
specimens of the Swastika, with the cross and circle at the intersection 
of the arms. The plumes have a small black spot at the tip end of each. 

Dr. Matthews informs me that he has no knowledge of any peculiar 
meaning attributed by these Indians to this Swastika symbol, and we 




Ogee Swastika (tetraskeliou) in thret- colors: (1) blue, (2) red, (3) white. 

Cat. -No. J7K2-J, I . S. N. M. 

life A : - 



Fig. 258. 


Pima Indians. 
The hole near the lower arm of the Swastika was made by an arrow. 

Property of Mr. F. W. Hodge. 



know not whether it is intended as a religious symbol, a charm of bless 
ing, or good luck, or whether it is only an ornament. We do not know 
whether it has any hidden, mysterious, or symbolic meaning; but there 
it is, a prehistoric or Oriental Swastika in all its purity and simplicity, 
appearing in one of the mystic ceremonies of the aborigines in the great 
American desert in the interior of the North American Continent. 

The Pimas. The U. S. National Museum possesses a shield (Cat. No. 
27829) of bull hide, made by the Piina Indians. It is about 20 inches in 
diameter, and bears upon its face an ogee Swastika (tetraskelion), the 
ends bent to the right. The body and each arm is divided longitudi 
nally into three stripes or bands indicated by colors, blue, red, and white, 
arranged alternately. The exterior part of the shield has a white 
ground, while the interior or center has a blue ground. This shield 
(fig. 257) is almost an exact reproduction of the Swastika from Mycenre 
(fig. 101), from Ireland (fig. 210), and from Scandinavia (figs. 209 and 
210). Fig. 258 shows another Pima shield of the same type. Its 
Swastika is, however, painted with a single color or possibly a mixture 
of two, red and white. It is ogee, and the ends bend to the left. This 
shield is the property of Mr. F. W. Hodge, of the Bureau of Ethnology. 
He obtained it from a Pima Indian in Arizona, who assured him that 
the hole at the end of the lower arm of the Swastika was made by an 
arrow shot at him by an Indian eiiemy. 


In Scribner s Magazine for September, 1894, under the title of "Tap 
estry in the New World," one of our popular writers has described, with 
many illustrations, the bedquilt patterns of our grandmothers time. 
One of these she interprets as the Swastika. This is, however, believed 
to be forced. The pattern in question is made of patches in the form 
of rhomboids and right-angled 
triangles sewed and grouped 
somewhat in the form of the 
Swastika (fig. 259). It is an in 
vented combination of patch 
work which formed a new pat 
tern, and while it bears a slight 
resemblance to the Swastika, 
lacks its essential elements. 
It was not a symbol, and rep- 


Fig. 259. 


resents no idea beyond that 
of a pretty pattern. It stood 
for nothing sacred, nor for benediction, blessing, nor good luck. It 
was but an ornamental pattern which fortuitously had the resem 
blance of Swastika. It was not even in the form of a cross. The 
difference between it and the Swastika is about the same there would 
be between the idle and thoughtless boy who sporadically draws the 



cross on his slate, meaning nothing by it, or tit most only to make 
an ornament, and the devout Christian who makes the same sign on 
entering the church, or the Indian who thus represents the four winds 
of heaven. He who made the Swastika recognizes an occult power for 
good and against evil, and he thereby invokes the power to secure 
prosperity. She who made the quilt pattern apparently knew nothing 
of the old-time Swastika, and was not endeavoring to reproduce it or 
anything like it. She only sought to make such an arrangement of 
rhomboidal and triangular quilt patches as would produce a new orna 
mental pattern. 


The specimen shown in fig. 200 (Oat. No. 2372G, U.S.N.M.) is a frag 
ment, the foot of a large stone metate from Zapatero, Granada, Nica 
ragua. The metate was chiseled or pecked out of the solid. A sunken 
panel is surrounded by moldings, in the center of which appears, from 
its outline, also by raised moldings, a figure, the outline of which is a 
Greek cross, but whose exterior is a Swastika. Its form as such is 

perfect, except that one bent 
arm is separated from its stem 
by a shallow groove. 

"The Cross, Ancient and Mod 
ern," by W. \V. Blake, shows, 
in its fig. 57, a Swastika pure 
and simple, and is cited by its 
author as representing a cross 
found by Squier in Central 
America. The Mexican enthu 
siast, Orozco y Perra, claims 
at first glance that it shows 
Buddhist origin, but I have not 
been able as yet to verify the 

Fig, 260. 



Cat. Xo. y:?76, U. S. N. M. 


Dr. Schliemann reports, in 
the Ethnological Museum at 
Berlin, a pottery bowl from Yucatan ornamented with a Swastika, the 
two main arms crossing at right angles, and he adds, 1 citing Le Plon- 
geou, "Fouilles an Yucatan, * that u during the last excavations in 
Yucatan this sign was found several times on ancient pottery." 

Le Plongeon discovered a fragment of a stone slab in the ancient 
Maya city of Mayapan, of which he published a description in the Pro- 

"Troja," p. 122. 



Fig. 261. 


Ogee Swastika (tetraskelion). 

I roreecHngs of the American Antiquarian Society, 
April 21, 1KS1. 

ceedings of tlie American Antiquarian Society. It contains an ogee 
Swastika (tetraskelion), with ends curved to the left and an inverted 
U with a wheel (fig. 261). Le Plougeon believed it to be an Egyptian 
inscription, which he translated thus: The character, inverted U, stood 
for Cli or K; the wheel for the sun, Aa or Ra, and the Swastika for Ch 
or JiT, making the whole to be Chach or 
Kdk, which, he says, is the word fire in 
the Maya language. 1 


A fragment of a metate (Cat. No. 9693, 
U. S. N. M.) found on Lempa Kiver, Costa 
Kica, by Capt. J. M. Dow, has on its bot 
tom a Swastika similar to that on the 
rnetate from Nicaragua. Specimen No. 
59182, U. S. M. N., is a fragment of a pot 
tery vase from Las Huacas, Costa Eica, 
collected by Dr. J. F. Bransford. It is 
natural maroon body color, decorated with black paint. A band two 
inches wide is around the belly of the vase divided into panels of solid 
black alternated with fanciful geometric figures, crosses, circles, etc. 
One of these panels contains a partial Swastika figure. The two main 
arms cross at right angles in Greek form. It is a partial Swastika in 
that, while the two perpendicular arms bend at right angles, turning- 
six times to the right; the two horizontal arms are solid black in color, 
as though the lines and spaces had run together. 


The leaden idol (fig. 125) (Artemis Nana 2 of Chaldea, Sayce ; statuettes 
of the Cyclades, Lenormant) found by Dr. Schliemaim in the third, the 
burnt city of Hissarlik, Troy, was described (p. 829) with its Swastika 
on the triangular shield covering the pudendum, with the statement 
that it would be recalled in the chapter on Brazil. . 

The aboriginal women of Brazil wore a triangular shield or plaque 
over their private parts. These shields are made of terra cotta, quite 
thin, the edges rounded, and the whole piece rubbed smooth and pol 
ished. It is supported in place by cords around the body, which are 
attached by small holes in each angle of the triangle. The U. S. 
National Museum possesses several of these plaques from Brazil, and 
several were shown at the Chicago Exposition. 

ir riio presence of the Swastika is the only purpose of this citation. The correct 
ness of the translation is not involved and is not vouched for. 

"Equivalent to Istar of Assyria and Babylon, Astarte of Phenicia, to the (Jreek 
Aphrodite, and the Kornan Venus. 


The consideration of the leaden idol of Ilissarlik, with a Swastika, 
as though for good luck, recalled to the author similar plaques in 
his department from Brazil. Some are of common yellow ware, others 
were finer, were colored red and rubbed smooth and hard, but were 
without decoration. The specimen shown in pi. 18 (upper figure) was 
from Marajo, Brazil, collected by Mr. E. M. Brigham. It is of light 
gray, slip Avashed, and decorated with pale red or yellow paint in bauds, 
lines, parallels, geometric figures. The specimen shown in the lower 
figure of the same plate, from the Caneotires Itiver, Brazil, was col 
lected by Prof. J. B. Steere. The body color, clay, and the decoration 
paint are much the same as the former. The ornamentation is princi 
pally by two light lines laid parallel and close so as to form a single 
line, and is of the same geometric character as the incised decoration 
ornament on other pieces from Marajo Island. Midway from top to 
bottom, near the outside edges, are two Swastikas. They are about 
five-eighths of an inch in size, are turned at right angles, one to the right 
and the other to the left. These may have been a charm signifying 
good fortune in bearing children. (See pp. 830-831!.) 

These specimens were submitted by the author to the Brazilian min 
ister, Sefior Mendonca, himself an archaeologist and philologist of no 
small capacity, who recognized these objects as in use in ancient times 
among the aborigines of his country. The name by which they are 
known in the aboriginal language is Tambeao or Tamatiatang, accord 
ing to the dialects of different provinces. The later dialect name for 
apron is reported as tunga, and the minister makes two remarks hav 
ing a possible bearing on the migration of the race: (1) The similarity 
of tunga with the last syllable of the longer word, atang, and (2) that 
tunga is essentially an African word from the west coast. Whether 
this piece of dress so thoroughly savage, with a possible ceremonial 
meaning relating to sex or condition, with its wonderful similarity of 
names, might not have migrated in time of antiquity from the west 
coast of Africa to the promontory of Brazil on the east coast of America 
where the passage is narrowest, is one of those conundrums which the 
prehistoric anthropologist is constantly encountering and which he is 
usually unable to solve. 

The purpose of these objects, beyond covering the private parts of 
the female sex, is not known. They may have been ceremonial, relat 
ing, under certain circumstances, to particular conditions of the sex, or 
they may have been only variations of the somewhat similar covers 
used by the male aborigine. They bear some resemblance to the Cein- 
tures de Cliaxtetc, specimens of which are privately shown at the Musee 
de Cluny at Paris. These are said to have been invented by Franchise 
de Carara, viguier imperial (provost) of Padua, Italy, near the end of 
the fourteenth century. He applied it to all the women of his seraglio. 
He was beheaded A. I). 1405, by a decree of the Senate of Venice, 
for his many acts of cruelty. The palace of St. Mark contained 
for a long time a box or case of these ceiutures with their locks 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 18. 



Terra-cotta covers, "tunga. 11 
Aborigines of Brazil. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 


attached, which were represented as des pieces de conviction of this 
monster. 1 Voltaire describes his hero " qui tient sous la clef, la vertu de 
sa femme. 


Dr. Schliemann reports that a traveler of the Berlin Ethnological 
Museum obtained a pumpkin bottle from the tribe of Leuguas in Para 
guay which bore the imprint of the Swastika scratched upon its sur 
face, and that he had recently sent it to the Eoyal Museum at Berlin. 




There are certain forms related to the normal Swastika and greatly 
resembling it meanders, ogees, the triskelion, tetraskelion, and five 
and six armed spirals or volutes. This has been mentioned above (page 
768), and some of the varieties are shown in fig. 13. These related forms 
have been found in considerable numbers in America, and this investi 
gation would be incomplete if they were omitted. It has been argued 
(p. 839) that the Swastika was not evolved from the meander, and this 
need not be reargued. 

The cross with the arms bent or twisted in a spiral is one of these 
related forms. It is certain that in ancient, if not prehistoric, times the 
cross with, extended spiral arms was frequently employed. This form 
appeared in intimate asso 

ciation with the square i 1 r 

Swastikas which were 
turned indifferently to the ~1 
right and left. This asso 


ciation of different yet 


related forms was so inti 

mate, and they were used so indiscriminately as to justify the contention 
that the maker or designer recognized or admitted no perceptible or 
substantial difference between the square and spiral forms, whether 
they turned to the right or left, or whether they made a single or many 
turns, and that he classed them as the same sign or its equivalent. A 
Greek vase (fig. 174) shows five Swastikas, four of which are of dif 
ferent form (fig. 262). Curiously enough, the design of this Greek vase 
is painted maroon on a yellow ground, the style generally adopted in 
the vases from the mounds of Missouri and Arkansas, which mostly 
represent the spiral Swastika. 

In Ireland a standing stone (fig. 215) has two forms of Swastika side 
by side. In one the arms are bent square at the corners, the other has 
curved or spiral arms, both turned to the right. These examples are 
so numerous that they would seem convincing in the absence of any 
other evidence (figs. 166 to 176). 

in "Misson Voyage cVItalie," tome 1, p. 217; Dulanre, "Histoire des Dif- 
ferensCultes,"n; Bran tone/ Dames Galantes"; Rabelais, "Pantagruel,"3, chap. 35, 




These allied forms of Swastika appear 011 prehistoric objects from 
mounds and Indian graves in different parts of the country and in 
times of high antiquity as well as among modern tribes. This paper 
contains the results of the investigations in this direction. 


The Department of Prehistoric Anthropology in the U. S. National 
Museum, contains a considerable number of large shells of aboriginal 

Fig. 263. 


Cross, circle, sun s rays( ?), and heads of four ivory-billed woodpeckers ( ?) arranged to form a Swastika. 


workmanship. The shell most employed was that of the genus Fulgur, 
a marine shell found on the coast from Florida to the capes. The Unio 
was employed," as well as others. These marine shells were transported 
long distances inland. They have been found in mounds and Indian 



Figs. 264. 


Square figure with ornamental corners and heads of ivory- 
hilled woodpecker arranged to form a figure resembling the 

graves a thousand miles from their original habitat. They served as 
utensils as well as ornaments. In many specimens the whorl was cut 
out, the shells otherwise 
left entire, and they 
served as vessels for hold- 
in g or carrying liquids. 
When intended for or 
naments, they were cut 
into the desired form 
and engraved with the 
design; if to be used 
as gorgets, holes were 
drilled for suspension. 
Frequently they were 
smoothed on the outside 
and the design engraved 
thereon. The prefer 
ence of the aborigines 
for the Fulgur shell may 
have been by reason of 
its larger size. Among 
the patterns employed 
for the decoration of 
these shells, the Swastika, in the form of spirals, volutes, or otherwise, 
appeared, although many others, such as the rattlesnake, birds, spiders, 

and human masks were em 
ployed. No detailed descrip 
tion of the patterns of this 
shell work will be attempted, 
because figures will be re 
quired to give the needed in 
formation for the interpreta 
tion of the Swastika. Many 
of the cuts and some of the 
descriptions are taken from 
the annual reports of the 
Bureau of Ethnology and, so 
far as relates to shell, mostly 
from Mr. Holmes s paper on 
"Art in Shell of the Ancient 
Americans." I desire to ex 
press my thanks for all cuts 
obtained from the Bureau pub 

Ivory -billed woodpecker. A 
series of gorgets in shell have been found ornamented .with designs 
.resembling the Swastika, which should be noticed. They combine 

Fig. 265. 


Square figure with ornamental corners and heads of 
ivory-hilled woodpecker arranged to form a figure 
resemhling the Swastika. 



the square and the cross, while the head and bill of the bird form 
the gamma indicative of the Swastika. Fig. 263, taken from the Sec 
ond Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81 (pi. 58), 
shows one of these shell gorgets from Mississippi, which "was, in all 
probability, obtained from one of the multitude of ancient sepulchres 
that abound in the State of Mississippi." The design is engraved on 
the convex side, the perforations are placed near the margin, and show 
much wear by the cord of suspension. In the center is a nearly sym 
metrical Greek cross inclosed in a circle of 1J inches. The spaces 
between the arms are emblazoned with radiating lines. Outside this 
circle are twelve small pointed or pyramidal rays. A square framework 
of four continuous parallel lines looped at the corners incloses this sym 
bol j projecting from the center 
of each side of this square, 
opposite the arms of the cross, 
are four heads of birds repre 
senting the ivory-billed wood 
pecker, the heron, or the swan. 
The long, slender, and straight 
mandibles give the Swastika 
form to the object. Mr. Holmes 
says (p. 282) that he has been 
able to find six of these speci 
mens, all of the type described, 
varying only in detail, work 
manship, and finish. 

Figs. 264, 265, and 266, ! rep 
resent three of these shell gor- 

Sqnare figure with ornamental corners and hearts of gets. The first WaS obtained by 

a figure Professor Putnam from a stone 
grave, Cumberland Eiver, Ten 
nessee. It is about 2J inches in diameter and, like the former, it has 
a Greek cross in the center. The second was obtained by Mr. Cross 
from a stone grave near Nashville, Tenn. The third is from a stone 
grave near Oldtown, Tenn. All these have been drilled for suspension 
and are much worn. 

The triskelej trislteUon, or triquetrum. These are Greek and Latin 
terms for the spiral volute with three branches or arms. The coins of 
Lycia were in this form, made originally by the junction of three cocks 
heads and necks. The armorial bearings of the island of Sicily, in 
ancient times, consisted of three human legs joined at the thigh and 
flexed, sometimes booted and spurred (p. 873). 

Aboriginal shell gorgets have been found in the mounds of Tennes 
see and the adjoining country, which were engraved with this design, 
though always in spiral form. There seems to have been no distinction 

Fig. 260. 


ivory-billed woodpecker arranged to form 
resembling the Swastika. 

Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 59. 



in the direction of the volutes, they turning indifferently to the right 
or to the left. Because of their possible relation to the Swastika it has 
been deemed proper to introduce them. 

Fig. 267 1 shows a Fulgur shell specimen obtained by Major Powell 
from a mound near Nashville, Tenn.. It was found near the head of a 
skeleton. Its substance is well preserved; the surface was once highly 
polished, but now is pitted by erosion and discolored by age, The 
design is engraved on the concave surface as usual, and the lines are 

Fig. 207. 


Three spiral volutes (triskeliim). 

accurately drawn and clearly cut. The central circle is three-eighths of 
an inch in diameter and is surrounded by a /one one-half an inch in 
width, which contains a triskelion or triquetrum of three voluted lines 
beginning near the center of the shell on the circumference of the inner 
circle of three small equidistant perforations, and sweeping outward spi 
rally to the left as shown in the figure, making upward of half a revolu 
tion. These lines are somewhat wider and more deeply engraved than 

1 Second Ann. Uep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, p. 273, pi. 54. 



the other lines of the design. In some specimens they are so deeply cut 
as to penetrate the disk, producing crescent- shaped perforations. Two 
medium-sized perforations for suspension have been made near the 
inner margin of one of the bosses next the dotted zone; these show 
abrasion by the cord of suspension. These perforations, as well as the 
three near the center, have been bored mainly from the convex side of 
the disk. 

Fig. 2G8 l represents a well-preserved disk with four volute arms form 
ing the tetraskelion, and thus allied to the Swastika. The volutes (to 

Fig. 268. 


Circles and dots and four spiral volutes (tetraskelion). 

the right) are deeply cut and for about one-third their length pene 
trate the shell, producing four crescent- shaped perforations which show 
on the opposite side. This specimen is from a stone grave near Nash 
ville, Teuu., and the original is in the Peabody Museum. Fig. 269 
shows a specimen from the Brakebill mound, near Knoxville, Tenn. It 
has a dot in the center, with a circle five-eighths of an inch in diame 
ter. There are four volute arms which start from the opposite sides of 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, pi. 55, iig. 1. 

2 Ibid., pi. 55, tig. 2. 



Fig. 269. 


Dot and circle in center and ogee Swastika (tetraskelion) marked hut not completed. 

Figs. 270 and 271. 

Ohverse and reverse. 
Three-arhied volute (triskelion). 




Three-armed volute (triskelion). 

this circle, and in their spiral form extend to the right across the field, 
increasing in size as they approach the periphery. This is an inter 
esting specimen of the tetraskelion or spiral Swastika, in that it is 

unfinished, the outline having 
been cut in the shell sufficient 
to indicate the form, but not per 
fected. Figs. 270 and 271 show 
obverse and reverse sides of the 
same shell. It comes from one of 
the stone graves of Tennessee, and 
is thus described by Dr. Joseph 
Jones, of New Orleans, 1 as a spec 
imen of the deposit and original 
condition of these objects: 

In a carefully constructed stone sar 
cophagus iii which the face of the skel 
eton was looking toward the setting 
sun, a beautiful shell ornament was 
found resting upon the breastbone of 
the skeleton. This shell ornament is 
4.4 inches in diameter, and it is orna 
mented on its concave surface with a 

small circle in the center and four concentric bands, differently figured, in relief. 
The first band is filled up by a triple volute; the second is plain, while the third is 
dotted and has nine small round bosses carved at unequal distances upon it. The 
outer band is made up of fourteen 
small elliptical bosses, the outer 
edges of which give to the object a 
scalloped rim. This ornament, on 
its concave figured surface, has been 
covered with red paint, much of 
which is still visible. The convex 
smooth surface is highly polished 
and plain, with the exception of the 
three concentric marks. The mate 
rial out of Ayhich it is formed was 
evidently derived from a large flat 
seashell. The form of the 

circles or "suns" carved upon the 
concave surface is similar to that of 
the paintings on the high rocky cliffs 
on the banks of the Cumberland and 
Harpeth rivers. This or 

nament when found lay upon the 
breastbone with the concave surface 
uppermost, as if it had been worn in 
this position suspended around the 
neck, as the two holes for the thong 

or string were in that portion of the border which pointed directly to the chin or cen 
tral portion of the jaw of the skeleton. The marks of the thong by which it was 
suspended are manifest upon both the anterior and posterior surfaces, and, in addition 
to this, the paint is worn off from the circular space bounded below by the two holes. 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, p. 276, pi. 56, figs. 1, 2. 



Three-armed volute (triskelion). 



Fig. 271 represents the back or convex side of the disk shown in 
fig. 270. The long curved lines indicate the laminations of the shell, 
and the three crescent-shaped figures near the center are perforations 

resulting from the deep en 
graving of the three lines of 
the volute on the concave side. 
The stone grave in which this 
ornament was found occupied 
the summit of a mound on the 
banks of the Cumberland Kiver, 
opposite Nashville, Tenn. 

Figs. 272, 273, and 274 are 
other representations of shell 
carved in spirals, and may 
have greater or less relation 
to the Swastika. 1 They are 
inserted for comparison and 
without any expression of opin 
ion. They are drawn in out 
line, and the spiral form is thus 
more easily seen. 

Mr. Holmes 2 makes some ob 
servations upon these designs 
and gives his theory concerning their use : 

I do not assume to interpret these designs; they are not to l>e interpreted. All I 

desire is to elevate these works from the category of trinkets to what I believe is 

their rightful place the serious art 
of a people with great capacity for 

loftier works. What the gorgets 

themselves were, or of what partic- 
1 ular value to their possessor, aside 
I from simple ornaments, must l>e, in 
>a measure, a matter of conjecture. 

They were hardly less than the to- 
i terns of clans, the insignia of rulers, or 
the potent charms of the priesthood. 

The spider. The spider was 
represented on the shell gor 
gets. Figs. 275 to 278 :; present 
four of these gorgets, of which 
figs. 275 to 277 display the 
Greek cross in the center, sur 
rounded by two concentric in 
cised lines forming a circle which 

. ., , , ,, . - -.. rt-rt 

is the body of a spider. Fig. 27G 

shows the same spider and circle, and inside of it a cross much resem- 

Fig. 274. 


Three-armed volute (triakelion). 

Fig. 275. 

Figurerepresenting a spider ; circles and Greek c 

1 Op. cit., p. 276, pi. 56, figs. 3, 5, 6. 

-Op. cit., p. 281. 

3 Second Ann. Rep. Knrean of Ethnology, 1880-81. pi. (51, 

H. Mis. 90, i)t. 2 58 



bling the Swastika, in that the arms are turned at their extremities to 
the right and form, in an inchoate manner, the gamma. Fig. 278 rep 
resents the shell with 
the spider, and, though 
it contains no cross nor 
semblance of the Swas 
tika, derives its value 
from having been taken 
from the same mound 
on Fains Island, Ten 
nessee, as was the true . 
Swastika. (See fig. 1*37. ) 
The rattlesnake. The 
rattlesnake was a fa 
vorite design on these 
gorgets, affording, as it 
did, an opportunity for 
the aborigines to make 
a display of elegance of 
design, and of accuracy 
and fineiiQss in execu 
tion. Fig. 279 is a spec 
imen in which the snake is represented coiled, the head in the center, 
the mouth V-shaped in strong lines, the body in volute fashion; on the 
outside of the circle 
the tail is shown by 
its rattle. This speci 
men is represented 
three-fourths size, and 
comes from McMahon 
mound, Tennessee. 
Four others of similar 
design are also from 
Tennessee and the ad 
joining States, but the 
locality is more re 
stricted than is the 
case with other shell 
disk ornaments. 

The human face and 
form. These were 
also carved and 
wrought upon shells 
in the same general 
locality. The engrav 
ing is always on the 
convex side of the shell which has been reduced to a pear-shaped form. 1 

Fig. 277. 


Second Aim. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, pis. 69-73. 



Fig. 278. 

Fains Island, Tennessee. 

Fig. 279. 


McMahon Mound, Tennessee. 

SiM-imil Annual Report of the Hureaii of Ethnology, \>l. LXIII. 



These liuman faces and forms (tigs. 280-288), as well as the others, 
belong to the mound builders, and are found with their remains in the 
mounds. The figures are inserted, as is the rattlesnake, for compari- 

Fiy8. J80and281. 


McMahon Mound, Tennessee. 

Second Aunual Report of the liureau of Ethnology, 1>1. LXIX. 

Figs. 282 and 283. 



Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pi. LXIX. 

son with the shell designs and work shown in the Buddha iigure 
(pi. 10) and its associates. Slight inspection will show two styles, 
differing materially. To decide which was foreign and which domestic, 



Figs. 284 and 285 . 



Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pi. i.xix. 

Fig. 286. 


McMahon Mound, Tennessee. 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pi. LXXI. 


which was imported and which indigenous, would be to decide the entire 
question of migration, and if done off-hand, would be presumptuous. 
To make a satisfactory decision will require a marshaling and consid 
eration of evidence w r hich belongs to the future. The specimens shown 

Fig. 287. 



Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, J>1. i.xxn. 

in figs. 280 to 285 are from Tennessee and Virginia. They are all masks, 
bearing representations of the human face. The first two are from the 
McMahon mound, Tennessee; that in fig. 282 from Brakebill mound, 
Tennessee, and that represented in fig. 283 from Lick Creek mound, 
Tennessee. The shell shown in fig. 284 is from Aqnia Creek, Virginia, 



and that in fig. 285 is from a mound in Ely County, Va. The work 
manship on these has no resemblance to that on the Buddha figure 
(pi. 10), nor does its style compare in any manner therewith. 

On the contrary, figs. 286 to 288, representing sketches (unfinished) of 
the human figure, from mounds in Tennessee and Missouri, have some 
resemblance in style of work, though not in design, to that of the 
Buddha and Swastika figures. The first step in execution, after the 
drawing by incised lines, seems to have been to drill holes through 

Fig. 288. 


Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, i>l. LXXIII. 

the shell at each corner and intersection. The work on the specimen 
shown in fig. 286 has progressed further than that on the specimens 
shown in figs. 287 and 288. It has twenty-eight holes drilled, all at 
corners or intersections. This is similar to the procedure in the Buddha 
statue (pi. 10). In fig. 287 the holes have not been drilled, but each 
member of the figure has been marked out and indicated by dots in the 
center, and circles or half circles incised around them in precisely the 
same manner as in both Swastikas (figs. 237 and 238), while fig. 288 
continues the resemblance in style of drawing. It has the saine peculiar 



garters or bracelets as the Buddha, the hand is the same as in the 
fighting figures (fig. 239), and the implement he holds resembles closely 
those in the copper figures (figs. 240 and 241). 


Spiral-volute designs resembling the Swastika in general effect are 
found on aboriginal mound pottery from the Mississippi Valley. The 
Fourth Annual Iteport of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1S82-83, 1 shows 

Fig. 289. 

Four-armed volute, ogee Swastika (tetraske- 


Fig. 290. 


Four volutes resembling Swastika. 
Pecau Point, Ark. 

hi natural size. 

many of these. Fig. 281) represents a teapot-shaped vessel from Ar 
kansas, on the side of which, in incised lines, is shown the small 
circle which AVC saw on the shell disks, and springing from the four 
opposite sides are three incised lines, twisting spi 
rally to the right, 
forming the ^in 
volutes of the Swas 
tika (tetraskelion) 
ami coveringthe en 
tire side of the ves 
sel. The same spiral 
form of the Swas 
tika is given in fig. 
290, a vessel of ec 
centric shape from 
Pecan Point, Ark. 
The decoration is in 

Fig. 291. 

Spiral volutes, nine arms. 
Pecan Point, Ark. 

the form of two lines 
crossing each other 
and each arm then 
twisting to the 
right, forming volutes, the incised lines of which, though drawn close 

Figs. 402,413,415, 4 16. 



Fig. 292. 



a natural si/A-. 

together and at equal distances, gradually expand until the ornament 
covers the entire side of the vase. It is questionable whether this or 
any of its kindred were ever intended to represent either the Swastika 
or any other specific form of the cross. 
One evidence of this is that these orna 
ments shade off indefinitely until they ar 
rive at a form which was surely not intended 
to represent any form of the cross, whether 
Swastika or not. The line of separation 
is not now suggested by the author. An 
elaboration of the preceding forms, both of 
the vessel and its ornamentation, is shown 
by the vessel represented in fig. 291, which 
is fashioned fc> represent some grotesque 
beast with horns, expanding nostrils, and 
grinning mouth, yet which might serve as 
a teapot as well as the former two vessels. 
The decoration upon its side has six incised lines crossing each other 
in the center and expanding in volutes until they cover the entire side 
of the vessel, as in the other specimens. Fig. 292 shows a pot from 

Arkansas. Its body is 
decorated with incised 
lines arranged in much 
the same form as fig. 
291, except that the 
lines make no attempt 
to form a cross. There 
are nine arms which 
spring from the central 
point and twist spi 
rally about as volutes 
until they cover the 
field, which is one- 
third the body of the 
bowl. Two other de 
signs of the same kind 
complete the circuit of 
the pot and form the 
decoration all around. 
Fig. 293 l represents 
these volutes in incised 
lines of considerable 
fineness, close to 
gether, and in great 
numbers, forming a decoration on each of the sides of the vase, sepa 
rated by three nearly perpendicular lines. 

Fig. 293. 



1 Third Ann. Kep. Bureau of Ethnology, fig. 157, 


The spiral Swastika form appears painted upon the pottery from 
Arkansas. The specimen shown in fig. 294 l is a tripod bottle. The 
decoration upon the side of the body consists of two lines forming the 
cross, and the four arms expand in volutes until the ornament covers 
one-third of the vessel, which, with the other two similar ornaments, 
extend around the circumference. This decoration is painted in rod 
and white colors on a gray or yellowish ground. Fig. 295 shows a bowl 
from mound No. 2, Thorn s farm, Taylor Shanty group, Mark Tree, 

Fig. 294. 

Four-armed volutes making spiral Swastika. 

?3 natural size. 

Poinsett County, Ark. It-is ten inches wide and six inches high. The 
clay of which it is made forms the body color light gray. It has been 
painted red or maroon on the outside without any decoration, while on 
the inside is painted with the same color a five-armed cross, spirally 
arranged in volutes turning to the right. The center of the cross is at 
the bottom of the bowl, and the painted spiral lines extend over the 
bottom and up the sides to the rim of the bowl, the interior being 

Fourth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1882-83, fig. 442. 



entirely covered with the design. Another example of the same style 
of decoration is seen on the upper surface of an ancient vase from the 
province of Cibola. 1 

The specimen shown in fig. 296 is from the mound at Arkansas Post, 
in the county and State of Arkansas. 2 It represents a vase of black 
ware, painted a yellowish ground, with a red spiral scroll. Its diam- 

Fig. 295. 


Poinsett County, Arl< . 

Cat. No. 1140?,5, U. S. X. M . 

eter is 5J inches. These spiral figures are not uncommon in the 
localities heretofore indicated as showing the normal Swastika. Figs. 
297 and 298 3 show parallel incised lines of the same style as those 

1 Fourth Aim. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1882-83, p. 343, fig. 331. 
"Third Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1881-82, fig. 165. 
3 Ibid., pp. 502, 503, figs. 186, 189. 



forming tbe square in the bird gorgets already noted (figs. 263-267). 
Fig. 297 shows a bowl 
nine inches in diameter 5 
its rim is ornamented 
with the head and tail 
of a conventional bird, 
which probably served 
as handles. On the out 
side, just below the rim, 
are the four incised par 
allel lines mentioned. 
In the center of the side 
is represented a rolling 
under or twisting of the 
lines, as though it repre 
sented a ribbon. There 
are three on each quar 
ter of the bowl, that next 
the head being plain. 
Fig. 298 represents a 
bottle 04 inches in di 
ameter, with parallel 
incised lines, three in 
number, with the same 
twisting or folding of 
the ribbon like decora 
tion. This twists to the left, while that of fig. 297 twists in the oppo 
site direction. Both specimens are from the vicinity of Charleston, Mo. 


The volute form is particularly adapted to the 
decoration of basketry, of which fig. 299 is a 



Spiral scroll. 

Fig. 297. 


Three parallel incised lines with rihbon fold. 

Charleston, Mo. 

specimen. These motifs were favorites with the Pueblo Indians of 
New Mexico and Arizona. 


Fig. 298. 


Three parallel incised lines with ribbon fold. 
Charleston, Mo. 

Fig. 299. 






The foregoing specimens are sufficient evidence of the existence of 
the Swastika among the aboriginal North Americans during the mound- 
building period, and although there may be other specimens of the 
Swastika to be reported, yet we might properly continue this investi 
gation for the purpose of determining if there be any related forms of 
the cross among the same peoples. This is done without any argument 

Fig. 300. 


(Ireek ;ro>ss with incised lines resembling a Swastika. 
Union County, 111. 

as to the use of these designs beyond that attributed to them. The 
illustrations and descriptions are mainly collected from objects in and 
reports of the U . S. National Museum and the Bureau of Ethnology. 


The shell gorget presented in iig. 300 belongs to the collection of Mr. 
F. M. Perrine, and was obtained from a mound in Union County, 
111. It is a little more than three inches in diameter and has been 
ground to a uniform thickness of about one-twelfth of an inch. The 
surfaces are smooth and the margin carefully rounded and polished. 



Near the upper edge arc two perforations, both well worn with cord- 
marks indicating suspension. The cross in the center of the concave 
face of the disk is quite simple and is made by four triangular perfora 
tions which separate the arms. The face of the cross is ornamented 
with six carelessly drawn incised lines interlacing in the center as 
shown in the figure, three extending along the arm to the right and 
three passing down the lower arm to the inclosing line. Nothing has 
been learned of the character of the interments with which this speci- 


Fig. 301 . 


Greek cross. 
Charleston, Mo. 

Second Annual Report of the. F.ureau of Ethnology, pi. T.T, %. 2. 

men was associated. 1 The incised lines of the specimen indicate liio 
possible intention of the artist to make the Swastika. The design i 
evidently a cross and apparently unfinished. 

The National Museum possesses a large shell cross (fig. 301) which, 
while quite plain as a cross, has been much damaged, the rim that 
formerly encircled it, as in the foregoing figure, having been broken 
away and lost. The perforations are still in evidence. The specimen 

1 Second Aim. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, p. 271, pi. 51, fig. 1. 




S-oii,l Annual H^.ort of the l ,ur,-:iu of Ethnology, }.l. i.n, . 3. 

is mucli decayed and came to tlie National Museum with a skull from 
a grave at Charleston, Mo. ; beyond this there is no record. The speci 
men shown in fig. 302 is quoted 
as a "typical example of the 
of the mound-builder." 


It was obtained from a mound 
on Lick Creek, Tennessee, and 
is in the Peabody .Museum, 
Cambridge, Mass. While an 
elaborate description is given 
of it and figures are mentioned 
as "devices probably signifi 
cant," and "elementary or un 
finished," and more of the same, 
yet nowhere is suggested any 
relationship to the Swastika, 
nor even the possibility of its 
existence in America. 

A large copper disk from an 
Ohio mound is represented in 
fig. :>0.>. It is in the Natural History Museum of Xew York. It is eight 
inches in diameter, is very thin, and had suffered greatly from corro 
sion. A symmetrical cross, 
the arms of which are five 
inches in length, has been 
cut out of the center. Two 
concentric lines have been 
impressed in the plate, one 
near the margin and the 
other touching the ends of 
the cross. Fig. 304 shows 
a shell gorget from a mound 
on Lick Creek, Tennessee. 
It is much corroded and 
broken, yet it shows the 
cross plainly. There are 
sundry pits or dots made 
irregularly over the surface, 
some of which have perfor 
ated the shell. PI. 19 rep 
resents a recapitulation of 
specimens of crosses, thir 
teen in number, "most of 
which have been obtained from the mounds or from ancient graves 
within the district occupied by the mound-builders. Eight are engraved 
upon shell gorgets, one is cut in stone, three are painted upon pottery, 

Fig. 303. 


American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pi. Lit, fig. 4. 


1 2 8 

4 5 

7 9 


10 11 12 13 








7. LATIN CROSS (Copper ,. 


9. LATIN CROSS (Copper). 





Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 19. 



Second Animal Report of the Bureau of Kthuology, 1880-81, PL LIII. 



and four are executed upon copper. With two exceptions, they are 

inclosed in circles, and hence are symmetrical Greek crosses, the 

ends being rounded to con 
form to a circle. 7 1 Figs. 7 

and 9 of pi. 19 represent forms 

of the Latin cross, and are 

modern, having doubtless 

been introduced by European 

priests. Figs. 10 to 13 are 

representatives of the Swas 
tika in some of its forms. 
ThelJ. S. National Museum 

possesses a small shell orna 
ment (fig. 305) in the form of 

a cross, from Lonoir s burial 

place, Fort Defiance, Cald- 

well County, N. 0., collected 

by Dr. Spain hour and Mr. 

Rogan, the latter being an 

employe of the Bureau of 

Ethnology. It is in the form 

of a Greek cross, the four 

arms crossing at right angles 

and being of equal length. 

The arms are of the plain shell, while they are brought to view by the 

field being cross-hatched. The speci 
men has, unfortunately, been broken, 
and being fragile has been secured in 
a bed of plaster. 

This and the foregoing specimens 
have been introduced into this paper 
that the facts of 
their existence 
may be pre 
sented for con 
sideration, and 
to aid in the 
whether the 
cross had any 
peculiar or par 

1 ll e questions ARMED CROSS (TRISKELI ON). 

involuntarily arise, Was it a symbol with a hid 
den meaning, religious or otherwise; was it the 

Fig. 304. 


Kudo cross with many dots. 
Lick Creek, Tenn. 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1>1. f- . , fig. 2. 

Fig. 305. 


Caldwell County, 1ST. C. 

Cat. No. ;?:>,l!l, U. S. X. M. 

Lick Creek, Tenn. 
Cat. No. 83170, U. S. N. M. 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-8 L, pp. 272, 273. 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 59 



totem of a clan, the insignia of a ruler, the charm of a priesthood, or did 
it, with all the associated shell engravings, belong to the category ol 
trinkets? These questions maybe partially answered in the section ou 
the meanings given to the cross by the North American Indians (p. 933). 

There is also introduced, as bearing on the 
question, another shell ornament (fig. 306). 
the style, design, and Avorkmanship of Avhict 
has such resemblance to the foregoing that 
if they had not been (as they Avere) found 
together we would be compelled to admit their 
identity of origin, yet the latter specimen has 
but three arms 
instead of four. 
This might take 
it out of the cat 
egory of crosses 
as a symbol of 
any religion of 
which Ave have 

knowledge. Many of the art objects in 
shell heretofore cited Avere more or less 
closely associated; they came from the 
same neighborhood and were the results 
of the same excavations, conducted by 

the same 

Fig. 307. 



Dotted Greek cross and circL 

e x c a v a 

tors. I n 

Fig. 308. 



rings forming 

Greek cross. 


g the culture status of their 
makers, they must be taken together. 
When we consider the variety of the 
designs which were apparently without 
meaning except for ornamentation, like 
the circles, meanders, zigzags, chev 
rons, herringbones, ogees, frets, etc., 
and. the representations of animals 
such as were used to decorate the pipes 
of the aborigines, not alone the bear, 
wolf, eagle, and others which might be 
a totem and represent a given clan, 
but others which, according to our 
knowledge and imagination, have never 
served for such a purpose, as the man 
atee, beaver, wildcat, heron, finch, sparrow, crow, raven, cormorant, 
duck, toucan, goose, turkey, buzzard, cardinal, parroquet, conies, 
lizard; when we further consider that the cross, whether Greek, Latin, 
or Swastika form, is utterly unlike any known or possible totem of clan, 
insignia of ruler, or potent charm of priesthood ; when we consider 

Fig. 309. 



Dots and rings forming circle and Greek 

New Tork. 


these things, why should we feel ourselves compelled to accept these 
signs as symbols of a hidden meaning, simply because religious sects in 
different parts of the world and at different epochs of history have 
chosen them or some of them to represent their peculiar religious ideas? 
This question covers much space in geography and in time, as well as 
on paper. It is not answered here, because no answer can be given 
which would be accepted as satisfactory, but it may serve as a track 
or indication along which students and thinkers might pursue their 

The U. S. National Museum possesses a necklace consisting of three 
shell ornaments, interspersed at regular intervals with about fifty small 
porcelain beads (fig. 307). } It was obtained by ("apt. George M. Whipple 
from the Indians of Xew Mexico. These shell ornaments are similar to 
objects described by Beverly in his work on the " History of Virginia, 7 
page 145, as u runtees r and "made of the conch shell; only the shape 
is flat as a cheese and drilled edgewise." It is to be remarked that on 
its face as well as on figs. 308 and 309 l appears a cross of the Greek 
form indicated by these peculiar indentations or drillings inclosed in a 

small circle. The specimen shown 
in fig. 308 is from an ancient grave 
in Upper Saudusky, Ohio, and that 
shown in fig. 309 from an Indian 
cemetery at Onondaga, X. Y. Similar 
specimens have been found in the 
same localities. 


Fig. 310 shows a small globular 
cup of dark ware from the vicinity of 
Fig. 310. Charleston, Mo.; height, 2 inches; 


AND SCALLOPS. nodes or projections, and between 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, %. 1 v. 

them, painted red, are four orna 
mental circles, the outside one of which is scalloped or rayed, while the 
inside one bears the figure of a Greek cross. The specimen shown in 
fig. 311 (Cat. No. 47197. U.S.N.M.) is a medium-sized decorated olla with 
scalloped margin, from ^ew Mexico, collected by Colonel Stevenson. 
It has two crosses one Greek, the other Maltese both inclosed in 
circles and forming centers of an elaborate, fanciful, shield-like decora 
tion. In fig. 312 (Cat. No. 39518, U.S.X.M.) is shown a Cochiti painted 
water vessel, same collection, showing a Maltese cross. 

Dozens of other specimens are in the collections of the U. S. National 
Museum which would serve to illustrate the extended and extensive 

1 Schoolcraft, " History of the Indian Tribes," in, pi. 25; Second Ann. Rep. Bureau 
of Ethnology, 1880-81, pi. 36. 



r. 311. 

Second Annual Report of tlie Bureau of Ethnology, fig. 70S. 

Fig. 312. 


Maltese cross. 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, fig. 642. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 20. 


Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxn, fig. 7. 


use of the cross in great variety of forms, so that no argument as to 
either the meaning or the extent of the cross can be based on the sup 
position that these are the only specimens. Fig. 313 (Cat. Xo. 132975, 
TJ.S.N.M.) shows a vase from Mexico, about 8 inches high, of fine red 
ware, highly polished, with an elaborate decoration. Its interest here 
is the Maltese cross represented on each side, with a point and concen 
tric circles, from the outside of which are projecting rays. This may be 
the symbol of the sun, and if so, is shown in connection with the cross. 
This style of cross, with or without the sun symbol, is found in great 
numbers in Mexico as, for example, the 
great cross, pi. 20, from the temple at 
Palenque. 1 


It would be an excellent thing to dissect 
and analyze the Swastika material we 
have found ; to generalize and deduce from 
it a possible theory as to the origin, spread, 
and meaning of the Swastika and its re 
lated forms, and endeavor, by examination? j 
of its associated works, to discover if these 
were religions symbols or charms or mere 
decorations; and, following this, determine 
if possible whether the spread of these 
objects, whatever their meaning, was the 
result of migration, contact, or communi 
cation. Were they the result of similar^ 
but independent, operations of the human / 
mind, or were they but duplicate inven-^ 
tions, the result of parallelism in humaiy 
thought 1 ? This investigation must necesA 
sarily be theoretical and s pecuTative. The) P0 , 
most that the author proposes is to sug 
gest probabilities and point the way for 
further investigation. He may theorize 
and speculate, but recognizes what many persons seem not able to 
do that speculation and theory are not to be substituted for cold facts. 
He may do no more than propound questions from which other men, 
by study, experience, philosophy, or psychology, may possibly evolve 
some general principle, or a theory pointing to a general principle, con 
cerning the mode of extension and spread of culture among separate 
and independent peoples. When the facts shall have been gathered, 
marshaled, arranged side by side, and each aggregation of facts shall 
have been weighed, pro and con, and its fair value given "without 

Fig. 313. 


Maltese cross with sun symbol (?). 

Cat. No. 132975, U. S. X. M. 

1 Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, p. 33, pi. 14, fig. 7. 




prejudice or preconceived opinion," then will be time enough to an 
nounce the final conclusion, and even then not dogmatically, but tenta 
tively and subject to future discoveries. 

Throughout this paper the author has sought but little more than to 
prepare material on the Swastika which can be utilized by those who 
come after him in the determination of the difficult and abstruse prob 
lems presented. 

It is rare in the study of archeology and,, indeed, in any science, that 
a person is able to assert a negative and say what does not exist. The 
present investigations are rendered much more comprehensive by the 
appearance of the extensive and valuable work of Col. Garrick Mallery 
in the Tenth Annual Eeport of the Bureau of Ethnology, on the subject 
of " Picture Writing of the American Indians." It 
is a work of about 800 pages, with 1,300 illustra 
tions, and is the result of many years of laborious 
study. It purports to be a history, more or less 
complete, of the picture writing, signs, symbols, 
totems, marks, and messages of the American In 
dian, whether pictograph s or petrogly ph s. A large 
portion of his work is devoted to ideography, con 
ventional signs, syllabaries and alphabets, homo- 
rophs and symmorophs, and their respective means 
of interpretation. Among these he deals, not spe 
cifically with the Swastika, but in general terms 
with the cross. Therefore, by looking at Colonel 
Mallery s work upon this chapter (p. 724), one is able to say negatively 
what has not been found. 

Apropos of the meanings of the cross among the North American 
Indians Count Goblet d Alviella says: 1 

It is nevertheless incontestable that the pre-Columbian cross of America is a 
"rose des rents," representing the four directions whence comes the rain, or the cardi 
nal points of the compass, etc., etc. 

Colonel Mallery s volume shows that it meant many other things as 

The four winds. The Greek cross is the form found by Colonel 
Mallery to be most common among the North American aborigines, 
possibly because it is the simplest. In this the four arms are equal in 
length, and the sign placed upright so that it stands on one foot and 
not on two, as does the St. Andrew s cross. The Greek cross (fig. 314) 
represents, among the Dakotas, the four winds issuing out of the 
four caverns in which souls of men existed before the incarnation of 
the human body. All the medicine men that is, conjurors and magi 
ciansrecollect their previous dreamy life in these places, and the 
instructions then received from the gods, demons, and sages 5 they recol 
lect and describe their preexistent life, but only dream and speculate 
asjto^the future life beyond the grave. The top of the cross is the cold, 

"La Migration des Symboles/ p. 18. 

Fig. 314. 


Dakota Indians. 

Tenth Annual Report i.f tJi Kur.-:ui 
of Ethnology, fig. 1055. 



all-conquering giant, tlie North Wind, most powerful of all. It is worn 
on the body nearest the head, the seat of intelligence and conquering 
devices. The left arm covers the heart; it is the East Wind, coming 
from the seat of life and love. The foot is the melting, burning South 


f 9 

Fig. 315. 


Sun symbol.s( I). 

Tenth Annual Report of the lUireuu of Ethnology, ri-s. Ills, mo, ]U<i;. 

Wind, indicating, as it is worn, the seat of fiery passion. The right 
arm is the gentle West Wind, blowing from the spirit land, covering 
the lungs, from which the breath at last goes out gently, but into 
unknown night. The center of the cross is the earth and man, moved 
by the conflicting influences of gods and winds. 

Fig. 316. 

Tenth Annual Ktportof the Bureau of Ethnology, tigs. 111S-1121, 112:i. 

Eev. John McLain, in his work on the "Blackfoot Sun-dance," says: 
On the sacred pole of the sun lodge of the Blood Indian is a bundle of small 

brushwood taken from the birch tree, which is placed in the form of- a cross. This 

was an ancient symbol evideucly referring to the four winds. 



Sun and star symbols. Great speculation has been made, both in 
Europe and America, over the relation between the Swastika and the 
sun, because the two signs have been associated by primitive peoples. 



Fig. 318. 

Circle and ray 

without cross. 

Oakley Springs 


Tenth Annual Repor 
oftheHureauof Eth 

nulOffy, fj,,. ] 1 jM). 

" / ff 

Fig. 317. 


Oakley Springs, Ariz. 

Tenth Annual Report of the Hun-ail of Ethnology, t\ K . ni. 

Colonel Mallery gives the Indian signs for the sun, stars and light 
These have been segregated, and it will be seen that the cross and 
circle are used indiscriminately for one and the other, 
jsW and the fact of the two being found associated is no evi 
/|\ dence of relationship in religious ideas (figs. 315-319). 

Dwelling8.--Amoiig the Hidatsa, the cross and the circle 
represent neither the sun nor any religious ideas, but 
merely lodges, houses, or dwellings. The crosses in fig. 
319 represent Dakota lodges- the small circles signify 
earth lodges, the points representing the supporting 
poles. Buildings erected by civilized people were rep 
resented by small rectangular figures, while the circles 
with dots in a square represent earth lodges, the home of the Hidatsa. 
Drmjonfly (Susleca). Among some of the Indian tribes, the Dakota* 
among others, the Latin cross is found, i. e., npright with three members 
of equal length, and the fourth, the foot, 
much longer. The use of this sym 
bol antedates the discovery of Amer 
ica, and is carried 
1 I back in tradition 
J and myth. This 

sign signifies the 
mosquito hawk or 
the dragon fly (tig. 

320). It is called in that language the "Susbeca," 
and is a supernatural being gifted with speech, 
warning man of danger, approaching his ear silent 
ly and at right angles, saying, "Tci," "tci," "tci," 
an interjection equivalent to "Look out!" "You 
are surely going to destruction!" "Look out!" 
The adoption of the dragon fly as a mysterious and 


t T 

c <i 

Fig. 320. 


Dakota Indians. 

"Tci," "tci," "tci! 

Fig. 319. 


Dakota Indians. 

Tenth Animal Iteporl. of the Bureau of Ethnology, tig. M. 

1 Tenth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1888-89, figs. 1118-1129. 



supernaturnal being is on account of its sudden appearance in numbers. 
In the still of the evening, when the shades of darkness come, then is 
heard in the meadows a sound as of crickets or frogs, but indistinct 
and prolonged 5 on the morrow the Susbeca will be hovering over it. 
It is the sound of their coming, but whence no one knows. 
The cross not only represents the shape of the insect, but 
also the angle of its approach. It is variously drawn, but 
usually as in fig. 320 a or ft, and, in painting or embroidery. 
c, and sometimes d. 
Fig. 321 is described in Ream s MS. as follows: 

This is a conventional design of dragon flies, and is often found 

among rock etchings throughout the plateau [Arizona]. The dragon 

flies have always been held in great veneration by the Molds and 

v their ancestors, as they have been often sent by 

-}- Oman to reopen springs which Muiugwa had de- 

" J^ * stroyed and to confer other benefits upon the people. 

-f- This form of the figure, with little vertical lines 

added to the transverse lines, connects the Batol- 

atci with the Ho-bo-bo emblems. The youth who 

+ was sacrificed and translated by Ho-bo-bo reap 

peared a long time afterwards, during a season of great drought, 
in the form of a gigantic dragon fly, Avho led the rain clouds over 
the lands of Ho-pi-tu, bringing plenteous rains. 

Fig. 321. 


Moki Indians, 

Tenth Annual Re 
port of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, fig. 


Fig. 322 


Tenth Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Ethnology, 
fig. 1228. 

Cat. Nos. 44X11 and 4.WO, 
U. S. N. M. 

Hide or Shamans. Colonel Mallery (or Dr. Hoffman) 
tells us (p. 726) that among the Ojibways of northern 
Minnesota the cross is one of the sacred symbols of the 
Society of Hide or Shamans and has special reference 
to the fourth degree. The building in which the initia 
tion is carried on has its open 
ing toward the four cardinal 
points. The cross is made of saplings, the 
upright poles approaching the height of four 
to six feet, the transverse arms being some 
what shorter, each being of the same length 
as the top; the upper parts are painted white 
or besmeared with white clay, over which are 
spread small spots of red, the latter suggest 
ing the sacred shell of MithV, the symbol of 
the order. The lower arm of the pole is 
square, the side toward the east being painted 
white to denote the source of light and 
warmth ; the face on the south is green, de 
noting the source of the thunder bird which 
brings the rains and vegetation; the surface 
toward the west is covered with vermilion, relating to the land of the 
setting sun, the abode of the dead; the north is painted black, as the 
direction from which comes affliction, cold, and hunger. 

Flocks of birds. Groups of small crosses on the sides of Eskimo bow 

Fig. 323. 


Largo white Greek cross. 

Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Eth 
nology, fig. U 29. 



inches in length, the inte 
rior being painted black 



Fig. 324. 


(a, b) Greek crosses, (c) double Latin cross, (d-f) Lati 
crosses representing human figures. 

JYnth Animal U,.],nrt "f the Unreal. ..f V. hn<.lo ;r v, fit . ]-j::n. 

drills represent flocks of birds (Cat. Nos. 45020 and 44211, U.S.N.M.). 
They are reproduced in fig. 322. Colonel Mallery s fig. 28, page 67, 
represents a cross copied from the Xajowe Valley group of colored pic- 
tographs, 40 miles west of Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, Cal. 

The cross measured 20 

O^& while the border is of a dark 

& red tint. This design, as 

well as others in close con 
nection, is painted on the 
walls of a shallow cave or 
rock shelter in the lime 
stone formation. Fourteen 
miles west of Santa Bar 
bara, on the summit of the 
Santa Ynez Mountains, is a 
cavern having a large open 
ing west and north, in which 
are crosses of the Greek 
type, the interior portion 
being painted a dull earthy 

red, while the outside line is a faded-black tint. The cross measures 
nearly a foot in extent. At the Tulare Indian Agency, Cal., is an 
immense bowlder of granite. It has been split, and one of the lower 
quarters has been moved sufficiently to leave a passageway six feet 
wide and nearly ten feet high. The interior walls are well covered with 
large painted figures, while upon the ceilings are numerous forms of 
animals, birds, and insects. Among this latter group is 
a white cross about 18 inches in length (fig. 323), present 
ing a unique appearance, for the reason that it is the only 
petroglyph in that region to which the white coloring 
matter has been applied. 

An interesting example of rock sculpturing in groups 
is in Owens Valley, south of Benton, Cal. Among them 
are various forms of crosses, and circles containing crosses 
of simple and complex types. The most interesting in 
this connection are the groups in fig. 324, a and I. The 
larger one, a, occurs upon a large bowlder of tracite 16 
miles south of Benton, at the "Chalk grave." The circle 
is a depression about one inch in depth, the cross being 
in high relief. The small cross &, found three miles north from this is 
almost identical, the arms of the cross, however, extending to the rim 
of the circle. In this locality occurs also the cross, c, same figure, and 
some examples having more than two cross arms. 

Human forms. Other simple crosses represent the human form. 



Fig. 325. 


Navajo Indians. 



Fig. 326. 


The figure in the 
center is in 
tended to indi 
cate the breath. 

Some of these are engraved or cut on the rocks of Owens Valley and 
are similar to those above described (fig. 324), but they have been 
eroded, so that beyond the mere cross they show slight relation to the 
human body (fig. 324, d, e,/). Col. James Stevenson, describing the 
llasjelti ceremony of the Navajoes, 1 shows the form of a man drawn in 
the sand (fig. 325). Describing the character shown in 
fig. 326, Keam says: "The figure represents a woman. 
The breath is displayed in the interior." 3 

Maidenhood. Concerning fig. 327 Keam, in his manu 
script, says the Maltese cross was the emblem of a virgin, 
and is still so recognized by the Moki. It is a conven 
tional development of the common emblem of maiden 
hood, wherein the maidens wear their hair arranged as 
in a disk three or four inches in diameter on each side 
of the head (fig. 327 />). This discoidal arrangement of 
the hair is typical of the emblem of fructification worn by 
the virgin in the Muingwa festival. Sometimes the hair, 
instead of being worn in the complete discoidal form, is dressed upon 
two curving twigs, and presents the form of two semicircles upon each 
side of the head. The partition of these is sometimes horizontal, 
sometimes vertical. The combination of these styles (fig. 327 a and I) 
present the forms from which the Maltese cross Avas conventionalized. 3 

Shaman s spirit. Among the Kiatexamut 
and Innuit tribes, a cross placed on the 
head, as in fig. 328, signified a shaman s 
evil spirit or demon. This is an imaginary 
being under the control of the 
shaman to execute his wishes. 4 

Divers significations. The fig 
ure of the cross among the North 
American Indians, says Colonel 
Mallery, 5 has many differing sig- 
as the tribal sign for Cheyenne" 
(p. 383); "as Dakota lodges 
trade or exchange" (p. 613); 

prisoners" (p. 227); "for personal exploits while elsewhere 
it is used in simple enumeration" (p. 348). Although this 
device is used for a variety of meanings when it is employed 
ceremonially or in elaborate pictographs of the Indians both of North 
and South America, it represents the four winds. This view long ago was 
suggested as being the signification of many Mexican crosses, and it is 

Fig. J27. 


Emblems of. maidenhood. 

Moki Indians. 

nifications. It appears 

" (p. 582); "as a symbol for 
;< as a conventional sign for 

Fig. 328. 


Used by the 
Innuits to 
represent a 
shaman or 
evil spirit. 

1 Eighth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 283. 

- Tenth Ann. Eep. Bureau of Ethnology 1888-89, iig. 1165. 

3 Ibid., fig. 1232. 

4 Ibid., fig. 1231. 

5 Ibid., p. 729. 


sustained by Frof. Cyrus Thomas in his " Xotes on Mayan Mexican 
Manuscript," 1 where strong confirmatory evidence is produced by the 
arms of the crosses having the appearance of conventionalized wings 
similar to some representations of the thunder bird of the northern 
tribes; yet the same author, in his paper on the study of the "Troano 
Manuscript," 3 gives fig. 329 as a symbol for wood, thus further showing 
the manifold concepts attached to the general form of the cross. Ban- 
delier thinks that the cross so frequently used by the aborigines of 
Mexico and Central America were merely ornaments and not objects of 
worship, while the so-called crucifixes, like that on the Palenque tablet, 
were only the symbol of the "new fire," or the close of the period of 
fifty-two years. He believes them to be representations of the fire drills 
more or less ornamented. Zamacois 3 says that the cross was used in the 
religion of various tribes of the peninsula of Yucatan, and 
that it represented the god of rain. 

It is a favorite theory with Major Powell, Director of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, that the cross was an original inven 
tion of the North American Indian, possibly a sign com 
mon to all savages; that it represented, first, the four 
cardinal points, north, south, east, and west; and after 
wards by accretion, seven points, north, south, east, west, 
zenith, nadir, and here. 

Capt John " Bourke ? in his paper on the " Medicine 
A SYMBOL Men of the Apache " 4 discourses on their symbolism of the 

Re Cr SS> He Says Jt is related to the cardinal points, to the 
port of the Bureau four winds, and is painted by warriors on their moccasins 
ofEti when going tllrough a s t ran ge district to keep them from 

getting on a wrong trail. He notes how he saw. in October, 
1884, a procession of Apache men and women bearing two crosses, 4 
feet 10 inches long, appropriately decorated u in honor of (luzauutli to 
induce her to send rain." 

Dr. Brinton 5 tells of the rain maker of the Lenni Lenape who first 
drew on the earth the figure of a cross. Captain Bourke quotes from 
Father Le Clerq 6 as to the veneration in which the cross was held by 
the Gaspesian Indians, also from Herrara to the same effect. Profes 
sor Holmes 7 makes some pertinent observations with regard to the 
meanings of the cross given by the American Indians: 

Some very ingenious theories have been elaborated in attempting to account for 
the cross among American symbols. Brinton believes that the great importance 
attached to the points of the compass the four quarters of the heavens by savage 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 61. 

2 Contrib. North American Ethnology, v, p. 144. 
" Historia de Mexico," i, p. 238. 

Ninth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1887-88, p. 479. 
"Myths of the New World," p. 96. 

6 "Gaspesi," London, 1691, pp. 170, 172, 199. 

7 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, p. 270. 


.; * 




Fig. 330. 


From a vase of the lost color group. 

Sixth Annual Report of the Hiiroaii of Ethnology, fig. 257. 

peoples, has given rise to the sign of the cross. With others, the cross is a phallic 
symbol derived, l>y some obscure process of evolutioii, from the veneration accorded 
to the procreative principle in nature. It is also frequently associated with sun wor 
ship, and is recognized as a symbol of the sun the four arms being remaining rays 
after a gradual process of elimination. AVhatever is finally determined in reference 
to the origin of the cross as a religious symbol in America will probably result 
from exhaustive study of 
the history, language, and 
art of the ancient peoples, 
combined with a thorough 
knowledge of the religious 
conceptions of modern 
tribes, and when these 
sources of information are 
all exhausted it is probable 
that the writer who asserts 
more than ,a probability 
will overreach his proofs. 
* * * A study of the de 
signs associated with the cross in these gorgets [rigs. 302-304] is instructive, but 
does not lead to any definite result; in one case the cross is inscribed on the back of 
a great spider [figs. 275-278] ; in another it is surrounded by a rectangular frame 
work of lines, looped at the corners and guarded by four mysterious birds [figs. 263- 
266], while in others it is without attendant characters, but the workmanship is 
purely aboriginal. I have not seen a single example of engraving upon the shell 
that suggested a foreign hand, or a design, with the exception of this one [a cross], 
that could claim a European derivation. * Such delineations of the cross as 

we find embodied in ancient aboriginal art, represent only the iinal stages of its 
evolution, and it is not to be expected that its origin can be traced through them. 

Continuing in his u Ancient Art in Chiriqui," 1 presenting his " Series 
showing stages in the simplification of animal characters," and " deri 
vation of the alligator," Professor Holmes elaborates the theory how 
the alligator was the original, and out of it, by evolution, grew the cross. 
His language and accompanying figures are quoted : 

Of all the animal 
forms utilized by the 
Chiriquiaus, the alli 
gator is the best 
suited to the purpose 
of this study, as it is 
presented most fre 
quently and in the 
most varied forms. 
In figs. 257 and 258 
[figs. 330 and 331 in 
the present paper] I 
reproduce drawings 

from the outer surface of a tripod bowl of the lost color group. Simple and 
formal as these figures are, the characteristic features of the creature the sinuous 
body, the strong jaws, the upturned snout, the feet, and the scales are forcibly 
expressed. It is not to be assumed that these examples represent the best deliuea- 
tive skill of the Chiriquian artist. The native painter must have executed very 

Fig. 331. 


From a vase of the lost color group. 

Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, fijj. ;>s. 

Sixth Ann. Kep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 173 et seq v figs. 257-278. 




From :i vessel of the lost color group. 


ixth Animal Report of the Rureau of Ethnology, %. V5H. 

much superior work upon the more usual delineating surfaces, such as l>ark and 
skins. The examples here shown have already experienced decided changes through 
the constraints of the ceramic art, Imt are the most graphic delineations preserved 
to us. They are free-hand products, executed by mere decorators, perhaps by women, 
who were servile copyists of the forms employed by those skilled in sacred art. 

A third illustra 
tion from the same 
group of Avare, 
giA r en in fig. 259 
[fig. 332 of the 
present paper] 
shows, in some re 
spects, a higher 
degree of conven 

I shall now call 
attention to some 
important individ 
ualized or well - 
defined agencies 
of convention. 

First, and most potent, may be mentioned the enforced limits of the spaces to be 
decorated, which spaces take shape independently of the subject to be inserted. 
AVheii the figures must occupy a narrow /one, they are elongated ; when they must 
occupy a square, they are restricted longitudinally, and when they occupy a circle, 
they are of necessity coiled up. Fig. 265 [fig. 333 of the present paper] illustrates 
the effect produced by crowding the oblong fig 
ure into a short rectangular space. The head is 
turned back over the body and the tail is thrown 
down along the side of the space. In fig. 266 
[fig. 334 of the present paper] the figure occupies 
a circle and is. in consequence, closely coiled up, 
giving the effect of a serpent rather than an alli 

I present live series of figures designed to illus 
trate the stages through 
Avhich life forms pass in de 
scending from the realistic to 
highly specialized conven 
tional shapes. In the first 

series (fig. 277) [fig. 335 of the present paper] we begin with , 
a meager but graphic sketch of the alligator; the second figure, 
b, is hardly less characteristic, but is much simplified; in the 
third, c, Ave have still three leading features of the creature 
the body line, the spots, and the stroke at the back of the head ; 
and in the fourth, d, nothing remains but a compound yoke-like 
curve, standing for the body of the creature, and a single dot. 
The figures of the second series (fig. 278) [fig. 336 of the 
present paper] are nearly all painted upon low, round nodes 
placed about the body of the alligator vases, and hence are 
The animal figure in the first example is coiled up like a 
1)llt 8ti11 preserves some of the well-known characters of the 
alligator. In the second example [fig. 336 b] we have a double hook near the center of 
the space which takes the place of the body, but the dotted triangles are placed sepa 
rately against the encircling line. In the next figure the body symbol is omitted and 

Fig. 333. 



Sixth Annual Report of the Rurrau of Ethnology, tig. 

Fig. 334. 



Sixth Annual Report of 
Bureau of Ethnology, tig. 

inclosed in circles. 



the three triangles remain to represent the animal. In the fourth there are four trian 
gles, and the body device being restored in red takes the form of a cross. In the fifth 
two of the inclosing triangles are omitted and the idea is preserved by the simple 
dots. In the sixth the dots are placed within the bars of the cross, the triangles 
becoming mere interspaces, and in the seventh the dots form a line between the two 
encircling lines. This series could be tilled up by other examples, thus showing by 

Fig. 335. 



Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, fi K . i 77. 

what infinitesimal steps the transformations take place. 

We learn by the series of steps illustrated in the ::imexed cuts that the alligator 
radical, under peculiar restraints and influences, assumes conventional forms that 
merge imperceptibly into these classic devices. 

Professor Holmes s theory of the evolution of the cross from the alli 
gator and its location in Chiriqni is opposed to that of Professor (lood- 



Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, rig. 27S. 

year, who, in his "Grammar of the Lotus," ascribes the origin of the 
cross to the lotus and locates it in Egypt. I iile what in law would be 
an "interpleader" I admit my want of knowledge of the subject 
under discussion, and leave the question to these gentlemen. 



Professor Holmes is, in the judgment of the author, correct when he 
insists upon the aboriginal character of the cross in America. \Ve all 
understand how it is stated that the Spanish missionaries sought to 
deny this and to connect the apparition of St. Thomas with the appear 
ance of the cross. Professor Holmes l says : 

The first explorers were accompanied by Christian zealots who spared no effort to 
root out the native superstition and introduce a foreign religion of which the cross 
was the all-important symbol. This emblem was generally accepted by the savages 
as the only tangible feature of a new system of belief that was filled with subtleties 
too profound for their comprehension. As a result, the cross w;is at onco introduced 
into the regalia of the natives, at first probably in a European form and material, 
attached to a string of beads in precisely the manner they had been accustomed to 
suspend their own trinkets and gorgets; but soon, no doubt, delineated or carved by 
their own hands upon tablets of stone and copper and shell in the place of their own 
peculiar conceptions. 

There is sufficient evidence, and to spare, of the aboriginal use of the 
cross in some of its forms, without resorting to the uncertain and forced 
explanation of its introduction by Christian missionaries. It is possi 
ble that the priests and explorers were, like Colonel Mallery s mission 
ary, mistaken as to the interpretation given to the cross by the Indians. 
Dr. Hoffman, in his paper on the "Mide wiwin or .Grand Medicine 
Society of the Ojibwa," 2 states the myth of the re creation of the world 
"as thrown together in a mangled form by Ilennepin." Dr. Hoffman 
observes : 

It is evident that the narrator has sufficiently distorted the traditions to make 
them conform as much as practicable to the Brblical story of the birth of Christ. 

And on the same page he quotes from Pere Marquette, who says: 
"I was very glad to see a great cross set up in the middle of the village, adorned 
with several white skins, red girdles, bows, and arrows, which that good people 
offered to the Great Manitou to return him their thanks for the care he had taken of 
them during the winter, and that he had granted them a prosperous hunting." 

Marquette [comments Dr. Hoffman] was, without doubt, ignorant of the fact that 
the cross is the sacred post, and the symbol of the fourth degree of the Mide wiwin, 
as is fully explained in connection with that grade of society . The erroneous conclu 
sion that the cross was erected as an evidence of the adoption of Christianity and, 
possibly as a compliment to the visitor was a natural one on the part of the priest, 
but this same symbol of the Hide society had probably been erected and bedecked 
with barbaric emblems and weapons months before anything was known of him. 

Most aboriginal objects bearing crosses are from localities along the 
Ohio Eiver and through Kentucky and Tennessee, a locality which 
the early Christian missionaries never visited, and where the cross 
of Christ was rarely, if ever, displayed until after that territory 
became part of the United States. Per contra, the localities among 
the Indians in which the early missionaries most conducted their 
labors that is to say, along the Great Lakes and throughout northern 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 269. 
2 Seventh Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 155. 


Illinois produce the fewest number of aboriginal crosses. This was 
the country explored by Fathers Marquette, Lasalle, and Hennepin, 
and it was the scene of most of the Catholic missionary labors. Pro 
fessor Holmes seems to have recognized this fact, for he says: 1 

The cross was undoubtedly used as a symbol by the prehistoric nations of the 
South, and, consequently, that it was probably also known in the North. A great 
majority of the relics associated with it in the ancient mounds and burial places 
are undoubtedly aboriginal. In the case of the shell gorgets, the tablets them 
selves belong to an American type, and are highly characteristic of the art of the 
Mississippi Valley. A majority of the designs engraved upon them arc, also charac 
teristic of the same district. 

The author agrees heartily with Professor Hohnes s argument in this 
matter, and his conclusion, Avhen he says of these objects (p. 270) : 

The workmanship is purely aboriginal. I have not seen a single example of 
engraving upon shell that suggested a foreign hand or a design, with the exception 
of one (cross), that could claim a European derivation. 

There have been numerous European or Catholic; crosses, as well as 
many other objects of European manufacture or objects of civilized 
types, found among the Indians. There have been silver crosses found 
with images of the Virgin thereon, with Latin inscriptions, or of Roman 
letters; there have been glass beads, iron arrowheads, and divers other 
objects found in Indian graves which bore indubitable evidence of con 
tact with the whites, and no one with any archa ological experience 
need be deceived into the belief that these were aboriginal or pre- 
Columbian manufacture. As a general rule, the line of demarkation 
between objects of Indian manufacture and those made by the whites 
is definite, and no practiced eye will mistake the one for the other. 
There may be exceptions, as where the Indian has lived with the 
whites or a white man with the Indians, or where an object is made 
with intent to deceive. In such cases one may have more trouble in 
determining the origin of the object. 

There were many Indians who died and were buried within a century 
past, whose graves might contain many objects of white man s work. 
Black Hawk and lied Jacket are examples, and, possibly, King Philip. 
Indian graves have been opened in New England and Xew York con 
taining the gun or firelock of the occupant of the grave buried with 
him, and that this was evidence of European contact there can be no 
doubt. So there have been hundreds, possibly thousands, of Indians 
buried since the Columbian discovery down to within the last decade 
whose graves contain white man s tools or implements. But no person 
with any archaeological experience need be deceived by these things. 
The theory that the Latin or Greek crosses or Swastikas shown on 
these gorgets, disks, and pottery furnish evidence of contact by the 
aborigines with Europeans in post-Columbian times is without foun 
dation and inadmissible. 

1 Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 269. 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 60 

f J4(> 





The aborigines of Mexico and Central and South America employed 
terfa-cotta color stamps, which, being made into the proper pattern in 

Fig. 341. Fig. 342. 



Cat. Nos. 99194, 99127, 278*7, 99115, 99118, 991i!2, V. S. X. M. 

the soft clay, were bnrned hard; then, being first coated with color, the 
stamp was pressed upon the object to be decorated, and so transferred 



its color, as in the mechanical operation of printing, thus giving the 
intended decoration. Patterns of these stamps are inserted in this 
paper in connection with the Swastika because of the resemblance not 
in form, but in style. They are of geometric form, crosses, dots, circles 
(concentric and otherwise), lozenges, chevrons, fret, and labyrinth or 
meander. The style of this decoration lends itself easily to the Swas 
tika; and yet, with the variety of patterns contained in the series of 
stamps belonging to the U. S. National Museum, shown in figs. 337 to 
342, no Swastika appears; nor in the similar stamps belonging to other 
collections, notably that of Mr. A. E. Douglass, in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Natural History, Central Park, New York, are any Swas 
tikas shown. Of the 
foregoing figures, all 
are from TlaLtelolco, 
Mexico (Blake collec 
tion), except fig. 339, 
which is from the Val 
ley of Mexico, and was 
received from the Mu- 
seo Nacional of Mexico. 
Marcano says : l 

The present Piaroas of 
Venezuela are in the liabit 
of painting their bodies by 
a process different from 
that of the North American 
Indian. They make stamps 
of wood, which, being col 
ored (as types are with ink ), 
they apply to their bodies. 
Fig. 982 shows examples of 
these stamps. [See iig. 343 of the present paper.] The designs are substantially 
the same as some petroglyphs. They either copied the models they found carved 
on the rocks by peoples who preceded them, or they knew the meaning and preserved 
the tradition. The former is the only tenable hypothesis. Painting is to the Piaroas 
both ornamentation and necessity. It serves, not only as a garment to protect them 
against insects, but becomes a fancy costume to grace their feasts and meetings. 

These designs are not presented as Swastikas nor of any evolution 
or derivation from one. They show a style common enough to Central 
and South America, to the Antilles and the Canary Islands, 2 which 
might easily produce a Swastika. The aboriginal designer of these 
might, if we depend upon the theory of psychological similarity of cul 
ture among all peoples, at his next attempt make a Swastika. Yet, 
with the hundreds of similar patterns made during the centuries of 
aboriginal occupation and extending throughout the countries named, 
none of these seem ever to have produced a Swastika. 

Fig. 343. 


Piaroa Indians, Venezuela. 

:il Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, %. 9K. 

Tenth AL 

. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1890, p. 200. 
2 De Quatrefages, "Histoiro Gencrale du Kaces llumaines," Introduction, p. 239, 
tigs, 180-191, 193-194. 



The origin and early history of the Swastika are lost in antiquity. 
All the author has been able to find on these subjects is set forth in the 
preceding chapters. 

It is proposed to examine the possible uses of the Swastika in an 
endeavor to discover something of its significance. The Swastika 
might have served: 

I. As a symbol 

1> of n religion, 

2, of a nation or people, 

3, of a sect with peculiar tenets; 
II. As an amulet or charm 

1, of good luck, or fortune, or long life, 

2, of benediction, or blessing, 

3, against the evil eye; 
III. As an ornament or decoration. 

It may have been (1) originally discovered or invented by a given 
people in a given country, and transmitted from one generation to the 
next, passing by migration from one country to another, and it may 
have been transmitted by communication to widely separated countries 
and among differently cultured peoples; or (U) it may have appeared 
in these latter countries by duplicate invention or by accident, and 
without contact or communication. 

Positive evidence concerning its origin and earliest migration is not 
obtainable, and in its absence we are driven to secondary and circum 
stantial evidence. This will consist (1) of comparison of known facts 
directly concerning the subject; (2) of facts indirectly concerning it, and 
(3) reason, induced by argument, applied to these facts, presenting 
each truly, and giving to each its proper weight. 

The possible migrations of the Swastika, and its appearance in widely 
separated countries and among differently cultured peoples, afford the 
principal interest in this subject to archaeologists and anthropologists. 
The present or modern scientific interest in and investigation of the 
Swastika as a symbol or a charm alone are subsidiary to the greater 
question of the cause and manner of its appearance in different coun 
tries, whether it was by migration and contact or by independent inven 
tion. In arguing this question, we must keep continually in mind the 
rules of reason and of logic, and neither force the facts nor seek to 
explain them by unknown, imaginary, or impossible methods. There 
must be no dogmatic assertions nor fanciful theories. If we assume 
certain migrations of the Swastika, we must consider those things 
which might have (or must have) migrated with it; and we must admit 
the means necessary to the assumed end. 

The history of the beginning and first appearance of any of the 
forms of the cross is also lost. in antiquity, and it would be hazardous 
for any person to announce positively their origin, either as to locality 


or time. The Swastika was certainly prehistoric in its origin. It was 
in extensive use daring the existence of the third, fourth, and fifth 
cities of the site of ancient Troy, of the hill of Hissarlik; so also in 
the Bronze Age, apparently during its entire existence, throughout 
western Europe from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. It 
continued in use in Europe during the Iron Age, and also among the 
Etruscans, Greeks, and Trojans. The name " Swastika," by which it is 
recognized to-day in all literature, is a Sanscrit word, and was in com 
mon use among the Sanscrit peoples so long ago that it had a peculiar 
or individual pronunciation in Panini s grammar prior to the fourth 
century B. 0. Some authorities are of the opinion that it was an 
Aryan symbol and used by the Aryan peoples before their dispersion 
through Asia and Europe. This is a fair subject for inquiry and might 
serve as an explanation how, either as a sacred symbol or charm, an amu 
let, or token of good wishes or good fortune, the Swastika might have 
been carried to the different peoples and countries in which we now 
find it by the splitting .up of the Aryan peoples and their migrations 
and establishment in the various parts of Europe. Professor Sayce is 
of the opinion that the Swastika was a Ilittite symbol and passed by 
communication to the Aryans or some of their important branches 
before their final dispersion took place, but he agrees that it was unknown 
in Assyria, Babylonia, Phenicia, or among the Egyptians. 

Whether the Swastika was in use among the Chaldeans, Hittites, or 
the Aryans before or during their dispersion, or whether it was used by 
the Brahmins before the Buddhists came to India is, after all, but a 
matter of detail of its migrations; for it may be fairly contended that 
the Swastika was in use, more or less common among the people of the 
Bronze Age anterior to either the Chaldeans, Hittites, or the Aryans. 
The additional facts in this regard have been set forth in the chapter 
on this subject, and need not be repeated here. 

The question should, so far as possible, be divested of speculation, 
and the evidence accepted in its ordinary meaning " without prejudice 
or preconceived opinion." 

A consideration of the subject in the light of the material here col 
lected develops the following questions: 

(1) Was the Swastika, in any of its forms, the symbol of an ancient 
religion or philosophy, or was it only the sign of a particular sect, 
tenet., faith, or idea; or was it both? 

(2) Was it a charm or amulet to be used by anyone which derived 
its value from the signification given to it <? 

(3) What lesson can be gathered from it concerning the early migra 
tions of the races of man ! 

Examples illustrating these questions are to be found in history as 
well as in everyday life. The Scarabajus of Egypt and Etruria was 
a symbol of eternity. The golden hoop on tae lady s finger represent 
ing a snake swallowing its tail, is also a symbol of eternity. These 


represent a, sentiment, and are symbols of that sentiment without 
regard to sect or organized body. 

On the other hand, the Maltese cross was the symbol of the Knights 
of Malta, and has become, in later years, that of the Masonic fraternity ; 
while the three links is the symbol of the Order of Odd Fellows. The 
Latin cross is a symbol of the Christian religion and, to a certain extent, 
of a Christian denomination. 

Upon the evidence submitted, we must accept the Swastika first as 
a symbol of that sect of Jains within the Buddhist Church originally 
in Tibet, which spread itself in the Asiatic country under the names 
of Tao-sse, Tirthankara, Ter, Musteg, and Pon or Pon-po, the last 
signifying purity (ante, p. 774). This sect, or these sects, adopted the 
Swastika as their symbol, giving it the translation xu "well," asti, il it is," 
the whole word meaning "it is well," or "so be it," implying resignation 
under all circumstances, the sect holding, in accordance with the mean 
ing given to their symbol, that contentment and peace of mind were 
the chief objects of human life. In so far as it concerns this sect, the 
Swastika was a symbol of both kinds. It represented a religious or 
at least a moral and philosophic, idea, and also the sect which held to 
this idea. 

Among the Buddhists proper, the Swastika seems to have been 
employed as a holy or sacred symbol ; its occurrence as one of the signs 
in the footprint of Buddha, their founder, with some relation either to 
the mystery of his appearance as a leader, a missionary, or of the holy 
and sacred object of his mission, causes this to be inferred. Their use 
of it on the bronze statues of Buddha, and associating it with solemn 
inscriptions in the caves of India, leaves no doubt as to its use as a. 
symbol more or less of this character. 

Again, the use in the early Christian times of different forms of the 
cross, coupled with the extensive use by the Christians of the "mono 
gram of Christ" (fig. 6), shows how naturally there may have been a 
conflict of opinion in the selection of a cross which should be a repre 
sentative, while we know from history that there was such discussion, 
and that different forms of the cross were suggested. Among other 
forms was the Swastika, but to what extent or with what idea the 
author is not informed. The Swastika was used, Burnouf says, a 
/ thousand times on Christians tombs in the catacombs at Koine. This 
is evidence of its use to a certain extent in a sacred or solemn and 
funereal character, which would signify its use as the symbol of a 
religious idea. 

Beyond these instances -the author is unable to find evidence of the 
Swastika having served as a symbol of any religious or philosophic 
idea or of any sect or organization. 

Whether among the Bronze Age people of western Europe among 
the Trojans, Greeks, or Etruscans whether among the semicivilized 
peoples of South or Central America, or among the savages (mound- 


builders) of North America, there is apparently no instance of the 
Swastika having been regarded as holy or nsed on a sacred object- 
that is, holy and sacred in the light of godliness, piety, or morality. 
It may have been or may yet be discovered that some of these wild 
men nsed the Swastika upon objects serving at ceremonies or festivals 
of their religion, or which had, in their eyes, a semi-sacred character. 
But it does not seem that it was used as a representative of a holy 
idea or of any god or supernatural being who stood for such an idea. 
The meal used in the Zufii ceremony may have been regarded as sacred, 
and it may, indeed must, have been made on a stone inetate, yet 
neither the metate nor the stone thereby obtained any holy or sacred 
character. So, also, it may have been decorated with a fret, chevron, 
herringbone, or any of the numerous styles, none of which would 
receive any sacred character from such use. So it is believed to have 
been with the Swastika found on these objects; it was not holy or 
sacred because of this use. 

The author declines to discuss the possible relation of the Swastika 
to the sun or sun god, to the rain or rain god, the lightning, to Dyaus, 
Zeus or Agni, to Phebus or Apollo, or other of the mythological dei 
ties. This question would be interesting if it could be determined with 
certainty, or if the determination would be accepted by any considera 
ble number of persons. But this is left for some one more competent 
and more interested than the author. 

The most probable use of the Swastika among prehistoric peoples, or 
among Orientals other than the Buddhists, was as a charm or amulet 
signifying good fortune, good luck, long life, or benediction and bless 
ing. 1 (See p. 780.) 

Looking over the entire prehistoric world, we iind the Swastika 
used on small and comparatively insignificant objects, those in com 
mon use, such as vases, pots, jugs, implements, tools, household goods 
and utensils, objects of the toilet, ornaments, etc., and infrequently on 
statues, altars, and the like. In Armenia it was found on bronze pins 
and buttons; in the Trojan cities on spindle-whorls; in Greece on pot 
tery, on gold and bronze ornaments, and fibula. In the Bronze Age in 
western Europe, including Etruria, it is found on the common objects 
of life, such as pottery, the bronze fibuhe, ceiutures, spindle- whorls, etc. 

In addition to the foregoing, there were peculiar uses of the Swastika 
in certain localities : In Italy on the hut urns in which the ashes of the 
dead are buried; in the Swiss lakes stamped in the pottery; in Scandi 
navia on the weapons, swords, etc., and in Scotland and Ireland on the 
brooches and pins; in America on the metates for grinding corn; the 
Brazilian women wore it on the pottery fig leaf; the Pueblo Indian 
painted it on" his dance rattle, while the North American Indian, at the 
epoch of the mound building in Arkansas and Missouri, painted it in 
spiral form on his pottery ; in Tennessee he engraved it on the shell, and 

Goblet d Alviella, " La, Migration des Symbolcs," pp. 56, 57. 


in Ohio cut it in its plainest normal form out of sheets of copper. So 
also among the modern Indians we find it employed on occasions of 
ceremony, us in the mountain chant by the Navjijoes, and the war chant 
of the Kansas, on the necklace and ceremonial garters of the Sac 
woman, and on the war shields of the Pimas. 

As we do not find it represented in America on aboriginal religious 
monuments, on ancient gods, idols, or other sacred or holy objects, we 
are justified in claiming that it was not here used as a religious symbol; 
while, as it is found only on trinkets, shells, copper plaques, spindle- 
whorls, nictates, pottery bowls, jugs, bottles, or vases; as we find it 
sometimes square, sometimes spiral, now outside, now inside, of bowls 
and jars, etc.; at one time a small rectangular figure and at another of 
extensive convolutions covering the side of the vase; as we find it on 
the tools of the workmen, the objects in everyday use, whether in the 
house or the shop, used indiscriminately by men and women, or on 
gaming implements or dance rattles, the contention seems justifiable 
that it was used as an ornament or as a charm for good luck and not 
as a religious symbol. Vet we know it was used on certain ceremonial 
occasions which may themselves have had more or less a sacred char 

Thus, after the fullest examination, we find the Swastika was confined 
to the commoner uses, implements, household utensils, and objects for 
the toilet and personal decoration. The specimens of this kind number 
/a hundred to one of a sacred kind. With this preponderance in favor 
of the common use, it would seem that, except among the Buddhists 
and early Christians, and the more or less sacred ceremonies of the 
North American Indians, all pretense of the holy or sacred character 
of the Swastika should be given up, and it should (still w r ith these 
exceptions) be considered as a charm, amulet, token of good luck or 
good fortune, or as an ornament and for decoration. 



The question of the migration of the Swastika and of the objects on 
which it was marked, which furnished its only means of transportation, 
remains to be considered. It is proposed to examine, in a cursory 
manner perhaps, not only the migration of the Swastika itself, but 
some of these objects, spindle whorls especially, with a view to dis 
cover by similarity or peculiarity of form or decoration any relationship 
they may have had with each other when found in distant countries 
and used by different peoples. Thus, we may be able to open the way 
to a consideration of the question whether this similarity of Swastikas 
or other decorations, or of the objects on which they were placed, 
resulted from the migration of or contact or communication between 


distant peoples, or \vas it accidental and the result of independent dis 
coveries and duplicate inventions an evidence of the parallelism of(| 
human thought? 

Dr. Brinton, in a communication before the American Philosophical 
Society, 1 starts out with a polemical discussion upon the subject of the 
migration of the Swastika and its possible American migration, as 

My intention is to combat the opinion of those writers who, like Dr. Hamy, M. 
Beauvois, and many others, assert that because certain well-known Oriental sym 
bols, as the Ta Ki, the Triskeles, the Svastika, and the cross, are found among the 
American aborigines, they are evidence of Mongolian, Buddhistic, Christian, or 
Aryan immigrations previous to the discovery by Columbus, and I shall also try to 
show that the position is erroneous of those who, like William H. Holmes, of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, maintain "that it is impossible to give a satisfactory expla 
nation of the religious significance of the cross as a religious symbol in America." 

In opposition to both these views, I propose to show that the primary significance 
of all these widely extended symbols is quite clear, and that they can be shown to 
have arisen from certain fixed relations of man to his environment, the same every - 
where, and~Ee~nce suggesting the same graphic representations among tribes most 
divergent in location and race, and, therefore, that such symbols are of little value 
in tracing ethnic affinities or the currents of civilization. 

I am_sprry to be compelled to differ with Dr. Jirmton in these views. 
I may not attempt much argument upon this branch of the subject, but 
w 1 1 atever_arguinent^is presented wiJL J)Q in opposition^ to this view, as 
not being borne out by the evidence. Of course, the largest portion 
of the discussion of this subject must consist of theory and argu 
ment, but such facts as are known, when subjected to an analysis of 
reason, seem to produce a result contrary to that announced by Dr. 

It is conceded that the duplication of the cross by different or distant^ 
peoples is no evidence of migrations of or contact between these" 
peoples, however close their relations might have been. The sign of 
the cross itself was so simple, consisting of only two marks or pieces 
inteTsecting each other at a right or other angle, that we may easily 
suppose it to have been the result of independent invention. The same 
conclusion has been argued with regard to the Swastika. But this is 
a non scquitur. 

First, I dispute the proi)Oj^um_oOacJ:i that the is, like the 
cross, a simple design one which would come to the mind of any person 
and woulTTbe easyT^Tmake. For evidence of this, I cite the fact that it 

is not jn^cjommojii^u^ej^that ILis jtl^jo^tjj^ 11 ^ 11 ll! 1011 ^ Christian 
peoples, that it is not included iijjiuj_of the designs for, nor mentioned 
in any of the iiioderiLEuropean or Amerjcj^works on, decoration, nor 
is it known to or practiced by artists or decorators of either country. 2 
For the truth of this, I appeal to the experience of artists and decora- 

1 Proc. Am. Philosoph. Soc., xxvi, p. 177. 

"For eneral lack of knowledireof wastika in. modern times, see Preface T T>. 703^ 


tors, and would put the question whether, of their own knowledge, by 
their own inventions, they have ever discovered or made Swastikas, or 
whether their brother artists have done so, and if they answer in the 
affirmative, I would ask whether those cases were not rare. It may be 
granted that when the Swastika has been seen by an artist or decorator 
it is easily understood and not difficult to execute, but, nevertheless, 1 

^Insist that its invention and use among artists and decorators during 

]_the centuries since the Renuaissance is rare. 

It is argued by Zmigrodzki that the Swastika on so many specimens, 
especially the Trojan spindle- whorls, having been made regularly, some 
times turning one way, sometimes another, sometimes square, other 
times curved, goes to show the rapidity with which the sign was made, 
that it did not require an artist, that its use was so common that it had 
become a habit and was executed in a rapid and sketchy manner, as evi 
denced by the appearance of the marks themselves upon the whorls. 
He likens this to the easy and unconsidered way which men have of 
signing their names, which they are able to do without attention. lie 
likens it also to the sign of the cross made by Roman Catholics so 
rapidly as to be unnoticed by those who are unaware of its significance. 

- With this line of argument, Zmigrodzki reasons that the Swastika was 
in its time coutined to common use and thus he accounts for the num- 

LJber of ill-formed specimens. This only accounts for the comparatively 
few ill formed specimens, but not for the great number, the mass of 
those well formed and well drawn. Instead of the Swastika being a 
sign easily made, the experience of the writer is the contrary. A 
simple cross like the Latin, Greek, St. Andre w s^and other common 
forms may be very easy to make, but a really good specimen of the 
^^Swastika is difficult to make. Any one who doubts this has only to 
make the experiment for himself, and make correctly such a specimen 
as fig. 9. While it may be easy enough to make the Greek cross with 
two lines of equal length intersecting each other at right angles, 
and while this forms a large proportion of the Swastikas, it is at its 
conclusion that the trouble of making a perfect Swastika begins. It 
will be found difficult, requiring care and attention, to make the pro 
jecting arms of equal length, to see that they are all at the same angle; 

l/&nd if it is bent again and again, two or three turns upon each other, 
the difficulty increases. If a person thinks that the Swastika, either 
in the square_jQr._thfiJ3gee curves or the spiral volutes, is easy to make, 
he has but to try it with paper and pencil, and, if that is his first 
attempt, he will soon be convinced of his error. The artist who drew 
the spirals for this paper pronounces them to be the most difficult of 
all; the curves are parabolic, no two portions of anyone are in the 
same circle, the circle continually widens, and no two circles nor any 
two portions of the same circle have the same center. To keep these 
lines true and parallel, the curve regular, the distances the same, and at 
the same time sweeping outward in the spiral form, the artist pro- 


nounces a most difficult work, requiring care, time, and attention (fig. 
295). Even the square and meander Swastikas (figs. 10, 11) require a 
rule and angle to make them exact. All this goes to show the intention 
of the artist to have been more or less deliberate; and that the object 
he made was for a special purpose, with a particular idea, either as a , 
symbol, charm, or ornament, and not a meaningless figure to fill a vacant 

Yet it is practically this difficult form of the cross which appears to 
have spread itself throughjbhe widest culture areas, extending almost 
to the uttermost parts of the earth. All this is"loundation for the 
suggestion that the Swastika was not the result of duplicate invention 
or independent discovery, that it is not an illustration of parallelism 
in human thought, but that it was_transmitted from ^rj^jjjhn pprsm^ 
or passed from one country to another, either by the migration of its 
people, by their contact or communication, or by the migration and 
transmission of the symbol and the sign itself. Pushing the argument 
of the difficulty of its making, to account for the rarity of the design, 
it is alleged that in modern times the Swastika is practically unknown 
among Christian peoples. It passed out of use among them nigh a 
thousand years ago and has been supplanted by every other imaginable 
geometric form. The fret, chevron, herringbone, crosses, and circles] 
of every kind, spirals, volutes, ogees, moldings, etc., have all remained j ^ 
in use since neolithic times, but no Swastika. The latest use men 
tioned in the literature upon this subject appears to have been in the 
arch-Episcopal chair in the cathedral at Milan, which bears the three 
ancient Christian crosses, the Latin cross, the monogram of Christ, and 
the Swastika, of which the first and last are carved in alternates around 
the pedestal of the chair. Yet the knowledge of the Swastika has 
been perpetuated in some countries and its use has not died out all 
over the world ; therefore, examples of its use in modern times should 
be noted in order to prevent misapprehension and contradiction. The 
double ; Greek _jret made with two continuous lines (fig. 139) forms a 
psuedo Swastika at each intersection, although we have seen that this 
is not ajeal but only an apparent Swastika (p. 783). This is used in 
modern times by carpet and linen weavers a,s^order^J;or carjpj3ts_and ^ 
tablecloths, and by tile makers in similar decoration. The Swastika 
mark has continued in use among the Orientals; the Theosophists have 
adopted it as a seal or insignia; the Japanese (fig. 30), the Koreans 
(p. 799), the Chinese (fig. 31), the Jains (figs. 33, 34), and, among the 
North American Indians, the Navajo (pi. 17), and those of the Kansas 
Reservation (pis. 15 and 16), It is not used by European peoples in u 
modern times, except in Lapland and Finland. The National Museum 
has lately received a collection of modern household and domestic 
utensils from Lapland, some of which bear the marks of the cross and 
one a churn, the lid of which bears a possible Swastika mark. Through 
the kindness of Professor Mason and Mr. Cushing, I have received a 



drawing of this (fig. 344). Theodor Schvindt, in " Suomalaisia koris- 
teita," 1 a book of standard national Finnish patterns for the embroid 
eries of the country, gives the Swastika among others; but it is classed 
among "oblique designs 7 and no mention is made of it as a Swastika 
or of any character corresponding to it. Its lines are always at angles 
of 45 degrees, and are continually referred to as "oblique designs." 

The Swastika ornaments Danish baptismal fonts, and according to Mr. J. A. Ifjal- 
talin it "was used [in Iceland] a few years since as a magic sign, but with an 
obscured or corrupted meaning." It arrived in that island in the ninth century 
A. D.^ 

The Swastika mark apj)ears both in its normal and ogee form in the 
Persian carpets and rugs. :] While writing this memoir, I have found 
in the Persian rug in my own bedchamber sixteen figures of the Swas 
tika. In the large rug in the chief clerk s office of the National Museum 
there are no less than twenty-seven figures of the Swastika. On a 
piece of imitation Persian carpet, with a heavy pile, made probably in 
London, I found also figures of the Swastika. 
All the foregoing figures have been of the normal 
Swastika, the arms crossing each other and the 
ends turning at right angles, the lines being of 
equal thickness throughout, Some of them were 
bent to the right and some to the left. At the 
entrance of the Grand Opera House in Washing 
ton I saw a large India rug containing a number 
of ogee Swastikas; while the arms crossed each 
other at right angles, they curved, some to the 
right and some to the left, but all the lines in 
creased in size, swelling in the middle of the 
curve, but finishing in a point. The modern 
Japanese wisteria workbaskets for ladies have 
one or more Swastikas woven in their sides or covers. 

Thus, it appears that the use of the Swastika in modern times is con 
fined principally to Oriental and Scandinavian countries, countries 
which hold close relations to antiqiiij^^tlifl^in western Europe, where 
in ancient times the Swastika waTmoin[gequen^^ 
last one or two thousand years, become extinct. And this in the coun 
tries which have led the world in culture. 

/l$ the Swastika was a symbol of a religion in India and migrated as 
such in times of antiquity to America, it was necessarily by human aid. 
The individuals who carried. and taught it should have carried with it 
tjejgligioua idea it representedT~ To do this required a" certain use of 
language, at least the name of the symbol. If the sign bore among the 

i-. ^44. 



I . S. \:u im:il MIISHIIIM. 

Heft 1-4. Soumalaisen Kirjallis- 

Finnische Ornamente. 1. Stichornarnente. 
unden Seura Helsingissii, 1894. 

"Karl Blind, Discovery of Odinic songs in Shetland/ Nineteenth Century, June, 
1879, p. 1098, cited by Alfred C. Haddoii in "Evolution in Art," London, 1895, p. 285^ 
Fanny D. Bergen, in Scribner s Magazine, September, 1894. 


aborigines in America the name it bore in India, Swastika, the evidence 
of contact and communication would be greatly strengthened. If the 
religion it represented in India should be found in America, the chain 
of evidence might be considered complete. But in order to make it so 
it will be necessary to show the existence of these names and this religion 
in the same locality or among the same people or their descendants as 
is found the sign. To find traces of the Buddhist religion associated 
with the sign of the Swastika among the Eskimo in Alaska might be 
no evidence of its prehistoric migration, for this might have occurred 
in modern times, as we know has happened with the Russian religion 
and the Christian cross. While to find the Buddhist religion and the 
Swastika symbol together in America, at a locality beyond the possi 
bility of modern European or Asiatic contact, would be evidence of pre 
historic migration yet it would seem to fix it at a period when, and from 
a country where, the two had been used together. If the Swastika and 
Buddhism migrated to America together it must have been since the 
establishment of the Buddhist religion^ which is approximately fixed in 
the sixth... ceujtiir^LJL. C. But there has not been as yet in America, 
certainly not in the localities where the Swastika has been found, any 
trace discovered of the Buddhist religion, nor of its concomitants of 
language, art, or custom. Adopting the theory of migration of the*J 
Swastika, we may therefore conclude that if the Swastika came from 
India or Eastern Asia, it came earlier than the sixth century B. 0. -^ 

If a given religion with a given symbol, both belonging to the Old 
Wo*rld, should boT^TT^ the New World, it would be 

strong evidence in favor of Old World migration certainly of contact 
and communication. Is it not equaHyjstrong evidence of contact^ to 
find the same sign used in bo^h^ouutries^^rcharin, with the same 
significance in both countries? 

The "argument hasTbeen made, and it has proved satisfactory, at least 
to the author, that throughout Asia and Europe, with the exception of 
the Buddhists and early Christians, the Swastika was used habitually 
as a sign or mark or charm, implying good luck, good fortune, long life 
much pleasure, great success, or something similar. The makers and 
users of the Swastika in South and Central America, and among the 
mound builders of the savages of North America, having all passed 
away before the advent of history, it is not now, and never has been, 
possible for us to obtain from them a description of the meaning, use, 
or purpose for which the Swastika was employed by them. But, by the 
same line of reasoning that the proposition has been treated in the pre 
historic countries of Europe andAsia, and which broughtjis to the 
conclusion that the Hwasffka was there used as a charm or token of 
good luck, or good fortune, or against the evil eye, we may surrnise 
that the Swastika sign was used in America for much the same purpose. 
It was placed upon the same style of _oljgctJnjVrnerica as in Eurojie 
and Asia. It is not found on any of the ancient gods of America, nor 


on any of the statues, monuments, or altars, nor upon any sacred place 
or object, but rather upon such objects as indicate the common and 

tx ^eferyday use, and on which the Swastika, as a charm for good luck, 
would be most appropriate, while for a sacred character it would be 
singularly inappropriate. 

The theory of independent invention has been invoked to account 
for the appearance of the Swastika in widely separated countries, but 
the author is more inclined to rely upon migration and imitation as the 


When signs or symbols, myths or fables, habits or customs, utensils, 
implements or weapons, industries, tools or machinery, have been 
found in countries widely separated from each other, both in countries 

r bearing characteristics so much alike as to make them practically the 

;^saine objects or industries, and which are made in the same way, they 
present a question to which there are only two possible solutions: 
Either they are independent discoveries or inventions which, though 
analogous, have been separately conceived, or else they have been 
invented or discovered in one of the countries, and passed to the other 
by migration of the object or communication of the knowledge neces 
sary to form it, or by contact between the two peoples. Of these 
inventions or discoveries said to have been made in duplicate, each of 
which is alleged to have sprung up in its own country as a character 
istic of humanity and by virtue of a law of physics or psychology, it 
is but fair to say that in the opinion of the author the presumption is 
all against this. Duplicate inventions have been made and will be 

vmade again, but they are uncommon. They are not the rule, but 
rather the exception. The human intellect is formed on such unknown 
bases, is so uncertain in its methods, is swayed by such slight consid 
erations, and arrives at so many different conclusions, that, with the 
manifold diversities of human needs and desires, the chances of dupli- 

/cate invention by different persons in distant countries, without con- 
tact or communication between them, are almost as one to infinity. 

The old adage or proverb says, " Many^Lnen of many minds," and it 
only emphasizes the differences between men in re^ar d to the various 
phenomena mentioned. There are some things sure to happen, yet it 
is entirely uncertain as to the way they will happen. Nothing is more 
uncertain than the sex of a child yet to be born, yet every person has 
one chance out of two to foretell the result correctly. But of certain 
other premises, the chances of producing the same result are as one to 
infinity. Not only does the human intellect not produce the same con 
clusion from the same premises in different persons, but it does not in 
the same person at different times. It is unnecessary to multiply 
words over this, but illustrations can be given that are satisfactory. A 
battle, a street fight, any event happening in the presence of many 
witnesses, will never be seen in the same way by all of them ; it will 
be reported differently by each one; each witness will have a different 



story. The jurors in our country are chosen because of the absence 
of prejudice or bias. Their intellect or reason are intended to be 
subjected to precisely the same evidence and argument, and yet how 
many jurors disagree as to their verdict 1 We have but to consider 
the dissensions and differences developed in the jury room which are 
settled, sometimes by argument, by change of conviction, or by com 
promise. What would be the resources of obtaining justice if we 
were to insist upon unanimity of decision of the jury upon their first 
ballot or the first expression of their opinion and without opportunity 
of change? Yet these jurors have been charged, tried, and sworn a 
true verdict to render according to the law and evidence as submitted 
to them. There is no doubt but that they are endeavoring to fulfill 
their duty in this regard, and while the same evidence as to fact, and 
charge as to law, are presented to all of them at the same time, what 
different impressions are made and what different conclusions are pro 
duced in the minds of the different jurors. Illustrations of this exist 
in the decisions of our Supreme Court, wherein, after full argument 
and fair investigation, with ample opportunity for comparison of views, 
explanations, and arguments, all based upon the same state of facts, 
the same witnesses; yet, in how many cases do we find differences of 
opinion among the members of the court, and questions of the gravest 
import and of the most vital character settled for the whole nation by 
votes of 8 to 7 and 5 to 4? The author has examined, and in other shown, the fallacy of the rule that like produces like. Like 
causes produce like effects is a law of nature, but when the decision 
rests upon the judgment of man* and depends upon his reason and his 
intellect, our common knowledge testifies that this law has no applica 
tion. When the proposition to be determined has to be submitted toN 
individuals of widely separated and distinct countries between whom/ 
there has been neither communication nor contact, and who havel 
received no suggestion as to their respective ideas or needs, or the \ 
means of satisfying them, it seems to the author that no rule can be I 
predicated upon the similarity of human condition, of human reason, or \ 
of human intellect, certainly none which can be depended on to produce * 
the same conclusion. 

Consideration of the facility with which symbols, signs, myths, 
fables, stories, history, e tcTTar e~Eran sin i t ted from one people to another 
aiid from one country to another, should not be omitted in this discus 
sion. It may have slight relation to the Swastika to mention the 
migrations of the present time, but it will give an idea of the possibil 
ity of past times. In this regard we have but to consider the immense 
number of articles or objects in museums and collections, public and 
private, representing almost every country and people. We there find 
objects from all quarters of the globe, from the five continents, and all 
the islands of the sea. Some of them are of great antiquity, and it is 
a matter of wonderment how they should have made such long pas- 



sages and have been preserved from destruction by the vicissitudes of 
time and space. We have but to consider how money passes from hand 
to hand and is always preserved to be passed on to the next. Every 
collection of importance throughout the world possesses a greater or 
less number of Greek and Roman coins antedating the Christian era. 
We have an excellent illustration of these possibilities in the word 
< halloo," commonly rendered as " hello " A few years ago this word, 
was peculiar to the English language, yet an incident lately occurred in 
the city of Washington, within sight of my own residence, by which 
this word, u hello," has traveled the world around, has spread itself 
over land and sea, has attached itself to and become part of most every 
simken language of civilization, and without much consideration as to 
its meaning; but being on the procrustean bed of imitation, there are 
people, foreigners, who believe that the telephone can be only made to 
respond when the demand is made "hello!" 


Count Goblet d Alviella, in "La Migration des Symboles," traces 
many ancient symbols from what he believes to be their place of origin 
to their modern habitat. The idea he elucidates in his book is indi 
cated in its title. 

The sacred tree of Ike Assyrians. This he holds to be one of the old 
est historic, symbols; that it had its origin in Mesopotamia, one of the 
earliest civilized centers of the world. Beginning with its simplesi 
form, the sacred tree grew into an ornate and highly complex pattern, 
invariably associated with religious subjects. Two living creatures 
always stand on either side,, facing it and each other. First they were 
monsters, like winged bulls or griffins, and after became human or 
semihuman personages priests or kings, usually in the attitude of 
devotion. The Count says the migration of both these types can be 
readily traced. The tree between the two monsters or animals passed 

yfrom Mesopotamia to India, where it was employed by the Buddhists 
Kami Brahmins, and has continued in use in that country to the present 

yime. It passed to the Phenicians, and from Asia Minor to Greece. 

(From the Persians it was introduced to the Byzantines, and during 
the early ages, into Christian symbolism in Sicily and Italy, and even 
penetrated to the west of France. The other type that is, the tree 
between two semi-human personages followed the same route into 
India, China, and eastern Asia, and, being found in the ancient Mexi 
can and Maya codices, it forms part of the evidence cited by the Count 
as a pre-Columbian communication between the Old World and the 
:New. He argues this out by similarity of the details of attitude and 
expression of the human figure, the arrangement of the branches of 
the sacred tree, etc. 

^ The sacred cone of Mesopotamia. This was worshipped by the western 
Semites as their great goddess, under the image of a conical stone. 


Its figurative representation is found alike on monuments, amulets, 
and coins. On some Phenician monuments there is to be seen, super- 
added to the cone, a horizontal crossbar on the middle of which rests a 
handle. This shape bears a striking resemblance to the Crux ansata 
(fig. 4), and, like it, was a symbol of life in its widest and most abstract 
meaning. The resemblance between them is supposed to have caused 
them to have been mistaken and employed one for the other in the same 
character of symbol and talisman. It is alleged that the Ephesian 
Artemis was but the sacred cone of Mesopotamia anthropomorphized, 
although, with the halo added to Artemis, the allegation of relationship 
has been made in respect of the Crux anxata. 

The Cru.v ansata, the Icey of life. This is probably more widely known 
in modern times than any other Egyptian symbol. Its hieroglyphic 
name is Atikh, and its signification is a to live. 7 As an emblem of life, 
representing the male and female principle united, it is always borne in 
the hands of the gods, it is poured from ajar over the head of the king 
in a species of baptism, and it is laid symbolically on the lips of the 
mummy to revive it. From Egypt the Crux anmta spread first among ^ 
the Phenicians, and then throughout the whole Semitic world, from f 
Sardinia to Susiana. 

The winged globe. This was a widely spread and highly venerated 
Egyptian symbol. From Egypt it spread, under various modifica 
tions, throughout the Old World. It is formed by a combination of 
the representations of the sun that have prevailed in different locali 
ties in Egypt, the mythology of which ended by becoming a solar 
drama. Two unvus snakes or asps, with heads erect, are twisted 
round a globe-shaped disk, behind which are the outstretched wings 
of a hawk, and on its top the horns of a goat. It commemorates the 
victory of the principle of light and good over that of darkness and 
evil. It spread readily among the Phenicians, where it is found sus 
pended over the sacred tree and the sacred cone, and was carried 
wheresoever their art was introduced westward to Carthage, Sicily, 
Sardinia, and Cyprus, eastward to Western Asia. Very early it pene 
trated on the north to the Ilittites, and when it reached Mesopotamia, 
in the time of Sargonid;e, the winged circle assumed the shape of the 
wheel or rosette, surmounted by a scroll with upeurled extremities and 
with a feathered tail opening out like a fan, or a human figure in an 
attitude sometimes of benediction, sometimes warlike, was inscribed 
within the disk. Then it was no longer exclusively a solar emblem, but 
served to express the general idea of divinity. From Mesopotamia it 
passed to Persia, principally in the anthropoid type. It was, however, 
never adopted by Greece, and it is nowhere met with in Europe, except, 
as before stated, in the Mediterranean islands. When Greece took 
over from Asia symbolic combinations in which it was originally repre 
sented, she replaced it by the thunderbolt. But the aureole, or halo, 
II. Mis. 90, pt. 2 01 



which encircles the heads of her divinities, and which Christian art 
has borrowed from the classic, was directly derived from if. 

The caduceus. This is one of the interesting symbols of antiquity. 
It appears in many phases and is an excellent illustration of the migra 
tion of symbols. Its classic type held in the hand of Mercury and used 
to-day as a symbol of the healing art a winged rod round which two 
serpents are symmetrically entwined is due to the mythographers of 
later times, and is very remote from its primitive form. In the Homeric 
hymn it is called "the golden rod, three-petal ed of happiness and 
wealth," which Phoebus gave to the youthful Hermes, but on early 
Greek monuments the three leaves are represented by a disk sur 
mounted by an incomplete circle. In this shape it constantly appears 
on Phenician monuments; and at Carthage, where it seems to have 
been essentially a solar emblem, it is nearly always associated with the 
sacred cone. It is found on Hittite monuments, where it assumes the 
form of a globe surmounted by horns. Numerous origins and manifold 
antecedents have been attributed to it, such as an equivalent of the 
thunderbolt, a form of the sacred tree, or a combination of the solar 
globe with the lunar crescent. Some examples seem, to indicate a 
transition from the sacred tree surmounted by the solar disk, to the 
form of the caduceus of the Hittites. Our author believes it was 
employed originally as a religious or military standard or Hag, and that 
it was gradually modified by coining in contact with other symbols. 
Some Assyrian bas-reliefs display a military standard, sometimes con 
sisting of a large ring placed upon a staff with two loose bandelets 
attached, sometimes of a winged globe similarly disposed. This Assyr 
ian military standard may be the prototype of the labarum, which 
Constantine, after his conversion to Christianity, chose for his own 
standard, and which might equally well have been claimed by the sun 
worshipers. Under its latest transformation in Greece, a winged rod 
with two serpents twined round it, it has come down to our own times 
representing two of the functions of Hermes, more than ever in vogue 
among men, industry and commerce. It has survived in India under 
the form of two serpents entwined, probably introduced in the track of 
Alexander the Great. It was also met with in that country in earlier 
times in its simpler form, a disk surmounted by a crescent, resembling 
our astronomical sign for the planet Mercury. This earliest type of 
the caduceus, a disk surmounted by a crescent, appears at a remote 
date in India, and seems to have been confounded with the trisula. 

The trisula. This form of the trident peculiar to the P>uddhists was 
of great importance in the symbolism of the Hindus ; but whether it was 
an imitation of the type of thunderbolt seen on Assyrian sculptures, or 
was devised by them spontaneously, is uncertain. Its simplest form, 
which is, however, rarely met with, is an omicron (o) surmounted by an 
omega (r c ;). Nearly always the upper portion is flanked by two small 
circles, or by two horizontal strokes which often take the appearance of 


leaves or small wings. The points of the omega are generally changed 
into small circles, leaves, or trefoil; and the disk itself is placed on a 
pedestal. From its lower arc there fall two spires like serpents 7 tails 
with the ends curving, sometimes up and sometimes down. This is a 
very complex symbol. None of the Buddhist texts give any positive 
information in regard to its origin or meaning, and few symbols have 
given rise to more varied explanations. The upper part of the figure 
is frequently found separated from the lower; sometimes this is plainly 
a trident superposed upon a disk-shaped nucleus. The trident may 
possibly have symbolized the flash of lightning, as did Neptune s trident 
among the Greeks, but more probably it is the image of the solar radia 
tion. Among the northern Buddhists it personifies the heaven of pure 
flame superposed upon the heaven of the sun. Though undoubtedly a 
Hindu emblem, Its primitive shape seems to have early felt the influence 
of the caduceus, while its more complex forms exhibit a likeness to 
certain types of the winged globe. Still later the trisula was converted 
by Brahmanism into an anthropoid figure, and became the image of 
Jagenath. The vegetable kingdom was also laid under contribution, 
and the trisula came into a resemblance of the tree of knowledge. 
Although we have learned the probable signification of its factors in the 
creeds that preceded Buddhism, we know very little about its meaning 
in the religion that used it most, but it is a symbol before which mil 
lions have bowed in reverence. The plastic development of the trisula 
shows with what facility emblems of the most dissimilar origin may 
merge into each other when the opportunity of propinquity is given, 
and there is sufficient similarity in form and meaning. 

The double-headed eagle on the escutcheon of Austria and Russia. 
Count D Alviella tells the history of the migration of the symbol of 
the double-headed eagle on the escutcheon of Austria and Russia. It 
was originally the type of the Garuda bird of southern India, found on 
temple sculptures, in carved wood, on embroideries, printed and woven 
cloths, and on amulets. It first appears on the so-called Hittite sculp 
tures at Eyuk, the ancient Pteria in Phrygia. In 1217 it appeared on 
the coins and standards of the Turkoman conquerors of Asia Minor. 

In 1227-28 the Emperor Frederick n undertook the si.xth crusade, 
landing at Acre in the latter year, and being crowned King of Jerusa 
lem in 1229. Within thirty years from these dates the symbol appeared 
on the coins of certain Flemish princes, and in 1345 it replaced the 
single-headed eagle on the armorial bearing of the liolyKoman Empire. 
Thus, the historic evidence of the migration of this symbol, from the far 
east to the nations of the west by direct contact, would seem complete. 

The lion rampant of Belgium. This lion was incorporated into the 
Percy or Northumberland escutcheon by the marriage of Joceline of 
Louvain, the second son of Godfrey, the Duke of Brabant, to Agnes, the 
sister and heir of all the Percys. The Counts of Flanders, Brabant, and 
Louvain bore as their coat of arms the lion rampant facing to the left, 


which is the present coat of arms of the King of Belgium. The story 
is thus told in Burke s " Peerage" (1895) : Agnes de Percy married Joce- 
line of Louvain, brother of Queen Adeliza, second wife of Henry I, and 
son of Godfrey Barbalus, Duke of Lower Brabant and Count of Brabant, 
who was descended from the Emperor Charlemagne. Her ladyship, it 
is stated, would only consent, however, to this great alliance upon con 
dition that Joceline should adopt either the surname or arms of Percy, 
the former of which, says the old family tradition, he accordingly 
assumed, and retained his own paternal coat in order to perpetuate 
his claim to the principality of his father, should the elder line of the 
reigning duke become extinct. The matter is thus stated in the old 
pedigree at Sion House: "The ancient arms of Hainault this Lord 
Jocelyii retained, and gave his children the surname of Percy." 

The migration of this lion rampant is interesting. It was in the 
twelfth century the coat of arms of the King of Albania. Phillippe 
d Alsace, the eldest son of Thierry d Alsace, was Count of Flanders, 
sixteenth in succession, tracing his ancestry back to 621 A. D. The 
original and ancient coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders consisted 
of a small shield in the center of a larger one, with a sunburst of six 
rays. Phillippe d Alsace reigned as Count of Flanders and Brabant 
from 116S to 1190 A. D. He held an important command in two cru 
sades to the Holy Land. During a battle in one of these crusades, he 
killed the King of Albania in a hand-to-hand conflict, and carried off 
his shield with its escutcheon of the lion rampant, Avhich Phillippe 
transferred to his own shield, took as his own coat of arms, and it has 
been since that time the coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders and 
Brabant, and is now that of Belgium. The lion in the escutcheon 
can thus be traced by direct historic evidence through Northumberland, 
Flanders and Lonvain back to its original owner, the King of Albania, 
in the twelfth century. Thus is the migration of the symbol traced by 
communication and contact, and thus are shown the possibilities in this 
regard which go far toward invalidating, if they do not destroy, the 
presumption of separate invention in those cases wherein, because of 
our ignorance of the facts, we have invoked the rule of separate 

Greek <irt and architecture. It has come to be almost a proverb in sci 
entific investigation that we argue from the known to the unknown. 
I We might argue from this proverb in favor of the migration of the 
1 Swastika symbol and its passage from one people to another by the 
I illustration of the Greek fret, which is in appearance closely related to 
the Swastika; and, indeed, we might extend the illustration to all 
Greek architecture. It is a well-known fact, established by number 
less historic evidences, that the Greek architecture of ancient times 
migrated that is, passed by communication and contact of peoples, 
and by transfer of knowledge from one man to another, and from one 
generation to the succeeding generation, until it became known through- 


out all western countries. The architects of Eome, Vicenza, Paris, 
London, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, and San Francisco derive 
their knowledge of Grecian architecture in its details of Doric, Ionic, 
and Corinthian styles by direct communication, either spoken, written 
or graphic, from the Greek architects who practiced, if they did not 
invent, these styles. 

The Greek fret. This has migratedinthe same manner. As to its 
invention or origin, we~TFave litlle"~~todo in the present argument. 
Whether the fret was; the ancestor or the descendant of the Swastika 
is of no moment to our present question. It has been demonstrated in 
the early part of this paper that both it and the Swastika had a com 
mon existence in early if not prehistoric Greece, and that both were 
employed in^pejlfected" form on the same specimen of Archaic Greek 
pottery. Fig^-133 and 134 demonstrate that these two signs migrated 
together from (jreece to Egyjyj^Jbr the particular specimen mentioned 
was found at Naukratis, Egypt. From this high antiquity the Greek 
fret has migrated to practically every country in the world, and has 
been employed during all historic tfmeljylbhe peoples of every civiliza 
tion. The fret is known historically to liave^iassediiy means of teachers, 
either through speaking, writing, or drawing, and never yet a sugges 
tion that its existence or appearance in distant countries depended 
upon separate invention or independent discovery. 

Why strain at the gnat of independent invention of the Swastika I 
when AVC are compelled to swallow the camel of migration when applied / 
to the Greek fret and architecture? The same proposition of migra 
tion applies_to Greek art, whether of sculpture, engraving, or gem 
carving. These ancient Grecian arts are as well known in all quarters 
of the civilized globe at the present day as they were in their own 
country, and this was all done by communication between peoples either 
through speaking, writing, or drawing. So far from being separate 
inventions, the modern sculptor or engraver, with full historic; knowl 
edge of the origin or, at least, antiquity of these arts, and with an 
opportunity for inspection and study of the specimens, is still unable to 
reproduce them or to invent original works of so high an order. The 
imaginary and newly invented theory that culture is the result of the 
psychologic nature of man manifesting itself in all epochs and coun- 
tries, and among all peoples, by the evolution of some new discovery ^-SA3^ 
made to fit a kunxan Jieed ^that as_all human needs in a given stage are d ^ 
the same, therefore all human culture must, per se r pass through the 
same phases or stages is a theory to which I refuse adhesion. It 
receives a hard blow when we take down the bars to the modern sculp 
tor, requiring of him neither original invention nor independent discov 
ery, but permitting him to use, study, adapt, and even servilely copy 
the great Greek art works, and we know that with all these opportuni 
ties and advantages he can not attain to their excellence, nor reach 
their stage of art culture. 




Spindle- whorls are first to be considered. These are essentially pre 
historic utensils, and are to be found in every part of the world where 
the inhabitants were sufficiently cultured to make twisted threads or 

./cords, whether for hunting or fishing, games, textile fabrics, or cover 
ings, either for themselves, their tents, or other purposes. In western 
Asia, all of Europe, in the pueblos of North America, and among the 
aborigines by whatever name they are called of Mexico, Central 
America, and the north and west coast of South America, wherever 
the aborigines employed cord, cloth, or fiber, the spindle- whorl is found. 
Where they used skins for the coverings of themselves or their tents, 
the spindle-whorl may not be found. Thus, in the Eskimo land, and 
among certain of the North American savages, spindle- whorls are rarely 
if ever found. 
. The spindle-who^l was equally in use in Europe and Asia during the 

v Neolithic Age as in the Bronze Age. It continued in use among the 
peasants in remote and outlying districts into modern times. During 
the Neolithic Age its materials were stone and terra cotta; during the 
Bronze Age they were almost exclusively terra cotta. They are found 
of both materials. Recently a Gallo-Koman tomb was opened at Cler 
mont-Ferrand and found to contain the skeleton of a young woman, 
and with it her spindles and whorls. 1 
The existence of spindle-whorls in distant and widely separated 

\/( countries affords a certain amount of presumptive evidence of migra 
tions of peoples from one country to another, or of contact or com 
munication between them. If the people did not themselves migrate 
and settle the new country, taking the spindle-whorls and other objects 
with them, then the spindle-whorl itself, or the knowledge of how to 
make and use it, must in some other way have gotten over to the new 

This argument of migration, contact, or communication does not 
rest solely on the similarity of the whorls in the distant countries, 
but equally on the fact of spinning thread from the fiber ; and this 
argument is reenforced by the similarity of the operation and of the 
/tool or machine with which it was done. It has been said elsewhere 
that the probability of communication between widely separated 
peoples by migration or contact depended for its value as evidence, in 
some degree, upon the correspondence or similarity of the object con 
sidered, and that this value increased with the number of items of corre 
spondence, the closeness of similarity, the extent of the occurrence, 
and the difficulty of its performance. So we pass to the similarity in 
size, appearance, mode of manufacture, and, finally, the use of the 
whorls of the two continents. 

1 Bull. Soc. (TAnthrop., Paris, October, 1893, p. 600. 




Switzerland Lake dwellings. Figs. 345 and 34(> show stone spindle- 
whorls from prehistoric Swiss hike dwellings. These are in the U. S. 
National Museum, and with them are dozens of others of the same kind 

Figs. 345 aiid 346. 


Swiss lake dwellings. 

U. S. National Museum. 

and style from all other parts of Europe. Fig. 347 shows a stone spindle- 
whorl from Lund, Sweden. It is in the U". S. National Museum and 
was contributed by Professor Jillson. Figs. 348, 349, and 350 represent 
terra-cotta spindle-whorls from the Swiss lakes. These specimens were 

Fig. 347. 



Lund, Sweden. 
Cat. No. 5W1, U. S. N. M. 

Fig. :U8. 


Neolithic or Bronze. Age. 
Swiss lake dwellings. 

, Cat. No. 100G4 > II. S. N. M. 

selected to show the different patterns, to illustrate their unlikeness 
instead of their likeness, to give an uml^Uim]Jngj)H^^ 


of whorls rather than that they were all one kind, a fad which should be 
kept in mind during this argument. 



Italy. Figs. 351, 352, and 353 show terra-cotta spindle-whorls from 
Orvieto, Italy, 78 miles north from Home. Figs. 354 and 355 represent 

Fig. 349. 

Neolithic or Bronze Age. 
Swiss lako dwellings. 

Cat. NO.-100M2, I T . S. N. M. 

Fig. 350. 


Swiss lako dwellings. 

Cat. No. loiM-,47, r.S. N. M. 

spindle-whorls from Oorneto, Italy, (>3 miles north from Koine. As 
remarked above, they have been chosen to represent the different kinds. 

There are thou 
sands of these 
whorls found in 
Italy. In the 
Exposition at 

Turin, 1S84, the number was so 
great that they were twined about 
the columns, thereby providing 
a place of storage as well as a 
place of display. 

Wurteinbury. Dr. Charles Uau 
procured for, and there is now in, 
the U. S. National Museum a 
spindle (fig. 35G) with its whorl 
which had been in use for spin 
ning from 1800 to 1870, and which 
he obtained in Wurtemburg, Germany, from the woman who had used it. 
France. The author has seen the French peasants in Brittany Spin- 

Figs. 351,35 J, and 353. 


Orvieto, Italy. 

101671, 101672, U. S. N. M. 

Figs. 354 and 355. 

Cornet o, Italy. 

Cat. No. 101773, U. S. N. M. 

ning their thread in the same way, and once took a photograph of one 
in the hamlet of Pout-Aven, Morbihan, but it failed in development. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 21, 


Cat. No. 169598, U. S. N. M. 




In 1803 Mr. Harle purchased at St. Gerons, Ardeche, a merchant s 
entire stock of modern porcelain spindle-whorls. The manufactory was 
located at Martres-Tolosane, and the trade extended throughout the 
Pyrenees. He presented a series to the Societe d An- 
thropologie at Paris, July, 1893. l 

The U. S. National Museum has lately received, 
through the kindness of the ficole d Anthropologie, a 
series of nine of these porcelain whorls (pi. 21). The 
wheel and modern machines for spinning have pene 
trated this corner of the world, and these whorls are]/ 
the last emblem of an industry dating slightly after 
the advent of man on earth and already old in that 
locality when Roland crossed the mountain pass 
near there and sounded his u Oliphant," calling for 
help fro in Charlemagne. These are the death chant 
of the industry of hand spinning in that country. 


The North American Indians employed rushes and 
animal skins as the principal coverings for them 
selves and their tents. They used sinews and thongs 
for thread and cord, and thus avoided largely the 
necessity for spinning liber or making textiles; for 
these or possibly other reasons, we find few spindle- 
whorls among them compared with the number 
found in Europe. Yet the North American Indians 
made and used textile fabrics, and there are pieces 
of woven cloth from mounds in Ohio now in 
the Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, U. S. 
National Museum. The Pueblo Indians spun thread 
and wove cloth in pre-Columbian times, and those 
within the States of Colorado and Utah and the 
adjoining Territories of Arizona and New Mexico, 
particularly the Navajoes, have been long noted 
for their excellence in producing textile fabrics. 
Specimens of their looms and thread are on dis 
play in the National Museum and have been pub 
lished in the reports. Special attention is called 
to that by Dr. Washington Matthews in the Third 
Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1881-82. 
Dr. Matthews is of the opinion that the work of the 
Pueblo Indians antedated that of the Navajoes, that the latter learned 
the art from the former since the advent of the Spaniards ; and he re 
marks that the pupils now excel their masters in the beauty and quality 
of their work. He declares that the art of weaving has been carried 
to greater perfection among the Navajoes than among any native 
tribe in America north of the Mexican boundary ; while with none in the 
entire continent has it been less influenced by contact with Europeans. 

Fig. 35U 


Wurtciiiburg, Clt-rniany. 

. Goo. d Anthrop., Paris, pp. 461-462, 



The superiority of the Xavajo to the Pueblo work results not only from 
a constant advance of the weavers art among the former, but from a 
deterioration of it among the latter. This deterioration among the 
Pueblo Indians he attributes to their contact with the whites, their 
inclination being to purchase rather than to make woven fabrics, while 
these influences seem not to have affected the Navajoes. lie repre 
sents a Navajo woman spinning (see 
pi. 22 of the present paper). She is 
seated, and apparently whorls the 
spindle by rubbing it on her leg. 
The spindle is of wood, as are all other 
spindles, but the whorl is also of 
wood. Iii this these people are pecul 
iar and perhaps unique. The whorl, 
among most other savage or prehis 
toric peoples, as we have already seen, 
was of stone or clay. These wooden 
whorls are thinner and larger, but 
otherwise they are the same. An 
inspection of the 
plate will show that 
with it the spinning 
apparatus forms the 
same machine, ac 
complishes the same 
purpose, and does 
it in the same way. 
The sole difference 
is in the size and ma 
terial of the whorl. 
The difference in 
material accounts 
for the difference in 
size. It is not im 
probable that the 
Indian discovered 
that the wooden 
whorl would serve as well as a stone or pottery one, and that it was 
easier made. The machine in the hands of the woman, as shown in 
the figure, is larger than usual, which may be accounted for by the 
thread of wool fiber used by the Navajo being thicker and occupying 
more space than the flaxen thread of prehistoric times; so it may have 
been discovered that a large whorl of wood served their purpose better 
than a small one of stone. Stone whorls of large size might be too 
heavy. Thus may be explained the change from small stone or pottery 
whorls to large wooden ones. 

Mexico. Fig. 357 represents the two sides and edge of a pottery terra 
cotta spindle- whorl. It is the largest of a series of six (Cat. Nos. 

Fig. 357. 

A alloy of Mexico. 

Cat. No. L 7S75, U. S. N. M. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 22. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1881-85, PL xxxiv. 



27875-27880) from the valley of Mexico, sent to the U. S. National 
Museum by the Mexican National Museum in 1877. Fig. 358 also rep 
resents one of a series from Mexico, obtained by W. W. Blake, July, 
1880 (Oat. Nos. 99051-90059). The National Museum possesses hun 
dreds of these from Mexico, as well as the small ones from Peru. 

i. 358. 


These specimens are chosen because they are the largest and most 
elaborately decorated. It will be perceived at a glance how the style 
of decoration lends itself to the Swastika. It consists mostly of geo 
metric figures, chief of which is the Greek fret, the labyrinth, the 
circle, and the volute, but as in the color stamps (pp. 946-947) there is 
no Swnstika. 


Nicaragua. The specimen shown in tig. 359, from Omotepe Island, 
Lake Nicaragua, is one of a series of pottery spin die- whorls, bearing, 

Fijjs. 359 and 360. 

Omotepe Island, Nicaragua. 

Cat. Xos. 28898. 28899, U. S. N. M. 

however, great resemblance to those of stone. Fig. 360 shows a speci 
men from the same locality. It is of pottery and bears much resem- 



bianco- in form to the earliest whorls found by Schlieinann on the site 
of Troy on the hill of Hissarlik. Both these were collected by Dr. J. 
F. Bransford, and are in the U. S. National Museum. Fig. 361 shows 
a specimen from Granada, Nicaragua. It is of the common shape of 
the European prehistoric, spindle whorl, its Hat surface is decorated 


Granada, Nicaragua. 

Cut. No. y:!-j(ir,, r. S. N. M. 

Fig. :t62. 

Malaratc, Nicaragua, 
fnt. N<>. yomifl, IT. s. N. M. 

wilh a (Ireek cross in incised lines, two quarters of which are iilled 
with hatch marks. Fig. 302 shows a terra cotta spindle-whorl from 
Malacate, Nicaragua. It is cone-shaped. Both these specimens were 
collected by Dr. Earl Flint. 


Cliiriifui. Figs. 3(5 -, 3(>4, and 3<J5 show terra-cotta spindle-whorls 
from Ohiriqui, the most northern territory in South America and 
adjoining the Isthmus of Panama. They are engraved natural size, 
with ornamentation similar to that on the pottery of that country. 
Colombia. Fig. 3(>f> shows a cone-shaped terra-cotta whorl from 
Manizales, Colombia, South America. It has 
a star-shaped design on the face and a three- 
line zigzag or chevron pattern. 

Peru. Plate 23 represents a series of spin 
dles and whorls from Peru. They were fur 
nished to the U. S. National Museum by I. V. 
Norton, of Plainville, N. Y. The whorls were 
originally considered to be beads, and were 
without further description. The spindles were 
not inserted in them as at present. The spin 
dles, as well as whorls, are exceedingly small. 
Some of the whorls are decorated by incised 
lines in the clay, and many of the spindles are 
decorated in the middle with paint in different colors, in lines, scrolls, and 
chevrons. These are the only whorls from Peru which the IT. S. National 
Museum has, though it possesses an extensive series of the spindles, 
several of which still have the spun thread wrapped upon them. 
There are certain distinguishing peculiarities to be remarked when 

Fig. 363. 



Sixth Annual Report of the Bun-.v., of Kth- 
nology, fig. 1>1S. 

Report of National Museum, 1 894. Wilson. 

PLATE 23. 


Cat. No. 17510, U. S. N. M. 



comparing the spindle- whorls from the Western Hemisphere with those 
from the Eastern Hemisphere. There is greater diversity in size, form, 
and decoration in the American than in the European whorls. A series 
of European whorls from any given locality will afford a fair represen- 

Fig. 364. 



Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Kthnolofjy, 
fi>. 219. 

Fig. 365. 



Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Kthnolo-y, 
%. 220. 

tation of those from almost every other locality. But it is different 
with the American specimens. Each section in America has a differ 
ent style, not only different from the European specimens, but different 
from those of neighboring sections. Among the eighteen thousand 
whorls found by Dr. Schliemann on the hill of Hissarlik, there is 

Fig. 360. 

Manixalcs, Colombia. 

Cat. No. 16S3S, IT. S. N. M. 

scarcely one so large as those here shown from Mexico, while, on the 
other hand, there were only a few as small as the largest of the series 
from Peru. The difference in size and material in the Pueblo whorls 
has already been noticed. The ornamentation is also peculiar in that 
it adopts, not a particular style common to the utensil, but that it 


adopts the styles of the respective countries. The Mexicau whorl has 
a Mexican style of ornamentation, etc. The "Nicaragua specimens 
resemble the European more than any other from America in their 
forms and the almost entire absence of decoration. 

The foregoing are the differences; but with all the number and extent 
of these differences the fact remains that the whorls of the two hemi 
spheres are practically the same, and the differences are insignificant. 
In style, shape, and manner of use they are so similar in the two hemi 
spheres as to be the same invention. The whorls, when put upon their 
spindles, form the same machine in both countries. They were intended 
for and they accomplish the same purpose, and the method of their 
performance is practically the same. While the similarity of the art of 
spinning and the mechanism (?. e., the spindle and whorl) by which it is 
accomplished may not prove conclusively that it migrated from the 
Eastern Hemisphere, nor yet show positive connection or communica 
tion between the two peoples, it goes a long way toward establishing 
such migration or communication. The similarity in the art and its 
mechanism appears to the author to show such resemblance with the 
like culture in the Eastern Hemisphere, and is so harmonious with 
the theory of migration or contact or communication, that if there shall 
be other objects found which either by their number or condition would 
prove to be a well-authenticated instance of migration from or contact 
or communication between the countries, the evidence of the similarity 
of the spindle- whorls would form a valuable addition to and largely 
increase the evidence to establish the main fact. Until that piece of 
well-authenticated evidence has been obtained, the question must, so 
far as concerns spindle-whorls, remain only a probability. The differ 
ences between them are of manner, and not of matter; in size and 
degree, but not in kind, and are not other or greater than might easily 
arise from local adaptation of an imported invention. Compare the 
Navajo spindle (pi. 22) with that from Wurtemburg, Germany (tig. 35G), 
and these with the spindles and whorls from Peru (pi. 23). These facts 
are entirely in harmony with the possibility that the spindle and whorl, 
as a machine for spinning, was a single invention, and that its slight 
differentiations resulted from its employment by different peoples the 
result of its intertribal migrations. For purposes of comparison, and 
to show the similarity of these objects in Europe, the author has intro 
duced a series of spindle-whorls from Troy, Hissarlik (pis. 24 and 25). 
These belong to the U. S. National Museum, and form part of the valu 
able collection from Mine. Schliemann, the gilt by her talented husband 
to the people of the United States as a token of his remembrance and 
grateful feelings toward them. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 24. 



U. S. National Museum. 

Report of National Museum, 1894. Wilson. 

PLATE 25. 



U. S. National Museum. 




We have already seen how an increase in the number of correspond 
ences ^between objects front ..distan^_^mitries increases~the~ weight 
of their evidence in favor of contact or communication between the 
peoples. If it should be found upon comparison that the .bobbins 
on which thread 
is to be wound, 
as well as the 
spin die -whorls 
with which it is 
made, had been i 
use during prehis 
toric times in the 
two hemispheres, 
it would add to 
the evidence of 
contact or commu 
nication. The IJ. 
S. National Museum 
are believed to have 

Fig. 3C7. 


Type Villanova. 
Corneto, Italy. 

II. S. National Museum. 

possesses a series of these bobbins, as they 
been, running from large to small, comprising 

about one dozen specimens from- Italy, one from Corneto and the 

others from Bologna, in which 
places many prehistoric spindle 
whorls have been found (figs. 
307 and 308). These are of the 
type Villanova. The end as 
well as the side view is rep 
resented. The former is one 
of the largest, the latter of 
middle size, with others smaller 
forming a graduating series. 
The latter is engraved on the 
end by dotted incisions in three parallel lines arranged in the form 
of a Greek cross. A similar bobbin from Bologna bears the sign 
of the Swastika on its end (fig. 193 )^ It was found by Count G-ozzadini 
and forms part of his collection in Bologna. 


The three following figures represent clay and stone bobbins, all 
from the State of Kentucky. Fig. 309 shows a bobbin elaborately dec 
orated, from a mound near Maysville, Ky. It has a hole drilled longi- 

1 DC Mortillct, "Musce Prdhistorique," iig. 1239. 

Fin;. 368. 

THREAD (. ). 

Typo Villanova. 
Bologna, Italy. 

Cat. No. 101771, IT. S. N. M. 




tudinally through the center. The end shows a cross of the Greek 
form with this hole in the center of the cross. Fig. 370 shows a sim 
ilar object from Lexington, Ky., sent by the Kentucky University. It 

is of fine-grained sand 
stone, is drilled longi 
tudinally through the 
center and decorated as 
shown. The end view 
shows a series of con 
centric circles with rows 
of dots in the intervals. 

. 369. Fjg. .371 shows a simi 

lar object of line-grained 
sandstone from Lewis 
County, Ky. It is also drilled longitudinally, and is decorated with 
rows of zigzag lines as shown. The end view represents four con 
secutive pentagons laid one on top of the other, which increase in 
size as they go outward, the 
hole through the bobbin 
being in the center of 
these pentagons, while the 
outside line is decorated 
with spikes or rays ex 
tending to the periphery 
of the bobbin, all of which 
is snid to represent the 
sun. The specimen shown 
in fig. ,37 J, of fine-grained 

sandstone, is from Maysville, Ky. The two ends are here represented 
because of the peculiarity of the decoration. In the center is the hole, 
next to it is a rude form of Greek cross which on one end is repeated 

as it goes farther from the 
center; on the other, the dec 
oration consists of three con 
centric circles, one interval of 
which is divided by radiat 
ing lines at regular intervals, 
each forming a rectangle. Be 
tween the outer lines and the 

Fig. 370. 

Cut. No. ii;r. .M, I". S. N. Al. 

Fig. 371. 


Lewis County, Kentucky. 

Cat. No. 59fitfl, U. S. X. M. 

periphery are four radiating 
rays which, if completed all 
around, might form a sun 
symbol. Bobbins of clay have 

been lately discovered in Florida by Mr Clarence B. Moore and noted 

by Professor Holmes. 
Thus we find some of the same objects which in Europe were made 


and used by prehistoric man and which bore the Swastika mark have 
migrated to America, also in prehistoric times, where they were put to 
the same use and served the same purpose. This is certainly no incon 
siderable testimony in favor of the migration of the sign. 


The prehistoric objects described in the foregoing chapter are not 
the only ones common to both Europe and America. Eelated to the 
spindle-whorls and bobbins is the aj^jLiLjieayJjig, and it is perfectly 
susceptible of demonstration that this art was practiced in the two 
hemispheres in prehistoric times. Woven frabrics have been found 

Fig. 372. 


"Maysville, Kentucky. 

in the Swiss lake_dwellirigs, in Scandinavia, and in nearly all parts of 
Europe. They belonged toJika^EfiolilliiiL^ndBronze ages. 

Figs. 373 and 374 illustrate textile fabrics in the Bronze Age. Both 
specimens are from Denmark, and the. National Museum possesses 
another specimen (Oat. No. 13061")) in all respects similar. While pre 
historic looms may not have been found in Europe to be compared 
with the looms of modern savages in America, yet these specimens of 
cloth, with the hundreds of others found in the Swiss lake dwellings, 
afford the most indubitable proof of the use of the looms in both 
countries during prehistoric times. 

Complementary to this, textile fabrics have been found in America, 
from the Pueblo country of Utah and Colorado, south through Mexico, 
Central and South America, and of necessity the looms with which they 
were made were there also. It is not meant to be said that the looms 
of the two hemispheres have been found, or that they or the textile 
fabrics are identical. The prehistoric looms have not been found in 
Europe, and those in America may have been affected by contact with 
the white man. Nor is it meant to be said that the textile fabrics of 
H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 62 



the two hemispheres are alike in thread, stitch, or pattern. But these 
at best are only details. The great fact remains that the prehistoric 
man of the two hemispheres had the knowledge to spin liber into 

[thread, to wind it on bobbins, and 
(to weave it into fabrics; and what 
ever differences there may have 
been in pattern, thread, or cloth, 
they were finally and substantially 
the same art, and so are likely to 
have been the product of the same 

While it is not the intention to 
continue this examination among 
the prehistoric objects of the two 
hemispheres in order to show their 
similarity and thus prove migra 
tion, contact, or communication, yet 
it may be well to mention some of 
them, leaving the argument or proof 
to a future occasion. 

The polished stone hatchets of 
the two hemispheres are substan 
tially the same. There are differ 
ences of material, of course, for in 
each country the workman was 
obliged to use such material as was 
obtainable. There are differences 
in form between the polished stone 
hatchets of the two hemispheres, 
but so there are differences between 
different localities in the same hem 
isphere. Some hatchets are long, 
others short, some round, others 
flat, some have a pointed end, others 
a square or nearly square or unfin 
ished end; pome are large, others 
small. But all these differences 
are to be found equally well pro 
nounced within eacji hemisphere. 

Scrapers have also been found in 
both hemispheres and in all ages. 
There are the same differences in 
material, form, and appearance as 
in the polished stone hatchet. There is one difference to be mentioned 
of this utensil i. e., in America the scraper has been sometimes made 
with a stem and with notches near the base, after the manner of arrow- 

Fig. 373. 



Bronze Age. 

Report of the Sinithsonian Institution (U. S. Museum), 
1S92, vl. ci, tijf. - . 



and spear-heads, evidently intended to aid, as in the arrow- and spear 
head, in fastening the tool in its handle. This peculiarity is not found 
in Europe, or, if found, is extremely rare. It is considered that this 
may have been caused by the use of a broken arrow- or spear-head, 
which seems not to have been done in Europe. But this is still only a 
difference in detail, a difference slight and insignificant, one which 
occurs seldom and apparently growing out of peculiar and fortuitous 

The art of drilling in stone was known over an extended area in 
prehistoric times, and we find innumerable examples which must have 
been performed in both hemispheres substan 
tially in the same manner and with the same 

The art of sawing stone was alike practiced 
during prehistoric times in the two hemispheres. 
Many specimens have been found in the prehis 
toric deposits of both. 

The aboriginal art of making pottery was also 
carried on in the same or a similar manner in 
both hemispheres. The examples of this art 
are as numerous as the leaves on the trees. 
There Avere differences in the manipulation and 
treatment, but the principal fact remains that 
the art was the same in both countries. ]STot 
only were the products greatly similaiybut the 
same style of geometric decoration by incised 
lines is common to both. Greater progress in 
making pottery Avas made in the Western than 
in the Eastern Hemisphere during prehistoric 

The wheel was unknown in both hemispheres, 
and in both the manipulation of clay was by 
hand. True, in the Western Hemisphere there 
was greater dexterity and a greater number of methods employed. 
For example, the vase might be built up with clay inside a basket, 
which served to give both form and decoration 5 it was coiled, the 
damp clay being made in a string and so built up by a circular move 
ment, drawing the side in or out as the string of clay was laid thereon, 
until it reached the top ; it may have been decorated by the pressure 
of a textile fabric, real or simulated, into the damp clay. A few years 
ago it would have been true to have said that pottery decorated in this 
manner was peculiar to the Western Hemisphere, and that it had never 
been found in the Eastern Hemisphere, but Prince Poutjatine has 
lately found on his property, Bologoje, in the province of Novgorod, 
midway between Moscow and St. Petersburg, many pieces of prehis 
toric pottery which bear evidence of having been made in this manner, 

. 374. 



ami while it may l>e rare in the Eastern Hemisphere, it is similar in 
these respects to thousands of pieces of prehistoric pottery in North 

One of the great puzzles for archaeologists has been the prehistoric 
jade implements found in both countries. The raw material of which 
these were made has never been found in sufficient quantities to justify 
anyone in saying that it is indigenous to one hemisphere and not to the 
other. It may have been found in either hemisphere and exported to 
the other. But of this we have no evidence except the discovery in 
both of implements made of the same material. This material is dense 
and hard. It is extremely difficult to work, yet the operations of saw 
ing, drilling, carving, and polishing appear to have been conducted in 
both hemispheres with such similarity as that the result is practically 
the same. 

/Prehistoric flint-chipping was also carried on in both hemispheres with 
such similarity of results, even when performing the most difficult and 
delicate operations, as to convince one that there must have been some 
communication between the two peoples who performed them. 
, / The bow and arrow is fairly good evidence of prehistoric migration, 
because of the singularities of the form and the intricacies of the 
machinery, and because it is probably the earliest specimen of a 
machine of two separate parts, by the use of which a missile could be 
sent at a greater distance and with greater force than if thrown by 
hand. It is possible that the sling was invented as early as the bow 
and arrow, although both were prehistoric and their origin unknown. 

The bow and arrow was the greatest of all human inventions greatest 
in that it marked man s first step in mechanics, greatest in adaptation 
of means to the end, and as an invented machine it manifested in the 
most practical and marked manner the intellectual and reasoning 
power of man and his superiority over the brute creation. It, more 
than any other weapon, demonstrated the triumph of man over the 
brute, recognizing the limitations of human physical capacity in con 
tests with the brute. With this machine, man first successfully made 
up for his deficiency in his contests with his enemies and the capture 
of his game. It is useless to ask anything of history about the begin 
nings of the bow and arrow; wherever history appears it records the 
prior existence, the almost universal presence, and the perfected use 
of the bow and arrow as a weapon. Yet this machine, so strange and 
curious, of such intricacy of manufacture and difficulty of successful 
performance, had with all its similarities and likenesses extended in 
prehistoric times almost throughout the then inhabited globe. It is 
useless to specify the time, for the bow and arrow existed earlier than 
any time of which we know; it is useless for us to specify places, for 
it was in use throughout the world wherever the world was occupied 
by neolithic man. 

Imitative creature as was man, and slow and painful as were his 
steps in progress and in invention during his infancy on earth, when 


he knew nothing and had everything yet to learn, it is sufficiently won 
derful that he should have invented the bow and arrow as a projectile 
machine for his weapons; but it becomes doubly and trebly improba 
ble that he should have made duplicate and independent inventions 
thereof in the different hemispheres. If we are to suppose this, why 
should we be restricted to a separate invention for each hemisphere, 
and why may we not suppose that he made a separate invention for 
each country or each distant tribe within the hemisphere? Yet we are 
met with the astonishing but, nevertheless, true proposition that 
throughout the entire world the bow and arrow existed in the early 
times mentioned, and was substantially the same machine, made in the 
same way, and serving the same purpose. 


The argument in this paper on the migration of arts or symbols, and 
with them of peoples in prehistoric times, is not intended to be exhaust 
ive. At best it is only suggestive. 

There is no direct evidence available by which the migration of sym 
bols, arts, or peoples in prehistoric times can be proved, because the 
events are beyond the pal&-o44J story. Therefore we are, everybody is, 
driven to the secondary evidence of the similarity of conditions and 
products, and we can only subject them to our reason and at last deter 
mine the truth from the probabilities. In proportion as the probabili 
ties of migration increase, it more nearly becomes a demonstrated fact. 
It appears to the author that the probabilities of the migration of the 
Swastika to America from the Old World is infinitely greater than that 
it was an independent invention. 

The Swastika is found in America in such widely separated places, 
among such different civilizations, as much separated by time as by 
space, that if we have to depend on the theory of separate inventions 
to explain its introduction into America we must also depend upon the 
same theorvjbr its introduction into the widely separated parts of 
America. (The Swastika of the ancient mound builders of Ohio and 
Tennessee is similar in every respect, except material, to that of the 
modern Xavajo and Pueblo Indianj Yet the Swastikas of Mississippi 
and Tennessee belong to the oldest civilization we know in Americai 
while the Kavajo and Pueblo Swastikas were made by men still living.) 
A consideration of the conditions bring out these two curious facts: (1)"\ 
That the Swastika had an existence in America prior to any historic/ 
knowledge we have of communication between the two hemispheres ;? 
but (2) we find it continued in America and used at the present day, ) 
while the knowledge of it has long since died out in Europe. 

The author is not unaware of the new theories concerning the paral 
lelism of human development by which it is contended that absolute 
uniformity of man s thoughts and actions, aims and methods, is pro 
duced when he is in the same degree of development, no matter in 
what country or in what epoch he lives. This theory has been pushed 


until it has been said, nothing but geographical environment seems to 
modify the monotonous sameness of man s creations. The author does 
not accept this theory, yet he does not here controvert it. It may be 
true to a certain extent, but it surely/has its limitations, and it is only 
applicable under special conditions. /As a general proposition, it might 
iyjjpply to races and peoples but not to individuals. If it builds on the 
hereditary human instincts, it does not take into account the will, 
energy, and reasoning powers of man. Most of all, it leaves out the 

1 egoism of man and his selfish desire for power, improvement, and happi- 

\ness, and all their effects, through the individual, on human progress. 
In the author s opinion the progress of peoples through consecutive 
stages of civilization is entirely compatible with his belief that knoAvl- 
edge of specific objects, the uses of material things, the performance 
of certain rites, the playing of certain games, the possession of cer 
tain myths and traditions, and the carrying on of certain industries, 
passed from one country to another by migration of their peoples, or by 
contact or communication between them; and that the knowledge, by 
separate peoples, of the same things, within reason able bounds of simi- 
ilarity of action and purpose, and with corresponding difficulty of per- 
fyrmance, may well be treated as evidence of such migration, contact, or 
(Jommu ideation. Sir John Lubbock expresses the author s belief when 
ie says, ] " There can be no doubt but that man originally crept over 
the earth s surface, little by little, year by year, just, for instance, as the 
weeds ot Europe are now gradually but surely creeping over the surface 
of Australia." The word migration has been used by the author in 
any sense that permitted the people, or any number thereof, to pass 

\ from one country to another country, or from one section of a country 
to another section of the same country, by any means or in any num- 

/ bers as they pleased or could. 

The theory (in opposition to the foregoing) is growing in the United 
States that any similarity of culture between the two hemispheres is 
held to be proof of migration of peoples. It appears to the author that 
these schools both run to excess in propagating their respective theories, 
and that the true condition of affairs lies midway between them. That 
is to say, there was certain communication between the two hemi 
spheres, as indicated by the similarities in culture and industry, the 
objects of which could scarcely have been the result of independent 
invention while there are too many dissimilar arts, habits, customs, 
and modes of life belonging to one hemisphere only, not common to 
both, to permit us to say there was continuous communication between 
them. These dissimilarities were inventions of each hemisphere inde 
pendent of the other. 

An illustration of~the migration to America is. tlia culture of Greece. 
We know that Greek art and architecture enter into and form an 
important part of the culture of Americans of the present day; yet 

1 " Prehistoric Man," p. 601. 


the people_oAmerica.are-44ot Greek, nor do they possess any consid- 
erable^TIare of Greek culture or civilization. They have none of the 
blood of the Greeks, nor their physical traits, nor their manners, habits, 
customs, dress, religion, nor, indeed, anything except their sculpture and 
architecture. Now, there was undoubtedly communication between th3 
two countries in so far as pertains to art and architecture; but it la 
equally true that there has been no migration of the other elements of 
civilization mentioned. 

The same thing may be true with regard to the migrations of pre 
historic civilization. There may have been communication between the 
countries by which such objects as the polished stone hatchet, the bow^7 
and arrow, the leaf-shaped implement, chipped arrow- and spear-heads, I 
scrapers, spindle- whorls, the arts of pottery making, of weaving, ofJ 
drilling and sawing stone, etc., passed from one to the ojther, and the 
sam^ofjhe^ Swastika; yet these may all have been brought^rver in spo 
radic and isolated cases, importing simply the germ of their knowledge, 
leaving the industry to be independently worked out on this side. Cer 
tain manifestations of culture, dissimilar to those of the Old World, 
are found in America; we have the rude notched ax, the grooved ax, 
stemmed scraper, perforator, mortar and pestle, pipes, tubes, the cere 
monial objects which are found here in such infinite varieties of shape 
and form, the rnetate, the painted pottery, etc., all of which belong to 
the American Indian civilization, but have no prototype in the prehis 
toric Old World. These things were never brought over by migration 
or otherwise. They are indigenous to America. 

Objects common to both hemispheres exist in such numbers, of such 
infinite detail and difficulty of manufacture, that the probabilities of 
their migration or passage from one country to another is infinitely 
greater than that they were the result of independent invention. These 
common objects are not restricted to isolated cases. They are great in 
number and extensive in area. They have been the common tools and 
utensils such as might have belonged to^every man, and no reason is 
knowft why they might not Iiave~T)een used by, and so represent, the 
millions of prehistoric individuals in either hemisphere. This great 
number of correspondences between the two hemispheres, and their 
similarity as to means and results is good evidence of migration, con 
tact, or communication between the peoples; Avhile the extent to which 
the common industries were carried in the two continents, their delicacy^ 
and difficulty of operation, completes the proof and forces convictions 

It is not to be understood in the few foregoing illustrations that the 
number is thereby exhausted, or that all have been noted which are 
within the knowledge of the author. These have been cited as illustra 
tive of the proposition and indicating possibilities of the argument. If a 
completed argument in favor of prehistoric communication should be pre 
pared, it would present many other illustrations. These could be found, 
not only among the objects of industry, utensils, etc., but in the modes 
of manufacture and of use which, owing to their number and the extent 
of territory which they cover, and the difficulty of accomplishment, 
would add force to the argument. 




8, pp. i-vi, 1-820. 
Swastika regarded as 
Bronze A<;e, p. 233. 

ornament m the 

ABBOTT, CHARLES C. Primitive Indus 
try: | or | Illustrations of the Handi 
work, | in stone, bone and clay, | of i 
the | Native Races | of | the Northern 
Atlantic Seaboard of America. | By 
Charles C. Abbott, M. D. | Cor. Mem 
ber Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., | Fellow 
Royal Soc. | of Antiq. of the North. 
Copenhagen. etc., etc., | Salem, Mass. : | 
George; A. Bates. | 1881. 

8, pp. v-vi, 1-560, fig. 429. 

Grooved ax, Pemberton, N. J. Inscription 
of Swastika denounced as a fraud, p. 32. 

ALLEN, E. A. The | Prehistoric World | 
or | Vanished Races | by | E. A. Al 
len, | author of "The Golden Gems of 
Life." | Each of the Following well- 
known Scholars reviewed one or more | 
Chapters, and made valuable sugges 
tions: | C. C. Abbott, M. D., | Prof. 
F. W. Pntnam, | A. F. Bandelier, | 
Prof. Chas. Rau, | Alexander Winchell, 
LL. D., | Cyrus Thoui:is, Ph. D. | G. F. 
Wright. | Cincinnati: | Central Pub 
lishing House. I 1885. 

ental Journal. 

Vol. VI, Jan., 1884, p. 02. 

Swastika found in a tessellated Mosaic, pave 
ment of Jloman ruins at Wivelescombe, Eng 
land ; reported by Cornelius Nicholson, F. G. S., 
cited in Munro s "Ancient Scottish Lake 
Dwellings," note, p. 132. 


Title, Cross. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL of Archa-ology 
and of the History of Fine Arts. 

Vol. xi, No. 1, Jan.-March, 1806, p. 11, lig. 10. 
Andokides, a Greek vase painter (525 15. C.), 
depicted Athena on an amphora with her dress 
decorated with many ogee and meander Swas 
tikas. The specimen is in the Berlin Museum. 

ANDERSON, JOSEPH. Scotland in Early 
Christian Times. 

The, Swastika, though of Pagan origin, became 
a Christian symbol from the fourth to the four 
teenth century, A. I). Vol. n, p. 218. 

Cited in "Munro s Ancient Scottish Lake 
Dwellings," note, p. 132. 

BALFOUR, EDWARD. Cyclopaedia of 
India | and of | Eastern and Southern 
Asia, | Commercial. Industrial, and 
Scientific: ] Products of the | Mineral, 
Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, | 
Useful Arts and Manufactures ; | edited 
by | Edward Balfour, L. R. C. S. E., | 
Inspector General of Hospitals, Madras 
Medical Department, | Fellow of the 
University of Madras, | Corresponding 
Member of the Imperial Geologic Insti 
tute, Vienna. | Second Edition. | Vol. 
V. | Madras: | Printed at the Law 
rence and Adelphi Presses, | 1873. | 

8, pp. 1-95G. 
Title, Swastika, p. 656. 

BARING-GOULD, S. Curious Myths | 
of | the Middle Ages. | By | S. Baring- 
Gould, M. A., | New York: | Hurst cV 
Co., Publishers, | No. 122 Nassau street. 

12, pp. 1-272. 
Title, "Legends of the Cross," pp. 159-185. 

BERLIN SOCIETY for Anthropology, 
Ethnology, and Prehistoric Researches, 
Sessional report of . 

Ill, 1871 ; VIII, July 15, 187G, p. 9. 

BLAKE, WILLSON W. The Cross, | An 
cient and Modern. | By | Willson W. 
Blake. | (Design) | New York: | Ausou 
D. F. Randolph and Company. | 1888. 
8, pp. 1-52. 

Inscribed Monuments | of the | Gaed- 
hil | in the | British Islands | with a 
dissertation on the Ogam character, 
&c. | Illustrated with lifty Photo 
lithographic plates | by the late | 
Richard Ifolt Brash, M. R. I. A., F. S. A. 
Scot. | Fellow of the Royal Society of | 
Ireland; and author of "The Ecclesi 
astical | Architecture of Ireland." | 
Edited by George M. Atkinson | Lon 
don : | George Bell &. Sous, York street, 
Covent Garden | 1879. 

4, pp. i-xvi, 1-425. 

Swastikas on Ogam stone at Aglish (Ireland), 
pi. xxiv, pp. 187-189; on Newton stone Aber- 
deenshire, (Scot.), pi. x MX, p. 359; Logic stone, 
(Scot.), pi. XLVin, p. 358; Bressay, (Scot.), pi. 



BRINTON, DANIEL G. The Ta Ki, the 
Swastika, and tlie Cross in America. 

Proceeding. y American Philosophical Society, 
xxvi, 1889, pp. 177-187. 

- The | Myths of the New World : | A 
treatise | on the | Symbolism and My 
thology | of the | Red Race of America. 
| By | Daniel G. Brinton, A.M.,M. D., 
| Member of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, of the Numismatic | and 
Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia; j 
Corresponding Member | of the Ameri 
can Ethnological Society ; Author of 
"Notes | on the Floridiau Peninsula," 
etc. | (Design) | New York: | Leypoldt 
& Holt. | 1868. - 

8, pp. i-viii, 1-307. 
The cross of Mexico, pp. 95-97, 183-188. 

American | Hero-Myths. | A study of 

the Native Religions | of the Western 
Continent. | By | Daniel G. Brinton, 
M. D., | Member of the American Philo 
sophical Society ; the American | Anti 
quarian Society; the Numismatic and ; 
Antiquarian | Society of Phila., etc.; 
Author of "The Myths of | tlie New 
World;" "The Religious Senti- | ment," 
etc. | Philadelphia: | H. C. Watts &. 
Co., | 506 Minor Street, | 1882. 

8, pp. i-xvi, 1-251. 

Symbol of the cross in Mexico. The rain god, 
the tree of lii e, and the god of strength, p. 122; 
in Palenque, the four rain gods, p. 155; the 
Muscayas, light, sun, p. 222. 

BROWNE, G. F. Basket-work figures 
of men on sculptured stones. Trique- 

ArchcKohxjia, Vol. L, 1887, pt. 2, p. 291, pi. 
XXIII, fig. 7. 

BURGESS, JAMES. Archaeological Sur 
vey of Western India. Vol. iv. | Re 
port | on the | Buddhist Cave Tem 
ples | and | Their Inscriptions I Being 
Part of | The Results of tlie Fourth, 
Fifth, and Sixth Seasons Operations j 
of the Archaeological Survey of West 
ern India, | 1876-77, 1877-78, 1878-79. | 
Supplementary to the Volume on "Cave 
Temples of India." | By | Jas. Burgess, 
LL. D., F. R. G. S., | Member of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, of the Socic"t6 
Asiatique, &c. | Archaeological Sur 
veyor and Reporter to Government [ 
for Western and Southern India, | Lon- 

BURGESS, JAMES continued. 

don: | Triibner & Co., Ludgate Hill. | 
1883. I (All rights reserved.) 

Folio, pp. 140. 
Inscriptions with Swastika, vol. iv, pis. XLIV, 

XLVI, XLVII, XLIX, L, LIT, LV ; vol. V, pi. LI. 

The I Indian Antiquary, | A Journal 
of Oriental Research | in j Archaeology, 
History, Literature, Languages, Folk- 
Lore, &c., &c., | Edited by | Jas. Bur 
gess, M. R. A. S., F. R. G. S. | 3vols., 
1872-74, | Bombay: | Printed at the 
"Times of India" Office. | London: 
Triibner & Co. Paris: E. Leroux. 
Berlin: Asher & Co. Leipzig: F. A. 
Brockhaus. | New York : Westerniann 
& Co. Bombay : Thacker,Vining & Co. 

4, Vols. i-lll. 

Twenty-lour Jain Saints, Suparsva, son of 
Pratishtha by Prithoi, one of which signs was 
the Swastika. Vol. n, p. 135. 

BURNOUF, EMILE. Le | Lotus de la 
Bonne Loi, | Traduit du Sanscrit, | 
Accompague" d uu Comment aire | et 
de Vingt et uu Mdmoires Relatifs au 
Buddhisme, | par M. E. Burnouf, | 
Secretaire Perpotuel de TAcademie des 
Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. | (Pic 
ture) | Paris. | Imprime par Autorisa- 
tion du Gouvernement | a rimprimerie 
Nationale. | MDCCCLII. 
Folio, pp. 1-897. 

Svastikaya, Append, vm, p. 625. 

Nandavartaya, p. G2G. 

The | Science of Religious | by Emile 

Burnouf | Translated by Julie Liebe | 
with a preface by j E. J. Rapsou, 
M. A., M.R. A. S. | Fellow of St. John s 
College, Cambridge | London | Swan, 
Sonneuscheiu, Lowrey & Co., | Pater 
noster Square. | 1888. 

Swastika, its relation to the myth of Agni, the 
god of tire, and its alleged identity with the nre- 
ITOSS, pp. 165, 253-256, 257. 

BURTON, RICHARD F. The | Book of the 
Sword | by | Richard F. Burton | Ma1- 
tre d Armes (Brevette) | (Design) | 
With Numerous Illustrations j Lon 
don | Chatto and Windus, Piccadilly | 
1884 | (All rights reserved). 

4, pp. 299. 
Swastika sect, p. 202, note 2. 

CARNAC, H. RIVKTI, Memorandum on 
Clay Disks called "Spindle-whorls" 
and votive Seals found at Saukisa, 



CARNAC, H. RIVETT continued. 

Behar, and other Buddhist ruins in 
the Northwestern provinces of India. 
(With three plates). 

Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. XLIX, 
pt. 1, 1880, pp. 127-137. 

CARTAILHAC, MILE. Resultats d Une 
Mission Scientilique | dti | Ministere 
de rinstruction Publique | Les j ages 
Prehistoriques | de | 1 Espagne et du 
Portugal | par | M. fimiie Cartailhae, | 
Directeur des Materiaux pour 1 Histoire 
primitive de I homrne | Preface par M. 
A. De Quatrefages, de FInstitut j Avec 
Quatre Cent Cinquante Gravures et 
Quatre Planches | Paris | Ch. Rein- 
wald, Libraire | 15, Rue des Saints 
Peres, 15 1886 | Tons droits reserves. 
4, pp. i-xxxv, 1-347. 

Swastika, p. 285. 

Triskelion, p. 286. 

Totraskelion, p. 286. 

Swastika iii Mycena- and Sabraso. Are they 
of the same antiquity?, p. 293. 


Titles, Swastika, Fylfot. 
CESNOLA, Louis PALM A Di. Cyprus : | 
Its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Tem 
ples. | A Narrative of Researches and 
Excavations During | Ten Years Resi 
dence in that Island. | By | General 
Louis Palma Di Cesnola, | * * * | 

With Maps and Illustrations. * * \ 
New York: | Harper Brothers, Pub 
lishers, | Franklin Square. | 1877. 
8, pp. 1-456. 

Swastika on Cyprian pottery, pp. 210, 300, 

404, pis. XLIV, XLV, XLVII. 

CHAILLU, PAUL B. Du. The Viking 
Age | The Early History | Manners arid 
Customs of the Ancestors | of the En 
glish-Speaking Nations | Illustrated 
from | The Antiquities Discovered 
in Mounds, Cairns, and Bogs, | As Well 
as from the Ancient Sagas and Eddas. | 
By | Paul B. Du Chaillu | Author of 
" Explorations in Equatorial Africa," 
"Land of the Midnight Sun," etc. | 
With 1366 Illustrations and Map. | In 
Two Volumes f | New York : | 

Charles Scribner s Sons. | 1889. 

8, i, pp. i-xx, 1-591; n, pp. i-viii, 1-562. 

Swastika in Scandinavia. Swastika and tris- 

kelion, Vol. I, p. 100, and note 1 ; Vol. n, p. 343. 

Swastika, Cinerary urn, Boruholrn, Vol. I, tig. 

210, p. 138. Spearheads with runes, Swastika 

CHAILLU, PAUL B. Du continued. 
and Triskeliou, Torcello, Venice, fig. 335, p. 191. 
Tetraskelion on silver fihula, Vol. I, fig. 567, p. 
257, and Vol. II, fig. 1311, p. 342. Bracteates with 
Croix swasticale, Vol. II, p. 337, fig. 1292. 

CHANTRE, ERNEST. Etudes Pale oeth- 
iiologiques | dans le Bassin du Rhone | 
Age du Bronze | Recherches | sur FOri- 
gine de la Metallurgie en France | 
Par | Ernest Chautre | Premiere Par- 
tie | Industrie de FAge du Bronze | 
Paris, j Librairie Polytechnique de J. 
Baudry | 15, Rue Des Saints-Peres, 15 | 


Folio, pp. 1-258. 

- Deuxieme Partie. Gisements de 
FAge du Bronze, pp. 321. 

- Troisieme Partie. Statistique. pp. 

Swastika migration, p. 206. Oriental origin 
of the prehistoric tiistres or tintinnabula found 
in Swiss lake dwellings, Vol. I, p. 206. 

Spirals, Vol. n, fig. 1S6, p. 301. 

Notes Anthropologiques : De FOri- 
gine Orientale de la Mdtallurgie. Iu-8, 
avec planches. Lyon, 1879. 

Notes Aiithropologiques. Relations 
entre les Sistres Bouddhiques et cer 
tains Objets Lacustres de FAge du 
Bronze. In-8. Lyon, 1879. 

L Age de la Pierre et FAge du Bronze 
en Troade et en Grece. In-8. Lyoii, 

L Age de la Pierre et FAge du Bronze 
dans FAsie Occidentale. (Bull. Soc. 
Anth., Lyon, t. I, fasc. 2, 1882.) 

Prehistoric Cemeteries in Caucasus. 
(Necropoles prehistoriques du Caucase, 
reuferment des cranes macrocephales.) 

Materiaux, seizieme annee (16), 2" serie, 

xii, 1881. 
Swastika, p. 166. 

Travds de los Siglos | Historia General 
y Completa del Desenvolviiniento So 
cial, j Politico, Religiose, Militar, Artis- 
tico, Cientifico, y Literario de -Mdxico 
desde la Autigiiedad | Ma s Remota 
hasta la fipoca Actual | * * | Publicada 
bajo la Direcci6n del General | D.Vi 
cente Riva Palacio | " | * | * | * | * | 
Tomo Primero | Historia Antigua y de 
laConquista | EscritaporelLicenciado 
| D. Alfredo Chavero. | Mexico | Bal- 



CHAVERO, D. ALFREDO continued, 
lesca y Comp.% Editores | 4, Amor de 
Dios, 4. 

Folio pp. i-lx, 1-926. 

Ciclo de 52 anos. (Atlas del P. Diego Duran, 
p. 386.) Swastika worked on shell (Fains 
Island), "labrado con los cuatro puntos del 
Nalmi Ollin" p. 670. 

CLAVIGERO, C. F. Storia Antica del 
Messico. Ces ena, 1780. 

Swastika, n, p. 192, fig. A. Cited in Hamy s 
Decades Americanae, Premiere Livraison, 1884, 
p. 67. 

CONDER, Maj. C. R. Notes on Herr 
Schick s paper on the Jerusalem Cross. 
Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly State 
ment, London, July, 1894, pp. 205, 206. 

CROOKE, W. An Introduction | to 
the | Popular Religion and Folk-lore | 
of | Northern India | By W. Crooke, 
B. A. | Bengal Civil Service. | Honor 
ary Director of the Ethnographical 
Survey, Northwestern | Provinces and 
Oudh | Allahabad | Government 
Press | 1894. 

8, pp. i-ii, 1-420. 
Swastika, pp. 7, 58, 104, 250. 

CROSS, The. The Masculine Cross, or 
History of Ancient and Modern Crosses, 
and their Connection with the Mys 
teries of Sex Worship ; also an account 
of the Kindred Phases of Phallic Faiths 
and Practices. 

In Cat. 105 of Ed. Howeil, Church street, 

Migration des Symboles | par | Le 
Comte Goblet d Alviella, | Professeur 
d Histoire des Religions a I Universitd 
de Bruxelles, | Membre de I Academie 
Royale de Belgique, | President de la 
Societ6 d Archoologie de Bruxelles | 
(Design, Footprint of Buddha) | Paris | 
Ernest Leroux, Editetir | Rue Bona 
parte, 28 | 1891. 
8, pp. 1-343. 

Cross, pp. 16, 110, 113, 164, 250, 264, 330, 332. 

Crux ansata, pp. 22, 106, 107, 114, 186, 221, 229, 
250, 265, 332. 

Cross of St. Andrew, p. 125. 

Swastika cross, Cap. II, passim, pp. 41-108, 
110, 111, 225, 271, 339. 

Tetraskelion. Same references. 

Triskele, triskelion, or triquetrum, pp. 27,28, 
61, 71, 72, 83, 90, 100, 221-225, 271, 339. 

Reviewed in Athenceum, No. 3381, Aug. 13, 
1892, p. 217. 


Favorably criticised in Reliquary Illustrated 
Archaeologist (Lond.), Vol. I, No. 2, Apr. 1895, 
p. 107. 

DAVENPORT. Aphrodisiacs. 

The author approves Higgiiis views of the 
Cross and its Relation to the Lama of Tibet. 

DENNIS, G. The | Cities and Cemeter 
ies | of | Etruria. | Parva Tyrrhennrn 
per aequor vela darem. Horat. | (Pic 
ture) | By George Dennis. | Third 
Edition. | In two volumes | * * * \ 
With maps, plans, and illustrations. | 
London : | John Murray, Albemarle 
Street. | 1883. 

8, two vols.: (1), pp. i-cxxviii, 1-501; (2) 
pp. i-xv, 1-579. 

Archaic Greek vase, British Museum. Four 
different styles of Swastikas together on one 
specimen. Vol. i, p. xci. 

Swastika, common form of decoration, p. 

Primitive Greek Lebes, with Swastika in 
panel, left, p. cxiii, fig. 31. 

Swastika on bronze objects in Bologna foun 
dry. Vol. n, p. 537. 

D EICHTAL, G. Etudes sur les origines 
bouddhiques de la civilization am6ri- 
caine, l r(1 partie. Paris, Didier, 1862. 

Swastika, p. 36 et suiv. Cited in Hamy s 
Decades Americance, Premiere Livraison, 1884, 
p. 59. 

THROPOLOGIQUES. Anatomie, Craniolo- 
gie, Archdologie Prehistorique, Ethno 
graphic (Moeurs, Arts, Industrie). D6- 
mographie, Langues, Religions. Paris, 
Octave Doin, E\liteur, 8, Place de 
1 Odeon, Marpon et Flammarion, Li- 
braires 1 a 7, Galeries de TOdeon. 

4, pp. 1-1128. 
Title, Swastika, Philippe Salmon, p. 1032. 

DORSET, J. OWEN. Swastika, Ogee 
(tetraskelion), symbol for wind-song on 
Sacred Chart of Kansa Indians. 

Am. Naturalist, xix (1885), p. 676, pi. xx, 
fig. 4. 

DULAURE, J, A. Histoire Abre\gee | de 
| Diffdrens Cultes. | Des Cultes | qui 
ont prdce~de et amend 1 Idolatrie | on | 
1 Adoration des figures humaines | par 
J. A. Dulaure; seconde Edition | revue, 
corrigee et augmentde | Paris | Guil- 
laume, Libraire-Editeur | rue Haute- 
fenille 14. | 1825. 

Two vols. : (1), pp. i-x, 11-558; (2), pp. i-xvi, 



DULAURE, .7. A. continued. 

Origin of symbols, works of art and not nat 
ural things, Vol. I, pp. 25, 2G. Another result 
of a combination of ideas, p. 45. 

The cross represents the phallus, Vol. II, pp. 
58, 59, 167, 1G8. 

et la roue Solairo en Chine. 

Revue d Ethnographic, Paris, iv, 1885, pp. 

lleview by G. De Mortillet, Materiaux pour 
I Hiatoire Primitive ctNatnrelledeL Homme, 
II, p. 730. 

Myths | or | Legends, Traditions, and 
Symbols of the | Aborigines of Amer 
ica | Compared witli those of other 
Countries, including Hindostan, Egypt, 
Persia | Assyria and China | hy Ellen 
Russell Emerson | Member of the Soci- 
c"te Ame"ricaino de France | illustrated 
| Second Edition | London | Triibner 
& Company | Lndgate Hill | Printed 
in the U.S. A. 

8, pp. i-x, 1-425. 

Titles, Ansated Cross (Crux ansata), p. 230, 
Vol. I; Cross, p. 1362, Vol. II; Crux, p. 1378, 
Vol. II; Fylfot, p. 2240, Vol. II; Gammadion, 
p. 2250, Vol. II. 

Title, Cross. 4, pp. 539-542. 
ENGLEHARDT, C. Influence Classique 
sur | le Nord Pendant I Antiquittf | par 
| C. Englehardt, | Tradnit par | E. 
Beanvois. | Copenhagne, | Imprimeric 
de Thiele. | 1876. 

8, pp. 199-318. 

Solar disks, fig. 44, p. 240. Crosses, figs. 64, 
65. p. 252. 

ETHNOLOGY, Reports of the Bureau of. 
Second Annual Report, 1880-81. 

Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans, by 
W. II. Holmes, pp. 179-305, pis. XXI-LXXVII. 

Collections made in New Mexico and Arizona 
in 1879, by James Stevenson, pp. 307-422, figs. 

Third Annual Report, 1881-82. 

Catalogue of Collections made in 1881, by 
W. H. Holmes, pp. 427-510, figs. 116-200. 

Fourth Annual Report, 1882-83. 

Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi Valley, by 
W. H. Holmes, pp. 361-436, figs. 361-463. 

Fifth Annual Report, 1883-84. 

Burial Mounds of Northern Sections of the 
"United States, by Cyrus Thomas, pp. 3-119, pis. 
l-vi, figs. 1-49. 

The Mountain Chant, by Washington Mat 
thews, pp. 379-467, pis. X-xvill, figs. 50-59. 

ETHNOLOGY, Reports of the Bureau 
of continued. 
Sixth Annual Report, 1884-85. 

Ancient Art in the Province of Chiriqui, by 
W. IT. Holmes pp. 3-187, pi. I, figs. 1-285. 

Tenth Annual Report, 1888-89. 

Picture writing of the American Indians, by 
Garrick Mallery. pp. 3-807, pis. i-uv, figs. 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1SUO-01. 

Mound Explorations, by Cyrus Thomas, pp. 
3-730, pis. l-xui, figs. 1-344. 

EVANS, JOHN. The Ancient | Bronze 
Implements, | Weapons, and Orna 
ments, | of | Great Britain | and | 
Ireland. | By | John Evans, D. C. L., 
LL. D., F. R, S., | F. S. A., F. G. S., 
Pros. Num. Soc., &c., | London: | 
Longmans, Green &. Co. | 1881. | (All 
rights reserved.) 

8, pp. i-xix, 1-509. 

- The Ancient | Stone Implements, | 
Weapons, and Ornaments, | of | ftreat 
Britain, | by | John Evans, F. R. S., 
F. S. A. | Honorary Secretary of the 
Geological and Numismatic Societies 
of | London, etc., etc., etc. | London: | 
Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. | 
1872. | (All rights reserved.) 
80, pp. 1-xvi, 1-640. 

FAIRHOLT, F. W. A Dictionary | of | 
Terms in Art. | Edited and Illustrated 
by | F. W. FairhoH, F. S. A. | with | 
Five Hundred Engravings | On Wood 
| (Design) | Daldy, Isbister & Co. | 
50, Ludgate Hill, London. 

12 pp. i-vi, 1-474. 
Titles, Cross, Fret, Fylfot, Symbolism. 

uments | in | All Countries; | Their 
Ages and Uses. | By James Fergusson, 
I). C. L., F. R. S, | V. P. R. A. S., F. R. I. 
B. A., &.c. | (Picture.) | With Two 
Hundred and Thirty-four Illustrations. 
| London : | John Murray, Albemarle 
Street. | 1872. | The Right of transla 
tion is reserved. 

8, pp. i-xix, 1-559. 
Crosses, Celtic and Scottish, pp. 270-273. 

FORRER, R. Die | Graeber- und Textil- 
funde | von | Achmim-Panopolis | 
von | R. Forrer | mit 1(5 Tafelu: 250 
Abbildungen | in Photographic, Auto 
graphic, Farbendruck und theilweisom 



FORRER, R. continued. 

Handcolorit, ncbst Clinchc-Abbildun- 
gen | im Text; Text uiid Tafeln atif 
Cartoupapier. | Nur in wenigeii nuni- 
inerirtenExemplareuhergestellt. | (De 
sign.) | Strassburg, 1891 | Druck von 
EmilBirkhiiuser, Basel. | Photograpliie 
voiiMathiasGerschcl, Strassburg. | Au- 
tographio und Farbendrnck von R. 
Fretz, Ziirich. | Nicht im Buchliaudel. 

Folio, pp. 1-27. 

Swastika, ornament at Achmin-Pauopolis, 
Egypt, P- 20, pi. xi, fig. 3. 

FRANKLIN, Colonel. [Swastika an em 
blem used ill the worship of specilied 
sects in India.*] 

The Jeyrees and Jloodhists, p. 49, cited in 
"Ogam Monuments," by Brash, p. 189. 

FRANKS, AUGUSTUS W. Hone ferales. 
PI. 30, fig. 19. 

GARDNER, ERNEST A. Naukratis. 
Part II. | By | Ernest A. Gardner, 
M. A., | Fellow of Gonville and Cains 
College, Craven student and formerly 
Worts student of the University of 
Cambridge; | Director of the British 
School of Archeology at Athens. | With 
an Appendix | by | F. L.L. Griffith, B. 
A., | of the British Museum, formerly 
student of the Egyptian Exploration 
Fund. | Sixth Memoir of | the Egypt 
Exploration Fund. | Published by or 
der of the committee. | London : etc. 
Folio, pis. 1-24, pp. 1-92. Swastika in Egypt, 

Pottery, Aphrodite. PI. v, figs. 1, 7; pi. vi, 

fig. 1; pi. Vlii, fig. 1. 

GREG, P. R. Fret or Key Ornamenta 
tion in Mexico and Peru. 

Archceologia, Vol. XLVII, 1882, pt. l,pp. 157- 
160, pi. vi. 

Meaning and Origin of Fylfot and 


Archaioloyia, Vol. XLVIII, 1885, pt. 2, pp. 293, 
326, pis. xix, xx, xxi. 

mar of | the Lotus j A new History of 
Classic Ornament | as a | development 
of Sun Worship | with Observations on 
the Bronze Culture of Prehistoric 
Europe as derived | from Egypt; based 
on the study of Patterns | by | Wm. 
H. Goodyear, M. A. (Yale, 1867) | 
Curator Department of Fine Arts in 
the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 

GOODYEAR, WILLIAM H. continued. 
Sciences | * f | London : | Samp 

son, Low, Marstou & Company | Lim 
ited | St. Dunstau s House, Fitter Lane, 
Fleet Street, E. C., | 1891. 
Chapters on Lotus and Swastika. 

GOULD, S. C. The Master s Mallet or 
the Hammer of Thor. 

Notes and Queries, (Manchester, N. II.), 
Vol. Ill (1886), pp. 93-108. 

HADDON, ALFRED C. Evolution in 
Art: | As Illustrated by the | Life-His 
tories of Designs. | By | Alfred C.Had- 
don, | Professor of Zoology, Royal Col 
lege of Science, Corresponding | Mem 
ber of the Italian Society of Anthro 
pology, etc. | With 8 Plates, and 130 
Figures in the Text. | London : | Wal 
ter Scott, Ltd., Paternoster Square. | 
Charles Scribner s Sons, | 153-157 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. | 1895. 

The meaning and distribution of the Fylfot, 
pp. 282-399. 

HAMPEL, JOSEPH. Antiquite"s prc"his- 
toriques de la Hougrie ; Erstegom, 1877. 
No. 3, pi. xx. 

Catalogue de FExpositiou pr6his- 
toriqne dos Musdes de Province ; Buda 
pest, 1876, p. 17. 

HAMY, Dr. E. T. Decades Americana; | 
M6moires | d Arche ologie et d Ethno- 
graphie | Americaiiies | par | le Dr. E.- 
T. Hamy | Conservateur du Mus<5o 
d Ethnographie du Trocadero. | Pre 
miere Livraison | (Picture) | Paris | 
Ernest Leroux, Editeur | Librniredela 
Socie tc Asiatiquo | de 1 I^cole des Lan- 
gues Orieiitales Vivantes, etc. | 28, Rue 
Bonaparte, 28 | 1884. 

8, pp. 1-07. 

Le Svastika et la roue aolaire en Ameriquo, 
pp. 59-67. 

HEAD, BARCLAY V. Synopsis of the 
Contents | of the | British Museum. | 
Department of | Coins and Medals. | 
A Guide | to the principal gold and sil 
ver | Coins of the Ancients, | from circa 
B. C. 700 to A. D. 1. | With 70 Plates. | 
By | Barclay V. Head, Assistant Keeper 
of Coins. | Second Edition. | London: | 
Printed by order of the Trustees. | 
Longmans &, Co., Paternoster Row; B. 
Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly; | A. Asher & 
Co., 13, Bedford Street, Convent Gar- 



HEAD, BARCLAY V. continued. 

den, and at Berlin; | Triilmer & Co., 
57 and 59, Ludgate Hill. | C. Rolliu & 
Feuardent, 61, Great Russell Street, and 
4, Rue de Louvoia, Paris. | 1881. 

8, pp.i-viii, 1-128, pl.70. 

Triskelion, (Lycian coins), throe cocks heads, 
pi. 3, fig. 35. 

Punch-marks on ancient coins representing 
squares, etc., and not Swastika. PL 1, figs. 1, 3; 
pi. 4, fig. 24 ; pi. 4, figs. 7, 8, 10 ; pi. 5, fig. 1C ; pi. 6, 
figs. 30, 31 ; pi. 12, figs. 1, 3, 6. 

HIGGJNS, GODFREY. Anacalypsis \ or | 
attempts to draw aside the veil | of | 
the Saitic Isis | or, | an inquiry into the 
origin | of | Languages, Nations, and 
Religions | by | Godfrey Higgins, 
Esq. | F. S. A., F. R. Asiat! Soc., F. R. 
Ast. S. | of Skellow Grange, near 
Doncaster. | London | Longman, &c., 
&c., Paternoster Row | 1836. 

Vols. I, II. 

Origin of the Cross, Lambh or Lama; official 
name for Governor is Ancient Tibetan for 
Cross. Vol. I, p. 230. 

HIRSCHFELD, G. Vasi arcaici Ateuiesi. 
Roma, 1872. Tav. xxxix and XL. 

HOLMES, W. H. Art in Shell of the 
Ancient Americans. 

Second Ann. Rep. ^Bureau of Ethnology 1880-81. 

The cross, pis. xxxvi, LII, LIII. Spirals, pis. 
LIV, LV, LVI. Swastika, (sliell gorget, the bird,) 
pis. LVIII, LIX. Spider, pi. LXi. Serpent, pis. 
LXIII, LXIV. Human face, pi. LXIX. Human 
figure, pis. LXXI, LXXII, LXXIII. Fighting fig 
ures, pi. LXXIV. 

Catalogue of Bureau Collections 

made in 1881. 

Third Ann. lie}). Bureau of Ethnology, 1881-82. 
Fighting figures, fig. 128, p. 452. 
Swastika in shell, from Fains Island, fig. 140, 
p. 466. 

Spider, same, fig. 141. 

Spirals on pottery vase, fig. 165, p. 484. 

Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi 

Fourth Ann.Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1882-83. 

Spirals on pottery, figs. 402, p. 396; 413, p. 403 ; 
415, 416, p. 404; 435, p. 416; 442, p. 421; in 
basketry, fig. 485, p. 462. 

Maltese cross, fig. 458, p. 430. 

Ancient Art in the Province of 


Sixth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1884-85. 

Conventional alligator, series of derivations 
showing stages of simplification of animal 
characters, figs. 257 to 528, pp. 173-181. 

Spindle-whorls, Chiriqui, figs. 218-220, p. 149. 

HOLMES, W. II. continued. 

- The Cross used as a Symbol by the 
Ancient Americans. 

Trans. Anthrop. Soc., Washington, D. C., II, 


Collector s Manual, (or guide to the 
numismatic student in the formation 
of | A Cabinet of Coins: | Comprising | 
An Historical and Critical Account of 
the Origin and Progress | of Coinage 
from the Earliest Period to the | Fall 
of the Roman Empire; | with [ Some 
Account of the Coinages of Modern 
Europe, | More especially of Great 
Britain. | By H. Noel Humphreys, | 
Author of "The Coins of Euglaud," 
" Ancient Coins and Medals," | etc., 
etc. | With above one hundred and fifty 
illustrations j on Wood and Steel. | 
In two volumes. | London: | H. G. 
Bolin, York Street, Convent Garden. | 

12, (1), pp. i-xxiv, 1-352; (2), pp. 353-726. 

Punch-marks on ancient coins, Vol. i. pis. 2, 
3, 4. Triquetrum, triskele or triskelion on 
coins of Sicily, Vol. I, p. 57, and note. 
Dwellings | of | Switzerland and Other 
Parts of Europe. | By | Dr. Ferdinand 
Keller | President of the Antiquarian 
Association of Zurich | Second Edition, 
Greatly Enlarged | Translated and 
Arranged | by | John Edward Lee, F. 
S. A., F. G. S. | Author of IscaSilurum 
etc. | In Two Volumes j Vol. I. (Vol. 
II) | London | Longmans, Green and 
Co. | 1878 | All rights reserved. 

8, Vol. I, text, pp. i-xv, 1-696; Vol. n, 
pis. CCVI. 

Swastika, Lake Bourget, pattern-stamp and 
pottery imprint, p. 339, note 1, pi. CLXI, figs. 
3, 4. 

LANGDON, ARTHUR G. Ornaments of 
Early Crosses of Cornwall. 

Royal Institute of Cornwall, Vol. x, pt. 1, 
May, 1890, pp. 33-96. 

teries | Among | the Mayas and the 
Quiches, | 11,500 Years Ago. | Their 
Relation to the Sacred Mysteries | of 
Egypt, Greece, Chaldea and India. | 
Free Masonry | In Times Anterior to 
The Temple of Solomon. | Illustrated. | 
By Augustus Le Plougeon, | Author 
of " Essay on | the Causes of Earth 
quakes;" " Religion of Jesus Compared 



with the | Teachings of the Church;" 
" The Monuments of Mayas and | their 
Historical Teachings." | New York : | 
Robert Macoy, 4 Barclay Street. | 1886. 

8, pp. 1G3. 
Cross and Crux ansata, p. 128. 

Mayapan and Maya Inscriptions. 

Proc. Am. Antiq. Soc., Worcester, Mass., 
April 21, 1881. 

Also printed as a separate. See pp. 15, 17, and 
figs. 7, 13, and frontispiece. 

Title, Svastika. 

McADAMS, WILLIAM. Records | of | 
Ancient Races | in tlie | Mississippi 
Valley; | Being an account of some of 
the Pictographs, sculptured | hiero 
glyphics, symbolic devices, emblems, 
and tra- | ditions of the prehistoric 
races of America, with | some sugges 
tions as to their origin. | With cuts and 
views illustrating over three hundred 
objects | and symbolic devices. | By 
Wm. McAdams, | Author of * | * 1 * | 
* | * | St. Louis: | C. R. Barns Pub 
lishing Co. | 1887. 

4, pp. i-xii, 1-120. 

Mound vessels with painted symbols, sun 
symbols, cross symbols, cross with bent arms 
(Swastika), etc., Chap, xv, pp. 62-68. 

Cites Lord Kinsborough, "Antiquities of 
Mexico," for certain forms of the cross, of which 
the first is the Swastika and the third the 
Nandavartaya Chap, xvii, pp. 62-68. 

MACRICHIE, DAVID. Ancient | and | 
Modern Britons : | A Retrospect. | 
London: | Kegan Paul, Trench & 
Co., | 1 Paternoster Square. | 1884. 

Two Yols.,8. (1), pp. i-viii, 1-401; (2), 

i-viii, 1-449. 

Sculptured stones of Scotland (p. 115), the 
Newton stone, a compound of Oriental and 
western languages (pp. 117-118). Ethnologic re 
semblances between old and new world peoples 
considered. Vol. n (app.), 

MALLERY, GARRICK. Picture writing 
of the American Indians. 

Tenth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 
1888-89, pp. 1-807, pis. I-LIV, figs. 1-1290. 

Sun and star symbols, figs. 1118-1129, pp. 694- 
697. Human form (cross) symbols, figs. 1164- 
1173, pp. 705-709. Cross symbols, figs. 122:,- 
1234, pp. 724-730. Piaroa color stamps, fret 
pattern, fig. 982, p. 621. 

MARCH, H. COLLET. The Fylfot and 
the Futhorc Tir. 

Cited in Transactions of the Lancashire and 

Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 1886. 

MASSON, . [The Swastika found on 

large rock near Karachi.] 

Jlalochistan, Vol. iv, p. 8, cited in Ogam Mon 
uments, by Brash, p. 189. 

MATE"RIAUX pour THistoire Primitive 
ct Naturelle de THomme. Revue men- 
suelle illustre e. (Fondde par M. G. De 
Mortillet, 1865 a 1868.) Dirigde par M. 
finiile Cartailhac. * * * 

Swastika, Vol. xvi, 1881. 

Prehistoric Cemeteries in Caucasus, by E. 
Chantre. pp. 154-166. 

Excavations at Cyprus, by General di Ces- 
nola, p. 416. 

Signification of the Swastika, by M. Girard 
de Reale, p. 548. 

Swastika, Vol. xviir, 1884. 

Etude sur quelques N6cropoles Halstatti- 
ennes de 1 Autriche et do 1 Italie. By Ernest 
Chantre. Swastika on Archaic Vase, fig. 5, p. 8. 
Croix Gamm6e, figs. 12 and 13, p. 14. Cross, p. 
122. Swastika, pp. 137-139. Swastika sculptfi 
sur pierre, Briteros, Portugal, fig. 133, p. 294. 

Necropolis of Ilalstatt, pp. 13,14; p. 139, fig. 
84 ; p. 280, Report of spearhead with Swastika 
and runic inscription, found at Torcello, near 
Venice, by Undset. 

Swastika, Vol. xx, 1886. 

Frontispiece of Jauuarjr number. Swastika 
from Museum, Afayence. 

tain Chant. 

Fifth Ann. Rep. Bureau, of Ethnology, 1883-84, 
pp. 379-467, pis. x-xvm, figs. 50-59. 

Swastika in Kavajo Mountain Chant. Sec 
ond (?) Dry Painting, pi. xvii, pp. 450,451. 

MONTELIUS, OSCAR. The | Civilization 
of Sweden | in Heathen Times | by j 
Oscar Montelius, Ph. D. | Professor at 
the National Historical Museum, Stock 
holm. | Translated from the Second 
Swedish Edition | Revised and en 
larged for the author [ by | Rev. F. H. 
Woods, B. D. | Vicar of Chalfont St. 
Peter. | With Map and Two Hundred 
and Five Illustrations. | London | Mac- 
millan and Co. | and New York. | 1888. 

pp. i-xvi. 1-214. 

The wheel with cross on many monuments of 
the Bronze Age became almost unknown dur 
ing the Age of Iron (in Scandinavia). It was 
the contrary witli the Swastika. Compte- 
Hendu, Cong. Inter. d Anthrop. et d Arch. Pr6- 
historique. 7 in session, 1874, 1, pp. 439, 460 



MOOREHEA1), WARREN K. Primitive 
Man | In Ohio | by | Warren K. Moore - 
head | Fellow of the American Associa 
tion for the Advancement of Science | 
Author of "Fort Ancient, the Great 
Prehistoric | Earth work of Ohio/ etc. | 
G. P. Putnam s Sons | The Knicker 
bocker Press, | 1892. 

pp. i-xii, 1-246. 

Discoveries in llopewell Mound, Chillicothe, 
Rose County, Oliio, ]tp. 184-190. 
Swastika, p. 11)3. 

MORGAN, .1. DK. Mission Scientifique | 
an Cancase | Etudes | Arehaeologiques 
et Historiqnes | par | .1. l)e Morgan | 
Tome Premier | Lea Premiers Ages Des 
Mtftaux | Dans 1 Armonio Russe | 
Paris | Ernest Leroux, editour | 28, Rue 
Bonaparte, 28 | 1889. 

8, (1), pp. i-iii, ; (2), pp. i-iv, 1-305. 
Sw. istikas on bronze pin-heads from prehis 
toric Armenian graves. Vol. i, p. 100, tigs. 177, 
178, 179. 

Musoe | Pre"historiqno | par | Gabriel et 
Adrien do Morfcillet | Photogravures 
Michelet \ Paris | C. Reinwald, Li- 
brairo-Editenr | 15, Rue des Saints- 
Prres, 15 | 1881 | Tons Droits Rdservos. 

4. Planches C, tigs. 1269. 
Tintinnabiilum and Buddha with Swastika, 
1>1. xcvm, fig. 12I50. Swiss Lake pottery, tig. 
1231. Swastika, many representations, pi. xcix, 
figs. 1233, 12. J4, 1235, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1244, 1246, 
1247, 1248, 1249; pi. c, figs. 1255, 1256, 1257, 1261, 
12G3, 1264, 1265, 1266. 1267. Crosses divers, pi. 
xcix, etc. 

torique | Antiqnite de I Homino | par 
Gabriel do Mortillet | Professeur d an- 
thropologie prchistorique | a 1 ficole 
d anthropologie do Paris. | 61 figures 
intercalces dans le texte. | Paris | C. 
Reinwald, Libraire-fiditeur | 15, Rue 
des Saints-Peres, 15 | 1883 | Tons 
droits reserve s. 

120, pp. 1 _ G42 . 

Communications between Europe and Amer 
ica, pp. 186, 187. 

Le Signe | de la Croix | Avant | le 

Christianisme | par | Gabriel do Mortil 
let | Directeur des Mntdriaux pour 
1 Histoiro positive et philosophiqne | 
de 1 homme | avec 117 gravnres snr 
bois. | Paris | C. Reinwald, Libraire- 

fiditeur | 15, rue des Saints-Pere, 15 | 
1866 | Tons droits reserve s. 
Seep. 182. 

MULLER, F. MAX. Chips | from | A Ger 
man Workship. | By Max Miiller, M. 
A., | Fellow of All Souls College, Ox 
ford, j Essay s on * | New York: | 
Scribner, Armstrong & Co. | Successors 
to Charles Scribner & Co. 

Essays on Mythology, Traditions, and Cus 
toms. Svasti, Sanscrit, meaning joy or happi 
ness. Vol. 11, p. 24. 

Swastika. Letter to Dr. Sehliemaim, "Ilios," 
pp. 346-349. 

Swastika, Review of, Athena-urn (Lond.), No. 
3332, Aug.20,1892, p. Jfii;. 

MULLER, LUDWIG. [Swastika.] 

Proc. Royal Danish Academy of, Fifth 
series, Section of History and Philosophy, Vol. 
in, p. 93. 

MUNRO, ROBKHT. Ancient | Scottish 
Lake Dwellings | or Crannogs | with a 
Supplementary Chapter on | Remains 
of Lake Dwellings in England | by | 
Robert Mtmro, M. A. | M. ])., F. S. A. 
Scot. | (Design) | Edinburgh: David 
Douglas | 1881 | All rights reserved. 

8, pp. i-xx, 1-326. 

Swastika on pin and triskelion on plank, cran- 
nog of Lochleo, figs. 144 and 149, pp. 130-134. 
Note by Montelius, figs. 11 and 12, p. 131. 

-The | Lake Dwellings | of | En- 
rope: | Iteing the | Rhind Lectures in 
Archeology | for 1888. | P,y | Robert 
Muuro, M!A.,M. I)., | Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; 
Author of | "Ancient Scottish Lake 
Dwellings or Crannogs. | Cassell & 
Company, Limited: | London, Paris & 
Melbourne. | 1890 | (All rights re 

4, pp. i-xl, 1-600. 

Swastika in Lake JJourget (Savoy), fig. 195, 
Xos. 11 and 12, pp. 532 and 538 ; in Lisnacroghera 
(Ireland), fig. 124, No. 20; triskele, fig. 124, No. 
22, pp. 383, 585. 

NADAILLAC, Marquis de. Prehistoric 
America | by the | Marquis de Nadail- 
lac | Translated by N. D Anvers | Ed 
ited by W. H. Dall | (Design of Vase) | 
with 219 illustrations | New York and 
London | G. P. Putnam s Sons | The 
Knickerbocker Press | 1884, 
8, pp. i-vii, 1-566. 



^ T ADAILLAC, Marquis de continued. 

Swastika ( ?) alleged to l>o on tho Pemberton 
hammer from New Jersey, pp. 22, note 1, citing 
Professor Haldeman, Sept. 27, 1877, Rep. Pea- 
body Museum, 1878, p. 255. Dr. Abbott de 
nounces this inscription as a fraud. Primitive 
Industry, p. 32. 

NEWTON, JOHN. History of Migration 
of the Triskelion from Sicily to the 
Isle of Man, through Henry III of 
England and Alexander III of Scotland. 
Athenceum, Xo. 3385, Sept. 10, 1892 pp 353 

Swastika found in recently explored 
Mosaic pavement in Isle of Wight, 
Munro s "Ancient Scottish Lake Dwell 
ings," note, p. 132. 

PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. Naukratis 
(Greek inscription). J Part I, 1884-85 ) 
by | W. M. Flinders Pctrie. | With 
Chapters by | Cecil Smith; Ernest 
Gardner, B. A. ; | and Barclay V. Head. 
| (Design, two sides of coin.) | Third 
Memoir of | The Egypt Exploration 
Fund. | Published by Order of the 
Committee. | London: | Triibner&Co., 
57 & 59, Ludgate Hill. | 1886. 

Folio, pp. 1-100, pis. 1-28. 

Swastika in Egypt, fourth and fifth centu 
ries B. C., pi. iv, fig. 3. Meander Swastikas, 
pi. v, figs. 15,24. 

| Dr. Julius Nan, in Miinchen. | VI. 
Jahrg., 1894. Miinchen. Nr. 5. Mit 
Taf. xi-xv. 

Soderberg, Sven. Die Thierornamentik der 
Volkerwanderuugszeit. | Mit Tertabildungen 
und Tafel xi-xv. | Lund, Sweden. Figs. 12 13 
p. 73. 

PRIME, WILLIAM C. Pottery and Porce 
lain | Of All Times And Nations | With 
Tables of Factory and Artists Marks | 
For the Use of Collectors | by William 
C. Prime, LL.D. | (Design) | New York 
| Harper & Brothers, Publishers | 
Franklin Square | 1878. 

8, pp. 1-531. 

Symbolic marks on Chinese porcelain. Tab 
let of honor inclosing Swastika. Fig. 155, p. 
254; fig. 33, p. 61. 

QUEEN LACE BOOK, Tho. A | Histor 
ical and Descriptive Account of the 
Hand-Made | Antique Laces of All 
Countries. | * * | with | Thirty Illus 
trations of Lace Specimens, and seven 

H. Mis. 00, pt. 2 

QUEEN LACE BOOK, The-continued. 
Diagrams of | Lace Stitches. | London : 
| "The Queen" Office, 346, Strand, W. 
C. | 1874. | All rights reserved. 

pp. i-viii, 1-38. 

Swastika design in linen embroidery and cut- 
work (Sixteenth Century. Geometric Style) 

RAWLINSON, GEORGE The Religions | 
of | the Ancient World. | By j George 
Rawlinson, M. A. (Author of "Tho 
Seven Great Monarchies of tho Ancient 
| Eastern World," etc. | New York : | 
Hurst & Co., Publishers, | 122 Nassau 

12, pp. 1180. 

Keligion of the Ancient Sanscrit Indians. 
Agni, the god of Fire, described pp. 87, 89. 
Sun, Wind, Dyaus (Heaven), and Prithivi 
(Earth) . Xothing said about Swastika or Solar 

tions in Cyprus. 

Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, Vol. xi (ser. Ill) 
pp. 669-682. 

ROBINSON, DAVID. A Tour | through 
| The Isle of Man : | To which is sub 
joined | A Review of the Manx His 
tory. | By David Robertson, Esq. | 
London : | Printed for the Author, | by 
E. Hodson, Bell- Yard, Temple-Bar. | 
Sold by Mr. Payne, Mews-Gate ; Messrs. 
Egertons, Whitehall; | Whites, Fleet 
Street; and Deighton, Holborn. | 1794. 

4 narrow, pp. 235. 
Triskelion Coat of arms of Isle of Man. 

Diary of a Journey | through | Mongo 
lia and Tibet | in | 1891 and 1892 | by | 
William Woodville Rockhill (Gold 
Medalist of the Royal Geographical 
Society | (Design.) | City of Wash 
ington | Published by the Smithsonian 
Institution | 1894. 

4, pp. i-xx, 1-413. 
Swastika (yung-drung) tattooed on hand of 

native at Kumbum, p. 67. 

count | of the | Isle of Man, | its | In 
habitants, Language, Soil, re- | marka- 
ble Curiosities, the Succession | of its 
Kings and Bishops, down to | the pres 
ent Time. | J$y way of Essat. | With a 
Voyage to I-Columb-kill. ] By William 
Sacheverell, Esq. : I Late Governour of 



Man. | To which is added, | A Disserta 
tion about the Mona of Cresar and | 
Tacitus ; and an Account of the An- 
tient | Druids, &c. | By Mr. Thomas 
Brown, | Address d in a Letter to his 
Learned | Friend Mr. A. Sellars. | Lon- 
don: | Printed for J. Hartley, next the I 
King s Head Tavern. | R. Gibson in j 
Middle Row, and Tho. Hodgson over j 
a- | gainst Gray s-Inn Gate in Holborn, , 

12nio, pp. 175. 

Triskolion Coat of arms of Isle of Man. 

SCHICK, Herr Baurath VON. The Jeru 
salem Cross. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly State- \ 
ment. July, 1894, pp. 183-188. 
janischer Alterthiimer. | Photograph- 
ische Abbildungen | zu dem | Berichte 
| iiber die Ausgrabungen in Troja | 
von | Dr. Heinrich Schliemann. | 
(Design) | Leipzig: | In Commission 
bei F. A. Brockhaus. | 1874. 

Folio, pp. 1-57, plates, 1-217. 
Spindle whorls passim. Swastikas on many 
specimens from fig. No. 142 to 3468. No. 237 is 
in U. S. National Museum as part of Mme. 
Schliemann s collection. 

SCHLIEMANN, HENRY. Ilios | The City 
and Country | of | the Trojans | The 
Results of Researches and Discover 
ies on the Site of Troy and | Through 
out the Troad in the Years 1871-72-73- 
78-79 | Including an | Autobiography 
of the Author | By Dr. Henry Schlie 
mann | F. S. A., F. R. I. British Archi 
tects | Author of "Troy and Its Re 
mains," "Mycenae," etc. | With a Pref 
ace, Appendices, and Notes | By Pro 
fessors Rudolf Virchow, Max Miiller, 
A. H. Sayce, J. P. Mahafty, H. Brugsch- 
Bey, P. Ascherson, M. A. Postolaccas, 
M. E. Burnouf, Mr. F. Calvert, and Mr. 
J. A. Duffield. | (Greek Verse) | With 
Maps, Plans, and About 1,800 Illustra 
tions. | New York | Harper & Brothers, 
Franklin Square | 1881. | 

8, pp.i-xvi, 1-800. 

Swastika: Introduction, p. xi, and pp. 229, 231, 
303, 349, 353, 416, 518, 571, 573. 

"Owl-faced" (?) vases, figs. 227, 1293, 1294. 
Fig. 986 (not owl, but human, Virchow), pp. 
xiii, xiv. 

Figures of Swastika on spindle-whorls pas 
sim fig. 1850 is in the IT. S. National Museum. 


Mycense ; | A Narrative of Researches 

and Discoveries | at Mycen.-e and Ti- 
ryns. | By Dr. Henry Schliemann, | Cit 
izen of the United States of America, | 
Author of "Troy and Its Remains," 
"Ithaque, Lo Peloponuese et Troie," j 
and "La Chine etleJapon." | The Pref 
ace | By the Right Hon. W. E. Glad 
stone, M. P. | Maps, Plans, and Other 
Illustrations. | Representing more than 
7,000 Types of the Objects Found in 
the | Royal Sepulchres of Mycenae and 
Elsewhere | In the Excavations. | New 
York: | Scribnor, Armstrong & Com 
pany. | 1878. | (All Rights Reserved.) 

8, pp. i-lxviii, 1-384, Swastika, pp. 77, 165, 
259, figs. 383, 385, and many others. 
Troja | Results of the Latest | Re 
searches and Discoveries on the | Site of 
Homer s Troy | And in the Heroic 
Tumuli and Other Sites j Made in the 
Year 1882 | and a Narrative of a Jour 
ney in the Troad in 1881 | by | Dr. Henry 
Schliemann | Hon. D. C. L., Oxon., and 
Hon. Fellow of Queen s College, Ox 
ford | F. S. A., F. R. I. B. A. | Author of 
" Ilios," " Troy and its Remains," and 
"Mycenae and Tiryns " \ Preface by 
Prof. A. H. Sayce | with 150 Woodcuts 
and 4 Maps and Plans | (Quotation in 
German from Moltke : Wunderbuch, p. 
19, Berlin, 1879) | New York | Harper & 
Brothers, Frankliu Square | 1884. 

8, pp. 1-434. 

Swastika, preface xviii, xxi, pp. 122, 124, 125 
126, 127, 128. 
Spiral form, pp. 123. 
Lycian coins triskelion, pp. 123, 124. 

SCHVINDT, THEODOR. Vihkol-4 | Suo- 
malaisia koristeita. | 1. Ompelukor- 
isteita. | Finnische Ornamente. | 1. 
Stickornamente. | Heft 1-4 | Suola- 
laisen Kirjallisuuden Seura Helsin- 
gissa. | 1894. 

Description of Finnish national ornamental 
embroidery in which the Swastika appears as 
a pattern made by oblique stitches, pp. 14, 15, 
figs. 112-121. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly State 
ment, January, 1895, pp. 84,85. 

SNOWDEN, JAMES Ross. A Descrip 
tion | of | Aacient and Modern Coins, | 
in the | Cabinet Collection | at the Mint 



SNOWDEN, JAMES Ross continued, 
of the United States. | Prepared and 
arranged under the Direction of | 
James Ross Snowden, | Director of the 
Mint. | Philadelphia : | J. B. Lippincott 
&. Co. | 1860. 

8, pp. i-xx, 1-412. 

Punch -marks on ancient coins, and how they 
were made. Introduction, pp. ix-xiv, and 

SQUIER, E. GEORGE. Peru | Incidents 
of Travel and Exploration | in the | 
Landofthelucas | By E. George Squier, 
M. A., F. S. A. | Late U. S. Commis 
sioner to Peru, Author of " Nicaragua," 
"Ancient Monuments | of Mississippi 
Valley/ etc., etc. | (Design) | With Il 
lustrations | New York | Harper Broth 
ers, Publishers | Franklin Square | 

8, pp. i-xx, 1-599. 

Mythologic representations of earth, air, 
and water. The cross not mentioned as one, 
p. 184. 

ern | Runic Monuments | of Scandina 
via and England | Now first | collected 
and deciphered | by | George Stevens, 
Esq., F. S. A. | Knight of the Northern 
Star and other titles, | with many hun 
dreds of fac-similes and illustrations 
partly in gold, silver, bronze and col 
ors. | Runic alphabets; introductions; 
appendices; word-lists, etc. j London, 
John Russell Smith. | Kobenhaven, 
Michaelsen and Tillge. | Printed by 
H. H. Thiele, 1866-67. 

8, pp. i-xi, 1-625. 

STEVENSON, JAMES. Collections made 
in New Mexico and Arizona, 1879, by 
James Stevenson. 

Second Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, 
pp. 307-465, figs. 347-697. 

Spiral in basketry, fig. 542. Swastika (dance- 
rattle), fig. 562, p. 394. Maltese cross, fig. 642. 
Greek cross, fig. 708, p. 453. 

SYKES, Lieut. Col. Notes on the reli 
gious, moral, and political state of India 
before the Mohammedan invasion, 
chiefly founded on the travels of the 
Chinese Buddhist priest, Fa-Hian, in 
India, A. D. 399, and on the commen 
taries of Messrs. Klaproth, Burnouf, 
and Landresse. 

Journal Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Vol. VI, pp. 248, 299, 310, 334. 

THOMAS, CYRUS. Burial Mounds of 
Northern Sections of the United States. 

Fifth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84, 
pp. 3-119, pis. i-vi, figs. 1-49. 

Excavations in Little Etowah Mounds. 

Human figures on copper plates, repouss6 
work, figs. 42, 43, pp. 100, 101. 

Eagle (copper) Mound near Bluff Lake, Un 
ion County, Illinois, fig. 48, p. 105. 

Report on the Mound Explorations 

of tho Bureau of Ethnology. 

Twelfth Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, 
1890-91, pp. 1-730, pis. l-XLil, figs. 1-344. 

Human figures (copper), repouss6 work, figs. 
186, p. 304; 189, p. 306. 

Eagle Mound in Illinois, fig. 192, p. 309. 

Swastika on shell, Big Toco Mound, Tennes 
see, fig. 262, p. 383. 

THOMAS, G. W. Excavations in Anglo- 
Saxon Cemetery, Sleaford, Lincoln 
shire. Swastika. 

Archceologia, Vol. L, 1887, pt. 2, p. 386, pi. 
xxiv, fig. 2. 

TYLOR, EDWARD B. Anthropology: | 
An Introduction to the Study of j Man 
and Civilization. | By | EdwardB. Tay 
lor, D. C. L., F. R. S. | With Illustra 
tions. | New York: | D. Appleton and 
Company, | 1, 3, and 5 Bond Street. | 

12, pp. 1-448. 
Spinning and spindle whorls, pp. 247, 248. 

Primitive Culture | Researches into 

the Development of | Mythology, Phi 
losophy, Religion, | Language, Art and 
Custom | by | Edward E. Tylor, LL. D., 
F. R. S., | Author of " Researches into 
the Early History of Mankind," etc. | 
(Quotation in French) | First Ameri 
can, from the Second English Edition | 
In Two Volumes | (Design) | Boston | 
Estes & Lauriat | 143 Washington 
Street | 1874. 

80, (1), pp. i-xii, 1-502; (2), pp. i-viii, 1-470. 

WAKE, C. S. The Swastika and Allied 

Am. Antiquarian, 1894, Vol. xvi, p. 413. 
The writer cites Prof. Alois Kaimond Hein, 
Meander, etc., Worbolornamente in Amerika. 
Vienna, 1891. 

WARING, J. B. Ceramic Art | in | Re 
mote Ages; | With Essays on the Sym 
bols of | the Circle, the Cross and 
Circle, | the Circle and Ray Ornament, 
the Fylfot, | and the Serpent, | Show 
ing their Relation to the Primitive 



WARING, J. B. continued. 
Forms | of | Solar and Nature Wor 
ship, | by | J. B. Waring, | Author of ! 
" Stone Monuments, Tumuli, and Orna 
ment of Remote Ages/ "Illustrations 
of Architecture and Ornament/ | "The 
Art Treasures of the United Kingdom," 
&c., *fcc. | London: | Printed and Pub 
lished by John B. Day, | Savoy Street, 
Strand | 1874. 

Folio, ]>p. 1-127, pis. 1-55. 
Swastika; Triskelion; Ancient coins. Plates 
2,3, 7,27, 33, 41-44. 

WIENER, CHARLES. Pe"rou j et Bolivie | 
Rr cit de Voyage | suivi | d tftudes 
Archoologiques et Ethuographiques | 
et de Notes | Sur PlScriture et les Lan- 
gties des Populations Indiennes | par | 
Charles Wiener | Ouvrage Contenant | 
100 Gravures, 27 cartes et 18 plans | (De 
sign) | Paris j Librairie Hachette et 
Cie. | 79, Boulevard Saint-Germain, 79 j 
1880 | Droits de Propriot^ et de traduc- 
tiou reserves. 

8, pp. i-xi, 1-796. 

Christian cross in America. Means us j d t< 
implant it. Chap. VII, pp. 716-730. 

WOOD, J. G. The | Natural | History of 
Man; | Being | an Account of the Man 
ners and Customs of the | Uncivilized 
Races of Men. | By the Rev. | J. G. 
Wood, M. A., F. L. S. | etc., etc. | With 
New Designs by Angas, Danby, Wolf, 
Zwecker, etc., etc. | Engraved by the 
Brothers Dal/iel. I London: | George 
Routledge and Sous, The Broadway, 
Ludgate. | New York; 416 Brooine 
Street. | 1868. 

2 vols., 8, pp. 774, 864. 

The Gurani Indians wear the queyu or bead 
apron ; Vol. II, p. 620, but the Waraus wear 
only a triangular bit of bark, p. 623. 

WRIGHT, T. F. Notes on the Swastika. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly State 
ment, London. October, 1894, p. 300. 

sehL hte der Suastika | von | Michael 
V. Zmigrodzki | Mit Vier Figuren im 
Text und Vier Tafelu. | Braun 
schweig, | Druckund Verlag von Frie- 
derich Vieweg und Sohn. | 1890. 

Histoire du Suastika. 
Congrds International d Anthrop. et Archcol. 
Prehist. Conipte Keiuiu de la dixieiue session 
a Paris, 1889 pp. 473-490. 


Facing pace. 

M. 1. Origin of Buddha, with Swastika sign, according to Tao Shih 800 

2. Swastika decreed by Empress Wu (684-704 A. D.) MS a sign for sun in 

China 800 

3. Swastika design on silk fabrics 800 

4. Swastika in spider web over fruit 800 

5. Buffalo with Swastika on forehead. Presented to Emperor of Sung 

Dynasty 800 

6. Incense burner with Swastika decoration. South Tang Dynasty 800 

7. House of Wa Tsung-Chih of Sin Shin, with Swastika in railing 800 

8. Mountain or wild date fruit resembling Swastika. China 800 

9. Punch marks on reverse of ancient coins 876 

Fig. 1. Coin from Lydia. Electrum. Reverse. Oblong sinking 
between two squares. Babylonic stater. The earliest 
known coinage. Circa B. C. 700. 

2. Phenician half stater. Electrum. Reverse. Incuse square 

with cruciform ornament. 

3. Silver coin of Teos. Reverse. Incuse square. Circa 544 


4. Silver coin of Acanthus. Reverse. Incuse square. 

5. Silver coin of Mende. Reverse. Incuse triangles. 

6. Silver coin of Terono. Reverse. Incuse. 

7. Coin of Bisalta . 1 Reverse. Flat incuse square. Octa- 


8. Silver coin of Orrescii. 1 Reverse. Incuse square. Octa- 

drachm . 

9. Corinthian silver coin. Reverse. Incuse square divided 

into eight triangular compartments. 

10. Silver coin of Abdera. Reverse. Incuse square. 

11. Silver coin of Byzantium. Reverse. Incuse square, gran 


12. Silver coin of Thrasos (Thrace). Reverse. Incuse square. 

10. Engraved Fulgur ^ ?) shell resembling statue of Buddha. Toco mound, 

Tennessee. Cat. No. 115560, U.S.N.M 880 

11. Plan of North Fork (Hopewell) Works, Ross County, Ohio. Smith 

sonian Contrib. to Knowledge, I, pi. x 

12. Plan of Hopewell mound, Ross County, Ohio, in which aboriginal cop 

per Swastikas were found. Primitive Man in Ohio, pi. xxxiv 

13. Human skull, with copper-covered horns, probably of elk. Hopewell 

mound, Ross County, Ohio. Primitive Man in Ohio, frontispiece 890 

14. Altar, Hopewell mound, Ross County, Ohio. Found near the copper 

Swastika shown in fig. 244. Primitive Man in Ohio, fig. xxxvu. Cat. 

No. 148662, U. S. N. M 890 

1 The Basalta and Orrescii were Thracian tribes who dwelt in tlio valleys of the 

Strymon and the Angites, to the north of the Pangolin Range. 



Facing page. 
PI. 15. Bead necklace aud garters with Swastika ornamentation. Sac Indians. 894 

16. Ceremonial bead garters with Swastikas. Sac Indians, Cook Comity 

(Kansas) Reservation .............................................. 896 

17. "Navajo Mountain Chant." Dr. Washington Matthews. Fifth Ann. 

Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1883-84, pi. xvn .............................. 898 

18. Folium Vitus ("fig leaves") terra-cotta covers, " tunga," used by ab 

origines of Brazil. Cat. Nos. 59089 and 36542, U.S.N.M. . . ......... 904 

19. Various forms of crosses in use among North American Indians, from 

Greek cross to Swastika. Second Ann. Rep. Bur. EthnoL, 1880-81, 
pl.Lin ............................................................ 928 

Fig. 1. Greek cross. 

2. Greek cross. 

3. Cross on copper. 

4. Cross on shell. 

5. Greek cross. 

6. Greek cross. 

7. Latin cross, copper. 

8. Greek cross. 

9. Latin cross, copper. 

10. Swastika on shell. 

11. Swastika on shell. 

12. Swastika on pottery. 

13. Swastika on pottery. 

20. Pal enque cross, foliated. Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowledge, xxir, fig. 7, 

p. 33 .............................................................. 932 

21. Modern porcelain spindle-whorls. Southern France. Cat. No. 169598, 

U.S.N.M .......................................................... 968 

22. Navajo woman using spindle and whorl. Dr. Washington Matthews, 

Tlnrd Ann. Rep. Bur. EthnoL, 1881-82, pi. xxxiv ................... 970 

23. Series of aboriginal spindles and whorls from Peru. Cat. No. 17510, 

U.S.N.M .......................................................... 972 

24. Selected specimens of spindle-whorls from the Third, Fourth, and Fifth 

cities of Troy. U. S. National Museum ............................ 974 

25. Selected specimens of spindle-whorls from the Third, Fourth, and Fifth 

cities of Troy. U. S. National Museum ............................ 974 


Fig. 1. Latin cross ( Crux immissa) ........................................ 765 

2. Greek cross ....................................................... 765 

3. St. Andrew s cross ( Crux decussata) ................................ 765 

4. Egyptian cross ( Crux ansata), the Key of Life ...................... 766 

5. Tau cross, Thor s hammer, St. Anthony s cross ...................... 766 

6. Monogram of Christ. Labarimi of Constantino .................... 766 

7. Maltese cross ...................................................... 766 

8. Celtic crosses ...................................................... 767 

9. Normal Swastika. Arms crossing at right angles, with ends bent to 

the right ..................... . ...... ............................ 767 

10. Suavastika. Arms bent to the left ................................. 767 

11. Swastika .......................................................... 767 

12. Croix swasticale (Zmigrodzki) ...................................... 767 

13a. Ogee and spiral Swastikas. Tetraskelion (four-armed) ............ 768 

13&. Spiral and volute. Triskelion (three-armed) ...................... 768 

13c. Spiral and volute (five or many armed) ............................ 768 

13d. Ogee Swastika with circle ........................................ 768 


Fig. 14. Nandavartaya, a third sign of the footprint of Buddha. Burnouf, 

Lotus de la Bonne Loi, Paris, 1852, p. 626 774 

15. Typical lotuses on Cyprian vases. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., p. 77.. 782 

16. Typical lotus on Rhodian vases. Goodyear, Grammar, etc 782 

17. Typical lotus on Melian vases. Goodyear, Grammar of the Lotus 782 

18. Detail of Cyprian vase showing lotuses with curling sepals. Met. 

Mus. of Art, N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. XLVII, fig. 1 782 

19. Details of a Cyprian amphora; lotus with curling sepals, and dif 

ferent Swastikas. Met. Mus. of Art, N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, 

etc., pi. XL vii, figs. 2 and 3 733 

20. Theory of the evolution of the spiral scroll from lotus. One volute. 

Goodyear, Grammar, etc., fig. 51 733 

21. Theory of lotus rudiments in spiral. Tomb 33, Abd-el-Kourneh, 

Thebes. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., p. 96 783 

22. Concentric rings connected by tangents. Petrie, History of Scarabs. 784 

23. Concentric rings with disconnected tangents. Barringer Coll., Met. 

Mus. of Art, N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., PI. vm, fig. 23 784 

24. Concentric rings without connection. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. 

vm, fig. 25. Farman Coll., Met. Mus. of Art, N. Y 784 

25. Special Egyptian meander. An illustration of the theory of deriva 

tion from the spiral. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. x, fig. 9 784 

26. Detail of Greek vase. Meander and Swastika. No. 2843 in Polytech 

nic, Athens. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., fig. 174 785 

27. Detail of Greek geometric vase in the British Museum. Swastika, 

right, with solar geese. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., fig. 173, p. 353.. 785 

28. Greek geometric vase. Swastika with solar geese. Goodyear, Gram 

mar, etc., fig. 172, p. 353 785 

29. Bronze statue of Buddha. Japan. Eight Swastikas on pedestal, cane 

tintinnabulum with six movable rings or bells. Cernuschi Coll. 
One-fifteenth natural size 799 

30. Japanese potter s mark on porcelain. Swastika, left. Sir A. W. 

Franks, Catalogue, etc., pi. xi, fig. 139; De Mortillet, Musfo Pre- 
historique, fig. 1248 799 

31. Potter s mark on porcelain. China. Tablet of Honor, with Swas 

tika. Prime, Pottery and Porcelain, p. 254 801 

32. Footprint of Buddha with Swastika, from Amaravati Tope. From 

a figure by Fergusson and Schliemaun 802 

33. Explanation of Jain Swastika, according to Gandhi 804 

(1) Archaic or protoplasmic life; (2) plant and animal life; (3) 
human life; (4) celestial life. 

34a. The formation of the Jain Swastika First stage 804 

34fr. The formation of the Jain Swastika Second stage 804 

34c. The formation of the Jain Swastika Third stage 805 

35. Bronze pin-head from Cheithan-thagh. De Morgan, An Caucase, fig. 

177 807 

36. Bronze pin-head from Akthala. De Morgan An, Caucase, fig. 178 808 

37. Swastika mark on black pottery. Cheithan-thagh. D* Morgan, An 

Caucase, fig. 179 808 

38. Fragment of bronze ceiuture. Necropolis of Koban, Caucasus. 

Swastika repousse". Natural size. Chantre, Le Caucase, pi. xi, 

fig. 3 808 

39. Bronze agrafe or belt plate. Triskelion in spiral. Koban, Caucasus, 

Chantre, Le Caucaxe, pi. xi, fig. 4 809 

40. Swastika signs from Asia Minor. Waring, Ceramic Art in l\emote 

Ages, pi. XLI, iigs. 5 and 6 809 


Fig. 41. Brand for horses in Circassia. Ogee Swastika, tetraskelion. Waring, 

Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLII, fig. 20c 809 

42. Fragment of lustrous black pottery. Swastika, right. Schliemann, 

IKos, fig. 247 810 

43. Spin die- whorl with two Swastikas and two crosses ; 23 feet depth. 

Schliemann, JUos, fig. 1858 811 

44. Spindle-whorl, two Swastikas; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Uios, 

fig. 1874 811 

45. Spindle- whorl, two Swastikas; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, //io, 

fig. 1919 H 

46. Spindle- whorl, two Swastikas; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Iliox, 

fig. 1826 8U 

47. Spindle-whorl, three Swastikas; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Hum, 

fig. 1851 811 

48. Spindle-whorl, Swastikas; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, llios, fig. 

1982 812 

49. Sphere, eight segments, one containing Swastika. Schliemaun, Ilios, 

fig. 1999 812 

50. Biconical spindle- whorl, Swastika. Schliemann, llios, fig. 1949 812 

51. Bieouical spindle-whorl, six Swastikas; 33 feet depth. Schliemaim, 

Ilios, fig. 1859 813 

52. Bicouical spindle-whorl, two ogee Swastikas; 33 feet depth. Schlie 

mann, Ilios, fig. 1876 813 

53. Spindle- whorl, four Swastikas; 33 feet depth. De Mortillet. Museo 

J rehMorifjue, fig. 1240 813 

54. Spindle- whorl, one Swastika; 33 feet depth. De Mortillet, M-usw 

Prchixtoriqiic, fig. 1241 813 

55. Conical spindle- whorl, three ogee Swastikas ; 13 feet depth. Schlie 

maim, Ilio8, fig. 1850 814 

56. Conical spindle- whorl, four Swastikas, various kinds; 13 feet depth. 

Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1879 814 

57. Conical spindle-whorl, Swastikas; 13 feet depth. Schliemaun, 

Ilios, fig. 1894 814 

58. Biconical spindle-whorl, one Swastika; 134 fe depth. Schliemann, 

llios, fig. 1983 815 

59. Biconical spindle- whorl, three ogre Swastikas; 13^ feet depth. 

Schliemann, IHos, fig. 1990 815 

60. Bicouical spindle-whorl, two Swastikas; 16.V feet depth. Schlie 

mann, Ilios, fig. 1863 815 

61. Biconical spindle- whorl, five ogee Swastikas; 18 feet depth. Schlie 

maun, Ilios, fig. 1905 816 

62. Spindle-whorl, three Swastikas; 19.8 feet depth. Schliemaun, Ilios, 

fig. 1855 816 

63. Spindle-whorl, four ogee Swastikas, with spiral volutes ; 18 feet depth. 

Schliemaun, Illos, fig. 1868 816 

64. Biconical spindle-whorl, one Swastika ; 19.8 feet depth. Schliemann, 

IHos, fig>1865 816 

65. Biconical spindle-whorl, one Swastika; 19. 8 feet depth. Schliemann, 

Ilios, fig. 1866 817 

66. Biconical spindle-whorl, three Swastikas and three "burning 

altars ; " 19.8 feet depth. Schliemaun, Ilios, fig. 1872 817 

67. Biconical spindle- whorl, four Swastikas of the Jain style; 19.8 feet 

depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1873 817 

68. Biconical spindle- whorl, three Swastikas of different styles ; 19.8 feet 

depth. Schliemann, llios, fig. 1912 .... ...... .-..,. . 817 


Fig. 69. Biconical spindle-whorl, one Swastika of the figure-8 style; 19. 8 feet 

depth. Schlieniaun, Ilios, tig. 1861 818 

70. Bicouical spindle-whorl, one Swastika slightly ogee ; 19.8 feet depth. 

Schliemaun, Ilios, fig. 1864 818 

71. Conical spindle-whorl, three ogee Swastikas; IS^feetdepth. Schlie- 

mann, Ilios, fig. 1852. Gift of Mine. Schliemann. Cat. No. 149704, 

U.S.N.M 818 

72,73,74. Forms of whorls from fifth buried city of Hissarlik, for com 
parison. Schliemann, Iliof, figs. 1801, 1802, and 1803 819 

75. Terra-cotta sphere, thirteen Swastikas. Third city ; 26 feet depth. 

Schliemann, Ilios, figs. 245,246 819 

76. Terra-cotta disk, one Swastika. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1849 820 

77. Spindle-whorl, ogee Swastika. Third city; 23 feet depth. Schlie 

mann, Ilios, fig. 1822 820 

78. Biconical spindle-whorl, irregular Swastikas and crosses. Fourth 

city; 13.6 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1871 .. 820 

79. Bicouical spindle-whorl, uncertain and malformed Swastikas. Third 

city ; 33 feet depth. Schliemauii, Ilios, fig. 1870 : 820 

80. Biconical spindle- whorl, irregular and partly formed Swastika with 

large dot in center. Fourth city ; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, 

fig. 1875 821 

81. Biconical spindle-whorl, flattened, two Swastikas with indefinite 

decoration. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1947 821 

82. Biconical spindle-whorl, one Swastika and four segments of circles. 

Third city; 33 feet depth. Schliemann, lUos, fig. 1989 821 

83. Biconical spindle-whorl, flattened, ogee Swastika with center circle. 

Third city ; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Jlios, fig. 1987. . 822 

84. Biconical spindle-whorl, six ogee Swastikas, with center circle and 

dot. Third city ; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1862 822 

85. Spherical spindle-whorl, flattened top, ogee lines which do not form 

Swastikas. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1890 . . 

86. Biconical spindle-whorl, ogee curves not crossed to form Swastikas. 

Fourth city; 10.6 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1889.. 

87. Spherical spindle-whorl flattened, with two Swastikas combined with 

segments and dots. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1988. . 

88. Two sections of terra-cotta sphere, central circle and many extended 

arms, ogee and zigzag to the left. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1993. . . 

89. Spherical spindle-whorl, large central dot with 12 arms, in same form 

as ogee Swastika. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1946 

90. Spindle-whorl, central dot with ogee arms radiating therefrom, turn 

ing in different directions, but in form of Swastika. Third city ; 29 
feet depth. Schliemauu, Ilios, fig. 1830 

91. Spindle- whorl, central hole with radiating arms. Third city; 23 feet 

depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1842 . . 

92. Spindle- whorl, large central circle with many arms. Fourth city ; 

19.8 feet depth. Schliemanii, Ilios, fig. 1837 

93. Spindle-whorl, central hole and large circle with many curved arms. 

Third city; 29 feet depth. Schliernanu, Ilios, fig. 1833 

94. Large biconical spindle-whorl with four largo crosses with bifur 

cated arms. Third city; 23 feet depth. Schliemaun, Ilios, fig. 

1856 * 25 

95. Spindle-whorl, hole and large circle in center with broad arms of 

Greek cross. Third city; 26.4 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 

1820 - 825 

96. Spindle-whorl, hole and large circle in center, extended parallel arms 

of Greek cross, with dots. Third city ; 23 feet depth. Schliemann, 
Ilios, fig. 1817 825 


Fig. 97. Spindle-whorl, arms of Greek cross tapering, with dots. Third city; 

23 feet depth. Schliemanu, Ilios, fig. 1818 825 

98. Spin die- whorl, central hole, three arms ornamented with dots. Third 

city ; 23 feet depth . Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1819 826 

99. Biconical spindle- whorl, with four animals associated with the Swas 

tika. Third city ; 33 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1877 826 

100. Biconical spindle- whorl, with four animals associated with the Swas 

tika. Fourth city; 19.6 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1867.. 826 

101. Spindle-whorl, figure-8 Swastika (?) with six "burning altars." 

Fourth city ; 19.6 feet depth. Schliemann, Ilios, fig. 1838 826 

102 to 113. Trojan spindle- whorls. Schliemann, Ilios 827 

114 to 124. Trojan Spindle-whorls. Schliemann, Ilios 828 

125. Leaden idol, Artemis Nana of Chaldea, with Swastika. Hissarlik, 

23 feet depth, 1 natural size. Schliemauu, Ilios, fig. 226 829 

126. Terra-cotta vase with mamelon. Fourth city; 16^ feet depth. One- 

third natural size. Cat. No. 149676, U.S.N.M 830 

127. Terra-cotta vase with circle or ring. Fourth city; 20 feet depth. One- 

third natural size. Schlieinarm, Ilios, fig. 988 830 

128. Terra-cotta vase, with circle or ring with Croix swasticale. Fourth 

city; 20 feet depth. One-sixth natural size. Schliemann, Ilios, 

fig. 986 831 

129. Terra-cotta vase, with circle or ring inclosing Swastika. Fifth city; 

10 feet depth. Two-fifths natural size. Schliemann, Troja, fig. 

101 831 

130. Greek vase showing deer, geese, and three Swastikas. Naukratis, 

ancient Egypt, sixth and fifth centuries B. C. Flinders Petrie, 
Third Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, pt. 1, pi. iv, fig. 3; and Goodyear, 

Grammar, etc., pi. LX, fig. 2 834 

130. Detail of vase shown in the preceding figure 834 

131. Pottery fragments with two meander Swastikas. Naukratis, an 

cient Egypt. Petrie, Third Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, pt. 1, pi. v, 

figs. 24 and 15 835 

132. Fragments of Greek vase with lion and three meander Swastikas. 

Naukratis, ancient Egypt. Petrie, Sixlh Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, 

pt. 2, pi. v, fig. 7; and Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. xxx, fig. 2 .. 835 

133. Fragment of Greek vase with figures of sacred animals and Swastikas 

associated with Greek fret. Naukratis, ancient Egypt. Petrie, 
Sixth Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, pt. 2, pi. vi, fig. 1 836 

134. Fragment of Greek vase with figures of animals, two meander 

Swastikas, and Greek fret. Naukratis. ancient Egypt. Petrie, Sixth 
Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, pt. 2, pi. vin, fig. 1; and Goodyear, Gram 
mar, etc., pi. xxx, fig. 10 836 

135. Greek vase with deer and meander and figure-8 Swastikas. Nau 

kratis, ancient Egypt. Sixth Mem. Egypt Expl. Fund, pi. v, fig. 1. 837 

136. Greek tapestry. Coptos, Egypt. First and second centuries A. D. 

Forrer, Achmim-Panopolis, pi. ix, fig. 3 837 

137. Torus of column with Swastikas. Roman ruins, Algeria. Dela- 

mare. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLIII, fig. 2 838 

138. Bronze ingots captured at Coomassee during Ashantee war. Swastika 

on each 838 

139. Variations of the Greek fret. The two continuous lines crossing 

each other give the appearance of Swastikas . 839 

140. Greek geometric vase with goose and Swastika (panel). Smyrna. 

Leyden Museum. Conze. Anfiinge, etc., Vienna, 1870; and Good 
year, Grammar, etc., pi. i, vi, fig. 4 839 


Fig. 141. Greek vase, geometric ornament, Athens. Horses, Swastika (panels). 

Dennis, Etrurla, vol. 1, p. cxiii 839 

142. Greek vase with Swastikas (panels). Conze, Anfange, etc., vol. 4; 

and Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. LX, fig. 13 839 

143. Detail of Archaic Greek vase with solar goose and Swastika (panel). 

British Museum. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLI, fig. 15 840 

144. Cyprian pottery plaque with Swastika (panel). Met. Mus, of Art, 

N. Y. Cesnola, Cyprus, Its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples, pi. 
XLVII, fig. 40 840 

145. Detail Irom Cyprian vase, Swastikas in triangles. Goodyear, Gram 

mar, etc., pi. i, fig. 11 840 

146. Detail of Attic vase with antelope ( ?) and Swastika. British 

Museum. Bohlau, Jahrbuch, 1885, p. 50; and Goodyear, Grammar, 

etc., pi. xxxvn, fig. 9 840 

147. Cyprian vase with Swastikas. Cesnola, Cyprus, etc., appendix by 

Murray, p. 404, fig. 15 841 

148. Terra-cotta figurine with Swastikas (panels). Cesnola, Cyprus, p. 

300. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop, Paris, 1888, p. 681, 

fig. 11 841 

149. Terra-cotta vase, Swastika, and figure of horse 841 

150. Bronze fibula with Swastika, goose, and fish, Boeotia, Greece, one-half 

natural size. Ludwig Miiller. De Mortillet, Musce Prehistorique, 

fig. 1265 841 

151. Details of Greek vase with birds and Swastikas. Waring, Ceramic 

Art, etc., pi. xxxni, fig. 24; and Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. XLVI, 

fig. 5 - 842 

152. Detail of Cyprian vase, sun hawk, lotus, solar disk, Swastikas. Bolau, 

Jahrbuch, 1886, pi. vm ; Reinach, Revue Archeologique, 1885, n, p. 
360; Chipiez & Perrot, Hist, of Art in Antiq., iv, p.564; Goodyear, 
Grammar, etc., pi. XLV, fig. 3 842 

153. Detail of Greek geometric vase with horses and Swastika. Thera. 

Leyden Museum. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. LXI, fig. 4 842 

154. Bronze fibula with large Swastika on shield. Greece. Musce St. 

Germain. De Mortillet, Musde Prehistorique, fig. 1264. One-half 
natural size - 843 

155. Greek vase, oinochoc, with two painted Swastikas. De Mortillet, 

Musee Prehistorique, fig. 1244. One-quarter natural size 843 

156. Cyprian vase with animal and Swastikas. Cesnola, Cyprus, etc., pi. 

XLV, fig. 36 843 

157. Archaic Greek pottery fragment. Santorm, ancient Thera. War 

ing, Ceramic Art., etc., pi. XLII, fig. 2 843 

158. Cyprian vase with bird, lotus, and Swastikas. Met. Mus. of Art, 

N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. LX, fig. 15 844 

159. Cyprian vase with two Swastikas. Cesnola Coll., Met. Mus. of Art, 

N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., fig. 151 844 

160. Fragment of terra-cotta vase with Swastikas, from ruins of temple 

at Paleo-Paphos ; 40 feet depth. Cesuola, Cyprus, etc., p. 210 845 

161. Wooden button, clasp, or fibula, covered with plates of gold, ogee 

Swastika (tetraskelion) in center. Schliemanu, Myceno3, fig. 385, 

p. 259 - 845 

162. Detail of Greek vase with goose, honeysuckle (Antheniion), spiral 

Swastika. Thera. Monumenti Inedite, LXV, 2. Goodyear, Gram 
mar, etc., pi. XLVI, fig. 7 845 

163. Detail of Greek vase, Sphynx with spiral scrolls, two meander Swas 

tikas (right). Melos. Bohlau, Jahrluch, 1887, xn ; Goodyear. 
Grammar, etc., pi. xxxiv, fig. 8 846 



Fig. 164. Detail of Greek vase, ibex and scroll, meander Swastika (right). 
Melos. Bohlau, Jahrbuch, 1887, p. 121; and Goodyear, Grammar, 
etc., pi. xxxix, fig. 2 846 

165. Detail of Greek vase with ram, meander Swastika (left), circles, 

dots, and crosses. Rhodian style. British Museum. Salzmann, 
Necropolc de Camire, LI; and Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. xxvui, 
fig. 7 ! 846 

166. Cyprian vase and details with birds and Swastikas. Perrot & Chi- 

piez, Cht/pre, etc., p. 702; Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. XLVIII, figs. 
6 and 12; Cesuola, Cyprus, etc., appendix by Murray, pi. XLIV, 
fig. 34,p.412 847 

167. Cyprian vase with lotus, bosses, buds, and sepals, and different Swas 

tikas. Cesnola Coll., Met. Mus. of Art., N. Y. Goodyear, Gram 
mar, etc., pi. XLVIII, fig. 3 847 

168. Cyprian vase with bosses, lotus buds, and different Swastikas. Ces 

nola Coll., Met. Mus. of Art., N. Y. Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. 
XLVIII, fig. 15 848 

169. Detail of early Boeotian vase with horse, solar diagram, Artemis with 

geese, and Swastikas (normal and meander, right and left). Good 
year, Grammar, etc., pi. LXI, fig. 12 848 

170. Detail of Rhodian vase with geese, circles, and dots, Swastikas (right 

and left). British Museum. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. xxvn, 
iig.9 8-19 

171. Detail of Rhodian vase with geese, lotus, circles, and two Swastikas 

(right and left). Goodyear, Grammar, etc., fig. 145, p. 271 849 

172. Greek vase of typical Rhodian style with ibex, geese, lotus, six Swas 

tikas (normal, meander, and ogee, all left). Goodyear, Grammar, 

etc., pi. xxxvin, p. 251 850 

173. Detail of Greek vase with deer, solar diagrams, three Swastikas (sin 

gle, double, and meander, right). Melos. Conze. MelioscJie Thonye- 
fdsse; Goodyear, Grammar, etc., pi. LX, fig 8 851 

174. Archaic Greek vase from Athens with five Swastikas, of four styles, 

British Museum. Birch, History of Ancient Pottery, quoted in 
Waring s Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLI, fig. 15; Dennis, Etrnria, Vol i, 
p. xci 851 

175. Detail of Archaic Boeotian vase with two serpents, crosses, eight 

Swastikas (normal, right, left, and meander). Goodyear, Gram 
mar, etc., pi. LX, fig. 9 852 

176. Attic vase for perfume with Swastikas of two kinds and Croix nwas- 

ticale. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Hull. Sot: d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, 

p. 674, fig. 6 852 

177. Detail of Cyprian vase, Swastika with palm tree, sacred to Apollo. 

Citium, Cyprus. Ohnefalsch Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthro}>., Paris, 
1888, p. 673, fig. 3 852 

178. Cyprian vase, birds, Swastika, (panel). Muse e St. Germain. Ohne 

falsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, p. 674, fig. 6 853 

179. Chariot of Apollo-Resef with sun symbol (?) on a shield; four Swas 

tikas, two right and two left, on quadrants of chariot wheels. 
Cesuola, Salamania, p. 240, fig. 226; and Ohnefalsch-Richter, Bull. 
Soc. d Anthrop., Paris 1888, p. 675, fig. 7 853 

180. Terra-cotta statue of goddess, Aphrodite-Astarte, with four Swas 

tikas. Curium, Cyprus. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., 
Paris, 1888, p. 676, fig. 8 853 

181. Cyprian centaur with one Swastika. Cesnola, Salamania, p. 243, fig. 

230; Ohnefalsch-Richter, Bull. Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, p. 676, 
fig.9 853 



Fig. 182. Greek statue, Aphrodite-Ariadne, with six Swastikas, four right and 
two loft. From Polistis Chrysokon. Ohnefalsch-Richtcr, Hull. 
Soc. d Anthrop., Paris, 1888, p. 677, fig. 10 854 

183. Hut urn (Bronze Age), Etruria. " Burning Altar" mark associated 

with Swastikas. Vatican Museum 85(5 

184. Fragment of Archaic Greek pottery with three Swastikas. Cuuue, 

Campania, Italy. Koehette; Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLII, 

fig. 1 <S58 

185. Cinerary urn with Swastikas in panels. Vatican Museum. San 

Marino, near Albano. Pigorini, ArchcBologia, 1869 858 

186. Cinerary urn with Swastikas inclosed in incised lines in intaglio 

(panels). Cervetri, Italy. Conestabile due Disclii in Bronzo, pi. v, 

fig. 2, one-sixth natural size 858 

187. Gold fibula with Swastikas (left). Etruscan Museum, Vatican. 

Catalogue, 1st pt., pi. xxvi, fig. 6, one-half natural size 859 

188. Etruscan gold bulla, Swastika on bottom. Waring, Ceramic Art, 

etc., pi. XLII, fig. 4a 859 

189. Ornamental Swastika on Etruscan silver bowl, Cervetri (Caure), 

Etruria. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc. , pi. XLI, fig. 13 859 

190. Bronze fibula with two Swastikas (supposed rays of sun), Etruria. 

Copenhagen Museum. Goblet d Alviella. One-fourth natural size. 

De Mortillet, Musce Prehistoriqne, fig. 1263 859 

191. Pottery urn ornamented with successive bands, in intaglio, two of 

which bands are Swastikas. Necropolis Aruoaldi, Italy, Museum 

of Bologna. Gozzadini, Scavi Archceologici, etc., pi. iv, fig. 8 860 

192. Fragment of pottery, row of Swastikas in intaglio, Necropole Fel- 

sinea, Italy, Museum of Bologna. Gozzadini, Due Sepolcri, etc., p. 

7, one-half natural size 860 

193. Swastika sign on clay bobbin. Type Villanova, Bologna. Gozzadini 

Coll. De Mortillet, Muste Prehistoriquc, fig. 1239 860 

194. Pottery vase ornamented with bronze nail heads in form of Swastika. 

Este,* Italy. Materiaux, etc., 1884, p. 14 861 

195. Fragment of pottery with Swastika stamped in relief .. . 861 

196. Stamp for making Swastika sign on pottery. Swiss lake dwelling of 

Bourget, Savoy, Muse~e de Chambcry. Chantre, Age du Bronze, figs. 
53 and 55; and Keller, Lake Dwellings of Europe, etc., pi. CLXI, 
fig. 3 - 861 

197. Fragment of ceinture, thin bronze, repousse", with Swastikas of vari 

ous kinds; Tumulus Alsace. Bron/e Age, Halstattien epoch. De 
Mortillet, Musec Preliistorique, fig. 1255 

198. Fragment of ceinture of thin bronze, openwork with intricate Swas 

tikas; Tumulus of Metzstetteu, Wurtemburg. Museum of Stutt 
gart, Halstattien epoch. De Mortillet, Muse e PreMstorique, fig. 1257, 
and Chantre, Caucasus, etc., vol. n, p. 50, fig. 25 

199. Bronze fibula, the body of which forms a Swastika. Museum of 

Mayence. De Mortillet, Musce PreMstorique, fig. 1266 . . 

200. Sepulchral urn with Swastika. North Germany. Lisch & Sohroter, 

Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. vu, fig. 94 .. 

201. Spearhead with Swastika, Croix swasticale and triskelion. Branden 

burg, Germany. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLIV, fig. 21. Viking 
Age, Vol. n, fig. 336 

202. Bronze pin with Swastika, pointilU, from mound in Bavaria. Chan 

tre. Materiaux, 1884 , pp. 14, 120 

203. Runic inscription on bronze sword, inlaid with silver. S aebo, Nor 

way. One of the characters is a Swastika ^ 64: 


Fig. 204a. Swastika with dots. Torcello, Italy. Du Chaillu, Viking Aye, vol. 

n, fig. 335 865 

204ft. Runic inscription on spearhead. Torcello, Italy. Du Chaillu, Viking 

Age, vol. n, fig. 335 865 

205. Redding comb with Swastika. Scandinavia 865 

206. Bronze brooch or fibula with combination of Swastikas. Scandinavia. 865 

207. Bronze brooch with Swastikas (tetraskelions), right and left; tris 

kelion, left. Scandinavia 866 

208. Plaque for ceinture with buckle, two ogee Swastikas (tetraskelions). 866 

209. Scandinavian sword scabbard with two ogee Swastikas (tetraske- 

lious), right and left 866 

210. Scandinavian sword scabbard with ogee Swastika 866 

211. Scandinavian sword scabbard, two triskelions, right and left 866 

212. Gold brooch with ogee Swastika. Island of Fyeu. Waring, Ceramic 

Art, etc., pi. XLIII, fig. 11 867 

213. Scandinavian bronze silver-plated horse gear with three Swastikas, 

one elaborate. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLIV, fig. 16 867 

214. Scandinavian sword scabbard with normal Swastika. Vimose bog 

find 867 

215. Sculptured stone with Greek cross in circle, normal Swastika in 

square, and ogee Swastika in quatrefoil 868 

216. Fragment of thin bronze, repousse", ogee Swastika. Ireland. Dr. R. 

Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe, pi. 124, figs. 20-22 868 

217. Fragment of thin bronze, triskelion. Ireland. Munro, Lake Dwell 

ings of Europe, p. 384, pi. 124, figs. 20-22 868 

218. Bronze pin with small normal Swastika on head. Crannog of Loch- 

lee, Tarbolton, Scotland. Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe, p. 417. . 868 

219. Carved triskelion found on fragment of ash wood. Crannog of Loch- 

lee, Tarbolton, Scotland. Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe, p. 415.. 869 

220. Stone altar with Swastika on pedestal. France. Museum of Tou 

louse. De Mortillet, Mnsee Prdhistorique, fig. 1267 869 

221. Pottery bottle of dark gray with Swastika, and decoration in white 

barbotine. Gallo-Roman epoch. Museum of Rouen. De Mortillet, 
Musce Prdhistorique, fig. 1246 870 

222. Anglo-Saxon bronze gilt fibula, simulation of Swastika. Long Wit- 

tenham, Berkshire 870 

223. Pottery urn with band of twenty Swastikas made by hand. White 

on blackish ground. Shropham, Norfolk. British Museum. War 
ing, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. in, fig. 50 871 

224. Lycian coin, triskelion, with three arms representing cocks heads 

and necks 871 

225. 226. Lyciau coins, triskelions, with central dots and circles, 480 B. C. 

Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLII, figs. 12 and 13 871 

227. Sicilian coin with quadriga and triskelion, 336-280 B. C. Coins of the 

Ancients, Brit. Mus., pi. xxxv, fig. 28 873 

228. Warrior s shield, from a Greek vase, Achilles an* Hector, Agrigen- 

tuiu, Sicily. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLII, fig. 24. 873 

229. Corinthian coin with punch mark resembling Swastika. Obverse 

and reverse 876 

230. Ancient Hindu coin. A cross with Swastika on extremity of each arm. 

Cunningham, Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLI, fig. 18 877 

231. 232, 233, 234. Ancient Hindu coins with Swastikas, normal and ogee. 

Cunningham, Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. XLI, figs. 20, 21, 22, 23. . 877 
235. Ancient coin with Swastika. Gaza, Palestine. Wearing, Ceramic 

Art, etc,, pi. XLII, fig. 6. .. r . TTTT ,. rT .,. 878 



Fig. 236. Gold bracteate with Jain Swastika. Deuinark. Thomson, 

Table vn. Waring, Ceramic Art, etc., pi. i ; fig. 9 ................ 878 

237. Shell gorget with engraved Swastika, circles, and dots. Mound on 

Fains Island, Tennessee. Cat. No. 62928, U.S.N.M ............... 880 

238. Engraved shell with Swastika, circles, and dots. Toco Mound, Mon 

roe County, Tenn. Cat. No. 115624, U.S.N.M ................... 880 

239. Shell gorget. Two fighting figures, triangular breech-clout, dots and 

circles, three garters and anklets. From mound 011 Fains Island; 
associated with fig. 237. Cat. No. 62930, U.S.N.M. Third Ann. 
Rep. Bur. Etlinol., 1881-82, p. 452, fig. 128 ... ...................... 885 

240. Copper plate. Etowah Mound, Georgia. Cat. No. 91113, U.S.N.M. 

Fifth Ann. Rep. Bur. Etlmol., 1883-84 ............................. 886 

241. Copper plate. Repouss6 work. Etowah Mound, Georgia. Cat. No. 

91117, U.S.N.M .................................................. 887 

242. Engraved shell. Triangular breech-clout, with dots and circles. 

Etowah Mound, Georgia. Cat. No. 91443, U.S.N.M ................ 888 

243. Copper plate repousse (eagle). Mound in Union County, 111. Cat. 

No. 91507, U.S.N.M ................................... ........... 889 

244. Swastika cross of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, 

Ohio. One-fourth natural size ................................... 889 

245. Flat ring of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. One- 

fifth natural size ................................................. 889 

246. Stencil ornament of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, 

Ohio. One-eighth natural size ................................... 889 

247. Stencil ornament of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, 

Ohio. One-fourth natural size ................................. . . 890 

248. Fish ornament of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, 

Ohio. One-sixth natural size .................................... 890 

249. Lozenge-shaped stencil of thin copper. Hopewell Mound, Ross 

County, Ohio. Three-fourths natural size ........................ 890 

250. Spool-shaped object of copper. Repousse and intaglio decoration. 

Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. Natural size ............... 891 

251. Fragment of engraved bone representing a paroquet. Hopewell 

Mound, Ross County, Ohio. Natural size ........................ 892 

252. Fragment of engraved bone probably representing a Mississippi kite 

or leather-back turtle. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. Nat 
ural size ......................................................... 892 

253. Fragment of engraved bone probably representing an otter with a 

fish in his mouth. Hopewell Mound, Ross County, Ohio. Natural 

size ............................................................. 893 

254. Water jug, red on yellow, Swastika in center. Poinsett County, Ark. 

Cat. No. 91230, U.S.N.M ............................. 893 

255. Kausa Indian war chart. Swastika, sign for winds and wind songs. 

J . Owen Dorsey, Am. Naturalist, July, 1885, p. 670 ................ 894 

256. Dance rattle, small gourd in black, white, and red, ogee Swastika on 

each side. Cat. No. 42042, U.S.N.M. Second Ann. Rep. Bur. 
EthnoL, 1880-81, fig. 562 ................ 896 

257. Pima Indian war shield with ogee Swastika (tetraskelion) in three 

stripes of color, (1) blue, (2) red, (3) white. Cat. No. 27829, 
U.S.N.M ..... ............................. WO 

258. Pima Indian war shield with ogee Swastika. The hole near the 

lower arm* of the Swastika was made by an arrow shot. (Prop 

erty of F. W. Hodge) ........................ 900 

259. Colonial patchwork with pattern resembling Swastika: Scribner s 

Magazine, September, 1894 ....................................... 901 


Fig. 260. Fragment of the foot of a stone metate with Swastika. Nicaragua. 

Cat. No. 23726, U.S.N.M ......................................... 902 

261. Fragment of stone slab with ogee Swastika (tetraskelion) from an 

cient Maya city of Mayapan. Inscription translated as "lire" by 

Le Plongeon. Proc. Amcr. Antlq. Roc., April 21, 1881 ............ 903 

262. Different forms of Swastika placed together for comparison ........ 905 

263. Shell gorget, cross, circle, sun rays ( ?), and the heads of four ivory- 

billed woodpeckers ( ?) arranged to form a Swastika. Missis 
sippi ............................................................ 906 

261. Shell gorget from Tennessee ....................................... 907 

265. Shell gorget from Tennessee ....................................... 907 

266. Shell gorget from Tennessee ....................................... 90S 

267. Scalloped shell disk (Fnhjur), with three spiral volutes (triskelion). 

From mound near Nashville, Tenn ............................... 909 

268. Scalloped shell disk with circles, dots, and four spiral volutes (tctra- 

skelion). Mound near Nashville, Tenii .......................... 910 

269. Shell disk, unfinished engraving, dot and circle in center, and ogee 

Swastika (tetraskelion) marked, but not completed. Brakobill 
mound, near Knoxville, Tenn ......... . .......................... 911 

270,271. Engraved shell disk (obverse and reverse) with three-armed 

volutes (triskelion) .............................................. 911 

272. Engraved shell disk with three-armed volute or spiral Swastika 

(triskelion). From mounds in Tennessee ......................... 912 

273. Engraved shell disk. Three-armed volute (triskelion). Tennessee.. 912 

274. Engraved shell disk. Three-armed volute (triskelion). Tennessee.. 913 

275. 276, 277, 278. Engraved shell gorgets ( Fitly nr) representing the spider, 

with circles and Greek crosses. From stone graves and mounds in 
Illinois and Tennessee ..................................... 913, 1)14, 915 

279. Engraved shell gorget (Fulgur) representing rattlesnake. From 

McMahon mound, Tennessee. Second Ann. Ilcp. Bur. Ethnol., 
1880-81, pi. LXIII ................................................. 915 

280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285. Engraved shells (Fitlgur) with representations 

of the human face. (For comparison.) From Tennessee and Vir 
ginia ..................... ...................................... 916,917 

286. Engraved shell (Fith/nr). Human figure. McMahon mound, Ten 

nessee. (For comparison.) Second Ann. Hep. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81, 

pi. LXXI ......................................................... 917 

287. Engraved shell (Fitlfjnr}. Human figure. (For comparison.) Mound 

in Tennessee. Second Ann. Jiep. Bur. EthnoL, 1880-81, pi. LXXII.. . 918 

288. Engraved shell gorget (Fttlgitr). Human figure. (For comparison.) 

Missouri. Second Ann. Rep. Bur. Ellmol., 1880-81, pi. LXXIII ..... 919 

289. Pottery vessel, with four-armed volute, ogee Swastika (tetraskelion). 

Arkansas. One-third natural size ................................ 920 

290. Pottery vessel, four volutes resembling Swastika. Pecan Point, 

Ark. One-third natural size ..................................... 920 

291. Pottery vessel, animal shaped, volutes, nine arms. Pecan Point, 

Ark. One-third natural size ..................................... 920 

292. Pottery bowl, volutes with many arms. Arkansas. One- third nat 

ural size ..................................... .................... 921 

293. Pottery vase, volutes. Arkansas ................................... 921 

294. Tripod pottery vase, four-armed volutes making spiral Swastika. 

Arkansas. One- third natural size ............................... 922 

295. Pottery bowl with spiral Swastika, live arms, in bottom. Poinsett 

County, Ark. Cat. No. 114035, U.S.N.M. Two views, top and side. 923 

296. Vessel of black ware, spiral scroll. Arkansas ...................... 924 


Tig. 297. Pottery bowl, bird shaped with three parallel incised lines with ] 

ribbon fold. Charleston, Mo (J24 

298. Pottery bottle with three parallel incised lines" turning with Vibboii 

fold. Charleston, Mo 

299. Basket work with many armed volutes. Fourth Inn Eep Bur 

Ethnol., 1882-83, fig. 485 Q9r 

300. Engraved shell gorget disk. Greek cross resembling Swastika in 

cised lines. Mound, Union County, 111 (J , )fi 

301. Engraved shell gorget with Greek cross. Charleston, Mo. Second 

Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81, pi. LI, fig. 2 997 

302. Engraved shell gorget disk. Greek cross, inchoate Swastika "~ Sec 

ond Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81, PI. LII, fig. 3 _ 928 

303. Fragment of copper disk. Greek cross in center circle. Ohio. Am 

Mus. Nat. Hist., N.Y. Second Ann. Ecp. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81 il 
Ln,Jig.4 928 

304. Engrared shell disk gorget, rude cross with many dots. Lick Creek, 

Tenn. Second Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81, pi. LII, fig. 2 929 

305. Engraved shell, Greek cross, hatched. C aid well County N C Cat 

No. 83169, U.S.N.M [ 9 o 9 

306. Engraved shell three-armed (triskeliou). Lick Creek, Tenn Cat 

No. 83170, U.S.N.M , 929 

307. Drilled and engraved shell or "runtoe" with dotted Greek cross in 

circle. Arizona 9 oQ 

308. Drilled and engraved shell or "runteo," dots and rings forming circlo 

and Greek cross. Ohio 9;>0 

309. Drilled and engraved shell or "run tee," dots and rings forming circle 

and Greek cross. New York . . f 939 

310. Pottery jar with crosses, encircling rays and scallops. Third Ann. 

Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1881-82, fig. 188 931 

311. Olla, decorated with Greek and Maltese crosses. Second Ann. Ecp. 

Bur. Ethnol., 1880-81, fig. 708 932 

312. Pottery water vessel, Maltese cross. Second Ann. Ecp. Bur. Ethnol., 

1880-81, fig. 642 939 

313. Pottery vase finely decorated in red and white glaze. Mexico. Mal 

tese cross with sun symbol ( ?). Cat. No. 132975, U.S.N.M 933 

314. Greek cross representing winds from cardinal points. Dakota 

Indians. Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Elhnol., 1888-89, fig. 1225 934 

315. The cross in connection with circle. Sun symbols (?). Petroglyphs 

a to /, Hopi Indians, Oakley Springs, Ariz. ; g, Maya Indians. 
Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, figs. 1118, 1120, and 1126 935 

316. Circles and rays, probably representing sun symbols, a to /, Ilopi 

Indians, Oakley Springs, Ariz. ; g to Jc Ojibways 935 

317. Crosses with circles, star symbols. Oakley Springs, Ariz 936 

318. Star symbol, circlo and rays without cross. Oakley Springs, Ariz.. 936 

319. Crosses, circles, and squares representing lodges. Dakota Indians.. 93(5 

320. Latin cross representing dragon fly. Dakota Indians 936 

321. Double cross of six arms, representing dragon fly. Moki Indians, 

Arizona. Tenth Ann. Ecp. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, fig. 1165 937 

322. Crosses representing flocks of birds, Eskimos. Cat. Nos. 44211 and 

45020, U.S.N.M. Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, fig. 1228.. 937 

323. Large white Greek cross, petroglyph. Tularo Valley, California. 

Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, fig. 1229 . . . 937 

324. Petroglyphs from Owens Valley, California, a, I, Greek cross; c, 

double Latin cross; d to /, Latin crosses representing human 
figures. Tenth Ann. Ecp. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, fig. 1230.- 938 

H. Mis. 90, pt. 2 G4 


Fig. 325. Cross in zigzag lines representing human form. Navajo Indians !.!8 

326. Maltese cross (?), representing a woman; breath in the center 939 

327. Maltese and St. Andrew s crosses, emblems of maidenhood. Moki 

Indians 939 

328. Cross with bifurcated foot representing human form. Shaman, 

Innuits 939 

329. St. Andrew s crosses, symbol for wood. Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 

1888-89, fig. 1233 940 

330. Graphic delineation of the alligator, from a vase of the lost-color 

group. Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-85, 

fig. 257 941 

331. Graphic delineation of the alligator, from a vase of the lost-color 

group. Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol. , 1884-85, 

fig. 258 941 

332. Conventional figure of alligator, from lost-color ware. Chiriqni. 

Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-85, fig. 259 .... 942 

333. Conventional figure of alligator crowded into a short rectangular 

space. Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. ElhnoL, 1884-85, 

fig. 265 942 

334. Conventional figure of alligator crowded into a circle. Chiriqui. 

Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-85, fig. 266 942 

335. Series of figures of alligators, showing stages of simplification. 

Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-85, fig. 277. . 943 

336. Series showing stages in the simplification of animal characters, 

beginning with the alligator and ending with the Greek cross. 
Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol, 1884-85, fig. 278. . 943 
337 to 342. Terra-cotta color stamps, Mexico, with designs similar to the 
Swastika. Cat. Nos. 99124, 99127, 27887, 99115, 99118, and 99122, 
U.S.N.M 946 

343. Terra-cotta color stamps, with designs similar to the Swastika. 

Piaroa Indians, Venezuela. Tenth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1888-89, 

fig. 982, p. 621 947 

344. Modern churn lid with design resembling Swastika. Lapland 956 

345. Stone spindle- whorl, Neolithic. Swiss lake dwelling. Cat. No. 100641, 

U.S.N.M 967 

346. Stone spindle- whorl, Neolithic. Swiss lake dwelling. Cat. No. 100641 , 

U.S.N.M 967 

347. Stone spindle-whorl, Neolithic. Lund, Sweden. Cat. No. 5281, 

U.S.N.M 967 

348. Terra-cotta spindle- whorl, Neolithic or Bronze Age. Swiss lake dwell 

ing. Cat. No. 100642, U.S.N.M 967 

349. Terra-cotta spindle- whorl, Neolithic or Bronze Age. Swiss lake dwell 

ing. Cat. No. 100642, U.S.N.M 968 

350. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl, Swiss lake dwelling. Cat. No. 100642, 

U.S.N.M - 968 

351,352,353. Prehistoric terra-cotta spindle- whorls. Orvieto, Italy. Cat. 

No. 101671, 101672, U.S.N.M 968 

354, 355. Prehistoric spindle-whorls. Corneto, Italy. Cat. No. 101773, 

U.S.N.M - - 968 

356. Modern spindle and whorl used for spinning thread. Wiirtemberg, 

Germany - 969 

357. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl design similar to Swastika. Valley of 

Mexico. Cat. No. 27875, U.S.N.M... 970 

358. Mexican terra-cotta. spindle- whorl design similar to Swastika 971 

359. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl. Omotepe Island, Nicaragua. Cat. No. 

28899, U.S.N.M 971 


Fig. 360. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl. Omotepe Island, Nicaragua. Cat. No. * 

28898, U.S.N.M 971 

361. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl. Granada, Nicaragua. Cat. No. 23295, 

U.S.N.M - 972 

362. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl. Malacate, Zapatera Island, Nicaragua. 

Cat. No. 29009, U.S.N.M 

363 Spindle-whorl, gray clay decorated with annular nodes. Chiriqui. 

Holmes, Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Etlmol., 1884-85, fig. 218 .. 

364 Spindle-whorl of gray clay with animal figures. Chiriqui. Holmes, 

Sixth Ann. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-85, fig. 219 

365 Spindle- whorl of dark clay with perforations and incised ornaments. 

Chiriqui. Holmes, Sixth Ann. Rep. Bur. Etlmol., 1884-85, fig. 2 

366. Terra-cotta spindle-whorl. Manizales, Colombia, South America. 

Cat. No. 16838, U.S.N.M 

367. Bobbin or spool for winding thread (f). Type Villanova, Corneto, 

Italy.* U.S.N.M 

368 Terra-cotta bobbin or spool for winding thread (f). Type Villanova, 

Bologna, Italy. Cat. No. 101771, U.S.N.M.. 

369 BobWn(f). Mound near May sville, Ky. Cat. No. 16748, U.S.N.M. . 
370! Bobbin (f). Lexington, Ky. Cat. No. 16691, U.S.N.M.. 

371. Bobbin (f). Lewis County, Ky. Fine-grained sandstone. Cat. No. 

59681, U.S.N.M 

372. Bobbin (?). End views. Fine-grained sandstone. Maysville, Ky. 

Cat. No. 16747, U.S.N.M 

373 Woman s woolen dress found in oak coffin. Borum-Eshoi, Denmark. 
Eep. Smithsonian Inst. (U.S.N.M.), 1892, pi. ci, fig. 2 

* * n _ ^ ,-i -I - / ** I/*TII*A I lAnrn HTK. 


J.\>UU* fijiNtwnwiTvw* - v - \ - , 

Detail of woven cloth shown in the preceding figure. 
Eep. Smithsonian Inst, (U.S.N.M.), pi. ci, fig. 3 


Facing page. 
Distribution of the Swastika ---- 

Showing the probable introduction of the Swastika into different countries.. 

(OHCHsir J 


Preface 763 


Different forms of the cross 765 

.Names and definitions of the Swastika 768 

Symbolism and interpretation 770 

Origin and habitat 791 


Extreme Orient 799 

Japan 799 

Korea 799 

China 799 

Tibet.... 802 

India ... 802 

Classical Orient - 806 

Babylonia, Assyria, Chaldea, and Persia 806 

Phenicia 807 

Lycaonia 807 

Armenia 807 

Caucasus 808 

Asia Minor Troy (Hissariik) 809 

First and Second Cities 810 

The Third or Burnt City 811 

The Fourth City * 813 

The Fifth City 

The Sixth and Seventh Cities 819 

Leaden idol of Hissariik 829 

Owl-shaped vases - 830 

The age of Trojan cities 




Coptos ( Achmim-Panopolis) 



Classical Occident Mediterranean 

Greece, Cyprus, Rhodes, Melos, and Thcra 

Greek fret and Egytian meander not the same as the Swastika. . 

Swastika in panels 

Swastikas with four arms crossing at right angles, ends bent to -the 

Swastikas with four arms crossing at right angles, ends bent to the left . 84.7 

Swastikas with four arms crossing at other than right angles, the 
ends ogee and to the left 

Meander pattern, with ends bent to the right and left. . 

Swastikas of different kinds on the same object 




Europe g54 

Bronxe age 354 

Etruria and Italy 855 

Swiss lake dwellings $54 

Germany and Austria 862 

Belgium 863 

Scandinavia $64 

Scotland and Ireland 867 

Gallo-Roman period 869 

France 869 

Anglo-Saxon period 870 

Britain 870 

Swastika on ancient coins 871 

Triskelion, Lycia 871 

Triskeliou, Sicily * 873 

Triskelion, Isle of Man 874 

Punch marks on Corinthian coins mistaken for Swastikas 875 

Swastika on ancient Hindu coins 877 

Swastika on coins in Mesembria and Gaza 878 

Swastika on Danish gold bracteates 878 

United States of America 879 

Pre-Columbian times 879 

Fains Island and Toco mounds, Tennessee 879 

Hopewell Mound, Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio 888 

Mounds in Arkansas 893 

North American Indians 894 

Kansas 894 

Sacs... 895 

Pueblos.. 896 

Navajoes . . 897 

pimils 901 

Colonial patchwork 904 

Central America 902 

Nicaragua . . 9 02 

Yucatan 902 

Costa Rica 903 

South America 903 

Brazil 903 

Paraguay 905 


Meanders, ogees, and spirals, bent to the left as well as to the right 905 

Aboriginal American engravings and paintings 906 

Designs on shell 906 

Ivory-billed woodpecker 907 

The triskele, triskelion, or triquetrum 908 

The spider 943 

The rattlesnake 944 

The human face and form . . , 944 

Designs on pottery 920 

Designs on basketry 924 


Diiferent forms 926 

The cross on objects of shell and copper 926 

TUc cross on pottery . . , ^ . ^ ^ ^ _ _ 93^ 


I ago. 

Symbolic meanings of the cross 933 

The four winds 934 

Sim and star symbols 933 

Dwellings 93g 

Dragon Hy (Susbeca) 936 

Hide 7 , or Shamans 937 

Flocks of birds 937 

Human forms 938 

Maidenhood 939 

Shaman s spirit 939 

Divers significations , 939 

Introduction of the cross into America 944 

Decorative forms not of the cross, but allied to the Swastika 946 

Color stamps from Mexico and Venezuela 946 



Migration of the Swastika 952 

Migration of classic symbols 960 

The sacred tree of the Assyrians 960 

The sacred cone of Mesopotamia 960 

The Crux anaata, the key of life 961 

The winged globe 961 

The caduceus 962 

The trisula 962 

The double-headed eagle on the escutcheon of Austria and Russia 963 

The lion rampant of Belgium 963 

Greek art and architecture 964 

The Greek fret 965 


Spindle whorls 966 

Europe 967 

Switzerland Lake dwellings 967 

Italy 968 

Wurtemburg 968 

France 968 

North America pre-Columbian times , 969 

Mexico 970 

Central America 971 

Nicaragua 971 

South America 972 

Chiriqui 972 

Colombia 972 



Europe - - - 

United States 975 





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS..... ........ .... ..,...,,,.,,,---..--...-...--. , . -. 997 





JAN. 7 1985 

JUN 6 19S3